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Brazil Focus David Fleischer

Phone/FAX: 55-61-3327-8085 Cell: 9218-2771 e-mail: fleischer@uol.com.br

Symbols, Abbreviations and Terms used in Brazil (Expanded and updated as of 30th June 2009)
ABA ABACC ABAG ABAL ABAR ABC ABC - Associao Brasileira de Antropologia (Brazilian Anthropological Assoc.) - Agncia Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares (Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting & Control of Nuclear Materials) - Associao Brasileira de Aviao Geral (Brazilian Association of General Aviation) - Associao Brasileira de Alumnio (Brazilian Aluminum Assoc.) - Associao Brasileira das Agncias Reguladoras (Brazilian Assoc. of Regulatory Agencies) - Agncia Brasileira de Cooperao (Brazilian Cooperation Agency part of MRE- Itamaraty) - Regio metropolitana de So Paulo (greater SP industrial region) Santo Andr, So Bernardo do Campo & So Caetano ABCD Includes Diadema - Associao Brasileira de Cincia Poltica (Brazilian Political Science Assoc.) - Associao Brasileira de Defesa da Democracia


(Brazilian Assoc. for the Defense of Democracy) ABERT ABI ABIn ABINNE ABM - Associao Brazileira de Emissoras de Rdio e Televiso (Brazilian Assoc. of Radio and TV Stations) - Associao Brasileira de Imprensa (Brazilian Press Association) - Agncia Brasileira de Inteligncia (Brazilian Intelligence Agency, succeeded SNI) - Associao Brasileira das Indstrias Eltricas e Eletrnicas (Brazilian Assoc. of Electric and Eletronic Industries) - Associao Brasileira de Municpios (Association of Brazilian towns and Cities)

ABN AMRO - Large Dutch bank, acquired Banco Real in 1998. In 2007, ABN AMRO was acquires by a consortium involving the Spanish Banco Santander that took over Banco Real. Santander had already acquired Banespa, and is now Brazils 3rd largest private bank after Ita-Unibanco and BRADESCO. ABNT ABONG ABPO ABRA ABRAS ABRACE ABRAP ABRAVE - Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas (Brazilian Assoc. of Technical Standards) - Associao Brasileira de Organizaes No-Governamentais (Brazilian Association of NGOs) - Assoc. Bras. do Papelo Ondulado (Brazilian Assoc. of Cardboard Manufacturers) - Associao Brasileira de Reforma Agrria (Brazilian Assoc. for Agrarian Reform) - Associao Brasileira de Supermercados (Brazilian Association of Supermarkets) - Associao Brasileira de Grandes Consumidores Industriais de Energia (Brazilian Assoc. of Large Industrial Consumers of Electrical Energy) - Associao Brasileira de Prefeitos (Brazilian Assoc. of Mayors) - Associao Brasileira de Revendadores Autorizados de Veculos (Brazilian Assoc. of Automobile Dealers)


- Associao Brasileira de Relaes Institucionais e Governamentais (professional assoc. of lobbyists and those who conduct legislative liaison and government relations - Associao Brasileira das Indstrias de Brinquedos (Brazilian Assoc. of Toy Manufacturers) - State of Acre - Adiantamento de Contrato de Cmbio (bank credit operation, especially for exporters) - Companhia de Aos Especiais de Itabira (Special Steels Company of Itabira, MG) - Senator Antnio Carlos Magalhes (DEM-BA) political leader in Bahia since 1954 state & federal deputy, Mayor of Salvador, Governor, Senator, Minister of Communications - born 1927, died 20 July 2007 - Associao Crist de Moos (YMCA) - Associao Comercial do Estado de So Paulo (SP Chamber of Commerce) - African Coalition for Trade - Americans for Democratic Action - WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement - Associao Brasileira de Infra-Estructura e Indstrias de Base (Brazilian Assoc. for Infrastructure and Capital Goods Industries) - Associao dos Dirigentes de Empresas do Mercado Imobilirio (Assoc. of Directors of Real Estate Firms) - Associao dos Diplomados da Escola Superior de Guerra (Assoc. of ESG Graduates) - Ao Direta de Inconstitucionalidade (suit filed at STF by parties and other entities to challenge the constitutionality




of acts, laws and decisions) ADM ADR - Archer Daniels Midland leading cornethanol producer in the US - top grain producer and trading firm in Brazil - American Depositary Receipts (receipts in US$ for stocks or bonds of foreign firms, issued by a US depositary bank) - Agncia Espacial Brasileira (Brazilian Space Agency) - Associao de Exportadores Brasileiros (Brazilian Exporters Assoc.) - nickname given to Brazils new A-320 Presidential jet

AEB AEB Aero Lula

Aero Vodochody Czech aircraft manufacturer seeking to supply parts to Embraer AFA - Academia da Fora Area (Brazilian Air Force Acedemy, in Pirassinunga, SP)

AGOA- African Growth and Opportunity Act promots Africa-US trade AGU AI-5 AIDS AIEA AIG AL AL ALADI - Advocacia-Geral da Unio (Solicitor General for Federal Government) - Ato Institucional Nmero 5 (5th Institutional Act, December 1968) - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SIDA) - Agncia International de Energia Atmica (IAEA-International Atomic Energy Agency, UN unit, HQ in Vienna) - American Insurance Group 18th largest public company in the world - until the US financial blowout, AIG was associated with Unibanco - State of Alagoas - Assemblia Legislativa (State Legislature) - Associao Latino-Americana de Integrao

(Latin American Integration Assoc.) ALALC ALBA - Associao Latinoamericana de Livre Comrcio (Latin American Free Trade Assoc.-LAFTA) - Alternativa Bolivariana para as Amricas (Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of our Americas) Hugo Chvezs substitute for CASA - Acordo de Livre Comrcio das Amricas (FTAA-Free Trade Agreement of the Americas) - Canadian aluminum firm accquired by Rio Tinto for US$38 billion in 2007 - Aluminum Company of America US aluminum giant - French manufacturer of hydro-electric generators and turbines - State of Amzonas - Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (Army Military Academy in Agulhas Negras, RJ) the Brazilian West Point - Associao dos Magistrados Brasileiros (Assoc. of Brazilian Magistrates) - Associao Mdica Brasileira (Brazilian Medical Assoc.) - Associao Municipalista do Brasil (Brazilian Municipal Assoc.)




Amber Box Subsidies 30 WTO members have commitments to reduce their trade-distorting domestic supports in the amber box [yellow light, beware] to reduce the total aggregate measurement of support (AMS). Nations outside this 30-nation group have to keep within 5% of the value of production (10% limit in the case of developing nations. AmCham AMCI American Chamber of Congress (in So Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) - AMCI Australia Holdings PTY LTD (in March 2007, CVRD acquired this large coal mining firm)

AMERIPOL Comunidade de Polcias da Amrica Latina e do Caribe (Community of Police Forces in Latin America and the Caribbean) AMS ANA ANAC - Aggregate Measure of Support - WTO term referring to level of subsidies - Agncia Nacional de guas (National Waters Regulatory Agency) - Agncia Nacional de Aviao Civil (National Civil Aviation Regulatory Agency) replaced DAC - Associao Nacional dos Produtores de lcool (National Alcohol Producers Assoc.) - Agncia Nacional de Telecomunicaes (National Telecommunications Regulatory Agency) - Associao Nacional dos Bancos de Investimento (National Assoc. of Investment Banks) - Assemblia Nacional Constituinte (National Constituent Assembly, 1987-1988) - Associao Nacional de Cooperao Agricola linked to MST (National Assoc. of Acriculutral Cooperation; fiscal front organization Operated by the MST like CONCRAB) - Administracin Nacional de Combustibles, Alcololes y Portland (Uruguays national petrol firm, equivalent to Petrobrs)



Ancine- Agncia Nacional de Cinema (National Film Regulatory Agency) ANDES ANDI ANDIFES ANDIMA - Associao Nacional de Docentes do Nvel Superior (National University Professores Assoc.) - Associao Nacional dos Direitos da Infncia (National Association for Childrens Rights) - Assoc. Nacional de Dirigentes de Instituies Federais de Ensino Superior (National Assoc. of Rectors of Federal Universities) - Associao Nacional das Instituies de Mercado Aberto

(National Assoc. of Open Market Institutions) ANEEL ANEFAC ANFAVEA Anginhos Angra ANL ANM ANP ANPEC Antaq ANTT Anvisa - Agncia Nacional de Energia Eltrica (National Electrical Energy Regulatory Agency) - Associao Nacional de Executivos de Finanas, Administrao e Contabilidade (National Assoc. of Executives in Finance, Administration & Accounting) - Assoc. Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veculos Automotores (National Assoc. of Auto Makers) - little angels nickname for first term deputies [Freshmen] never served in the Chamber before, free from sin - City on southern coast of RJ state. Angra-I and Angra-II are current nuclear power plants [electricy generation], Angra-III is planned. - Aliana Nacional Libertadora Moscow line popular front (National Liberation Alliance, 1935) - Agncia Nacional de Minerao first discussed in 2001 (National Regulatory Agency for Mining contemplated in 2001) - Agncia Nacional de Petrleo (National Petroleum Regulatory Agency) - Assoc. Nacional de Centros de Ps-Graduao em Economia (National Assoc. of Economics Graduate Programs) - Agncia Nacional de Transportes Aquavirios (National River Transportation Regulatory Agency) - Agncia Nacional de Transportes Terrestres (National Land Transportation Regulatory Agency) - Agncia Nacional de Vigilncia Sanitria (National Health & Drug Agency)

AOSIS- Association of Small Insular States (Associao dos Pequenos Estados Insulares) AOL AP - America On Line, large US internet company - State of Amap


- Ao Popular (Popular Action student activist movement in the 1960s) - Associate Press, news wire service - Associao de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais - Assoc. of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Persons - Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation founded in 1989 (Cooperao Econmica da sia e do Pacfico) 21 members in 2008 - Brazilian slang term for spooks clandestine investigators linked to the SNI (during the military period), the ABIn (currently), or free-lance spooks - Aliana Renovadora Nacional (National Renovation Alliance, 1966-1979) - American Sugar Alliance - Assoc. of Southeast Asian Nations founded in 1967 (Assoc. de Naes do Sudeste Asitico) 10 members in 2008 - Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act - American Telephone & Telegraph - Auto Defesas Unidas da Colombia (United Self-Defense Units in Colombia) - Avibrs Indstira Aeroespacial HQ in So Jos dos Campos, SP (Brazilian aero-apace industry, produces Astros II rocket launchers) - retail store chain owned by Mexican billionaire Ricardo Salinas - installed first store in Brazil (Elektra do Brasil) in Recife, in March 2008 - AZUL - Linhas Areas Brasileiras (new Brazilian airline) - founded by David Neeleman (founder of JetBlue) - began flying with Embraer 190 jets in December 2008 - State of Bahia - Banco Central [do Brasil], BC, BCB (Brazils Central Bank)


Banco del Sur South American Development Bank concept presented by Hugo Chvez with support from Argentine President Nstor Kirchner (replace World Bank)


- Banco Africano de Desenvolvimento (ADB-African Development Bank)

Baixo Clero - lower clerics, some 400 little known, invisible federal deputies BAMERINDUS Banco Mercantil e Indstria, com sede em Curitiba, PR, BC declarou a falncia deste banco em 1997 e vendeu para HSBC (Bank liquidated in 1997 and sold to HSBC) Bancada da Bala Pro-gun caucus in the Brazilian Congress Bancada Ruralista Rural Caucus in Brazilian Congress, very powerful BANERJ BANESPA - Banco do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (bank owned by Rio de Janeiro state privatized) - Banco do Estado de So Paulo vendido a Santander (Bank of the State of SP - sold to Santander)

BANESTADO Banco do Estado do Paran vendido ao Banco Ita (Bank of the State of Paran sold to Banco Ita) BASA BASF - Banco da Amaznia) (Amazonas Development Bank) - Badische Anilin-und Soda-Fabrik (Baden Aniline and Soda Factory) - German Chemical Co. the largest chemical company in the world -HQ in Ludwigshafen, Germany & Florham Park, NJ - Better Alternative Trading System - HQ in Kansas City, alternative (3rd largest) stock market in the US - associated with Claritas BATS plans to establish an alternative stock market in Brazil to compete with BM&F Bovespa - Banco do Brasil (Bank of Brazil) - Bnus do Banco Central (Central Bank Bonds) - British Broadcasting Corp. - Banco Bilbao Viscaya (Spanish bank and international financial services group)





- Banco Central (Brazilian Central Bank) - Banco Central Europeu (European Central Bank) - Bacilo Calmette-Gurin (vaccine against crupe and tuberculosis) - Batalho de Engenharia de Construo (Brazilian Army Construction Batallion) - Banco do Estado do Cear (bank owned by the state of Cear) - Banco Esprito Santo (Portuguese) - Banco do Estado de Santa Catarina (bank owned by state of SC, intervened by Central Bank, and acquired by the Banco do Brasil in 2007) - Belo Horizonte, capital of Minas Gerais


BHP Billiton - Anglo-Australian based mining firm BID BIRD BIS - Banco Interamericano do Desenvolvimento (IADB-InterAmerican Development Bank) - Banco Internacional de Reconstruo e Desenvolvimento (WB-World bank) - Bank for International Settlements - Switzerland

Blackstone Group US investment firm associated with Brazils Patria Bloquinho - The little bloc of parties on the Left (75 deputies) - PSB, PCdoB, PDT, PMN & PRB

Blue Box Subsidies A WTO exemption from the general rule that all subsidies linked to production must be reduced or kept within defined minimal (de minimis) levels covering payments directly linked to acreage or animal numbers BLUM- Brazilian Land Use Model (Modelo Brasileiro de Use da Terra)


used to show that ethanol is not responsible for Amazon deforestation BM&F BMG BNB BNDES BNH - Bolsa de Mercadorias e Futuros (Brazilian Commodities & Futures Market) - Banco de Minas Gerais (private bank in MG, accused of involvement with Mensalo - Banco do Nordeste do Brasil (Bank of the Northeast of Brazil) - Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econmico e Social (ex-BNDE) (Brazilian Economic and Social Development Bank) - Banco Nacional de Habitao (National Housing Bank, created by military regime in 1965)

Bolsa Famlia Monthly income supplement (allowance) for poor families Bombardier - Canadian aircraft manufuacturer competes with Embraer Bope BOVESPA BRA - Batalho de Operaes Especiais (PM Special Operations Battalion) - Bolsa de Valores do Estado de So Paulo (So Paulo Stock Exchange) - BRA Transportes Areos (Brasil Rodo Areo) was Brazils 3rd largest passenger airline, began with charter flights and ended operations on 6th November 2007

BRADESCO - Banco Brasileiro de Descontos (Brazils largest private bank) Bradies BRASA BRASCAN - Brady Bonds issued after 1994 for emerging nations, at times called C-Bonds (created when Nicholas Brady was US Treasury Secretary) - Brazilian Studies Association HQ in Nashville, TN - The holding company that resulted from the nationalization of Canadian energy investments in Brazil [Light], became a major investment firm HQ in Rio.

Brasiguaios - Brazilian farmers who migrated to Paraguay in the 1960s and 1970s in search of cheap land to plant soybeans, coffee, etc.


BRASKEM - large petrochemical firm in Brazil Brazucas BRB Brenco BRICs BROU BrT BSG BTN BTUs BVRJ C-130 CAC CACEX Cade - Brazilian immigrants living in the US. - Banco Regional de Braslia owned by GDF (Regional Bank of Braslia) - Brazilian Renewable Energy Co. - Brazil, Russia, India & China - a term coined by Goldman Sachs economists Jim ONeill in 2001 - Banco de la Republica Oriental de Uruguay (Central Bank of Uruguay) - Brasil Tele Com (large telecommunications firm in Brazil) - Banco Socit Gnrale (large French bank) - Bnus do Tesouro Nacional (no longer used) (National Treasury Bonds, used to finance public debt) - British Thermal Units - Bolsa de Valores de Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange) - four-engine, turbo prop military transport plane (flying box car) - Paris stock exchange index - Carteira do Comrcio Exterior do Banco do Brasil (foreign trade unit at BB) - Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econmica (Brazilian Anti-Trust, pro-competition unit, at Finance Ministry) - Comisso de Assuntos Econmicos (Senate Committee on Economic Affairs) - Corporacin Andino de Desarrollo (Andean Development Corporation) - Central America Free Trade Agreement



(CAFTA-DR included the Dominican Republic) CAGED CAIC CAINDR - Cadastro Geral de Empregados e Desempregados (monthly survey of employment/unemployment, by Labor Ministry) - Centro de Ateno Integrada Criana (Center/School for Full Time Attention to Children) - Comisso da Amaznia, Integrao Nacional e Desenvolvimento (Chamber of Deputies Committee for the Amazon, National Integration & Development) - off-the-books campaign contributions (also, double set of books used by firms to avoid taxes) - Cpula da Amrica Latina e Caribe met in Bahia 16-17 December 2008 (Summit of Latin American and Caribbean Nations) - with Cuba, without the US and Canada - Correio Areo Nacional operated by FAB (national air mail service, began in 1931) - Carlos Alberto Oliveira Andrade mega-investor in auto dealerships - entered joint-venture with Hyundai to install a factory in Anpolis, GO - Comisso para o Aperfeioamento do Pessoal de Educao Superior (Graduate studies training unit within MEC fellowships) - Comisso de Agricultura, Pecuria, Abastecimento e Desenvolvimento (Chamber Committee for Agriculture, Livestock, Supply & Development)

Caixa Dois CALC


CARICOM - The Caribbean Community HQ in Georgetown, Guyana economic cooperation group began in 1973 CAS CASA - Comisso de Assuntos Sociais (Senate Committee on Social Affairs) - Communidade Sul-Americana de Naes (South American Community of Nations) - Brazils attempt to extend Mercosul to all of South America - Presidents Chief of Staff very powerful position

Casa Civil

Casa da Moeda the federal mint (in Rio de Janeiro)



- loss of political rights for 10 years during military regime (1964-1985) - loss of political mandate (in the post-1985 period) - Cdigo Brasileiro de Aeronutica (Brazilian Aeronautical Code) - Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian Aluminum Co.) - Cia. Brasiliana de Energia Brazilian Energy Company - created in 2003 when BNDES renegotiated AES debts - BNDES now controls 53.80% of CBE - China-Brazil Earth-Resources Satellite (Satlite Sino-Brasileiro de Recursos Terrestres) began in 1988, launch 4 satellites by 2010 - Confederao Brasileira de Futebol (Brazilian Soccer Confederation) - Centro Brasileiro de Infncia e Adolescncia (Brazilian Center for Infancy and Adolescence) - Centro Brasileiro de Infra Estrutura (Brazilian Center for Infrastructure) - Central Brasileiro de Notcias (Globos 24-hour news radio network) - Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fsicas (Brazilian Center for Physics Research in Rio) - Companhia Brasileira de Trens Urbanos (Brazilian State Firm for Urban Trains) - Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil (Banco do Brasil Cultural Center) - Brazil-Canada Chamber of Commerce - Cmara de Comrcio de Energia Eltrica (Chamber of Commerce for Electrical Energy) - Certificao de Cadastro de Imvel Rural (Certificate of Registry of Rural Property)





- Comisso de Constituio e Justia (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Constitution, Justice & Citizenship) same symbol in the Senate


- Counter-Cyclical Payments - introduced by the 2002 Farm Security and Rural Investment Act - income support programs for US farmers some call this subsidies - Comisso de Cincia, Tecnologia, Inovao, Comunicao e Informtica - Senate Committee for Science, Technology, Innovation, Communication, and Informatics - Conditional Cash Transfer - Comisso de Cincia e Tecnologia, Comunio e Informtica (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Science & Technology, Communication & Informatics) - Cmara dos Deputados (Chamber of Deputies) - Certificado de Depsito Bancrio bank time deposit (bank deposit certificate, term & rates subject to negotiation) - Comisso de Defesa do Consumidor (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Consumer Protection) - Crdito Direto ao Consumidor (installment credit for consumers, usually white line) - Comisso de Desenvolvimento Econmico, Indstria e Comrcio (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Economic Development, Industry & Commerce) - Certificado de Depsito Interbancrio (time deposit, similar to CDB) - Comisso de Direitos Humanos e Legislao Participativa Senate Committee for Human Rights and Participatory Legislation - Conselho de Defesa Nacional






(National Defense Council) CDR CDU CDHM CE CE CEB CEBs - Comisso de Desenvolvimento Regional e Turismo - Senate Committed for Regional Development & Tourism - Comisso de Desenvolvimento Urbano (Chamber of Deputies Committee for Urban Development) - Comisso de Direitos Humanos e Minorias (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Human Rights and Minorities) - State of Cear - Comisso de Educao (Senate Committee on Education) - Companhia de Eeletricidade de Braslia (Electriticy Company owned by Braslia government [GDF]) - Comunidades Eclesias de Base - Community Nuclei for Lay Roman Catholics associated with the doctrine of Liberation Theology - Centro Brasileiro de Anlises e Planejamento (think tank organized by FH Cardoso & others in SP in 1970) - Comisso de Educao e Cultura (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Education and Culture) - Centro de Estudos da Cultura Contempornea (think tank organized by CEBRAP dissidents) - Comunidade Econmica Europeia (EEC-European Economic Community) - Caixa Econmica Federal (Federal Savings/Social Bank) - Companhia Estadual de Gs (Rio natural gas distribution company) - Centro Grfico do Senado Federal (Brazilian Senate printing office) - Companhia Estadual de Habitao e Obras



- state government unit for housing and public works CEI CELAM - Comisso Especial de Investigao (Special Investigating Committee) - Conferncia Episcopal da Amrica-Latina e Caribe (Conference of Latin American Catholic Bishops; the 5th CELAM met in SP in November 2007)

CEME- Central de Medicamentos (federal government medicine distribution unit) Cemig - Centrais Eltricas de Minas Gerais (MG state-owned electric company) - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genticos e Biotecnologia (National Center for Genetic and Biotech Research, EMBRAPA) - Centro de Treinamento para o Desenvolvimento Econmico (Ministry of Planning Training Center) - Centro de Informaes da Marinha (Navy Intelligence Center very active during military regime) - Centro de Investigao e Preveno de Acidentes Aeronuticos (Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aeronautical Accidents) - the Big Center (majority conservative coalition in the ANC) - Chief Executive Officer - Comisso Econmica das Naes Unidas para Amrica Latina e Caribe - ECLA, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean HQ in Santiago, Chile - Cambridge Energy Research Assoc. - Centrais Elctricas de So Paulo (State of SP electric company, privitization attempted in 2008) - Central de Custdia e Liquidao de Ttulos (where bonds and notes are registered, held and liquidated) - Comisso de Fiscalizao e Controle (Senate Committee on Oversight & Control)

Cenargen CENDEC CENINAR Cenipa Centro CEO Cepal




- Comisso de Fiscalizao Financeira e Controle (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Financial Oversight & Control) - Centro Feminista de Estudos e Assessoria (Feminist Studies Center in Braslia) - Companhia Ferrovirio de Nordeste (Northeast Railroad Co. controlled by CSN) - Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais (Marine Corps) - Council on Foreign Relations HQ in New York - publishes Foreign Affairs - Comisso de Finanas e Tributao (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Finance and Taxation) - US Commodity Futures Trading Commision - Center for Global Development - Controladoria-Geral da Unio (Federal Controller General internal control) - Confederao Geral dos Trabalhadores (General Workers Confederation labor union central in So Paulo)

CHALACO - Aluminum Corporation of China Chery CHESF CHETA CHS CI CIA - Small size Chinese auto to have new factory in Jacare, SP - Companhia Hidro-Eltrica do Vale do So Francisco (San Francisco Valley Hydro-Electric Firm) - Certificado de Homologao de Empresa de Transporte Areo (ANAC certificate for an airline to operate in Brazil) - CHS International Trade 3rd largest grain trader n the US - formed jint venture with Coopermibra in 2008 - Comisso de Servios de Infra-Estrutura (Senate Committee on Infrastructure) - Central Intelligence Agency (US)


(Agncia Central de Intelligncia) CIA CIC CIDA Cide CIEx CIMI - Centro de Inteligncia da Aeronutica (Air Force Intelligence Center) - Cadastro Individual do Contribuinte CPF (personal income tax ID number) - Canadian International Decvelopment Agency - Contribuio de Interveno no Domnio Econmico motor fuels tax for maintenance and repair of federal highways - Centro de Informaes do Exrcito (Army Intelligence Unit, very active during the military regime) - Conselho Indigenista Missionrio (Indian Missionary Council-Roman Catholic Church)

CINDACTA - Centro Integrado de Defesa Area e Controle de Trafego Areo (the four centers for air traffic control, under FAB jurisdiction) CIR CL Claro CLA CLASCO - Conselho Indeginista de Roraima (Indian Counsel for State of Roraima) - Cmara Legislativa (legislature in the Federal District Braslia) - Brazilian cell phone operator, owned by Telmex (Carlos Slim Hel) - Centro de Lanamento de Alcntara (Alcntara Rocket Launching Center, in Maranho) - Consejo Latinoamericano de las Ciencias Sociales (Latin American Social Science Council) - Central Latino-Americana dos Trabalhadores (Latin American Workers Central - in Caracas, Venezuela) - Cmara Legislativa do Distrito Federal - local legislature in the Federal District (Braslia) - Comisso de Legislao Participativa (Chamber and Senate Committees for Popular Initiative Legislation)




- Consolidao da Legislao Trabalhista (Brazils complex labor legislaiton, CLTformal labor contract) - Comisso de Meio Ambiente, Defesa do Consumer e Fiscalizao e Contrle - Senate Committee for Environment, Consumer Protection, and Oversight - Comando Militar da Amaznia (Amazon Region Military Command) - Comisso de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentvel (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Environment & Sustainable Development) - Casa da Moeda do Brasil (Brazilian Mint, located in Rio de Janeiro) - Code Division Multiple Access (cell phone system that voice & data into radio signals) - Comisso de Minas e Energia (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Mines and Energy) - Conselho Monetrio Nacional (National Monetary Council) - Comisso Mista de Oramento (Congressional Joint Budget Committee) - Comit de Monitoramento do Sistema Eltrico (Committee for Monitoring the Electric System) - attached to MM&E, created in August 2004 - Comando Militar do Sudeste (Military Command of the Southeast Region) - Congresso Nacional (Brazils National Congress) - Comisso Nacional de Atividades Espaciais (National Commission for Space Activities) - Confederao Nacional de Agricultura





(National Agriculture Federation) CNAA CNB CNBB CNC CNDM CNEN CNI CNJ - Companhia Nacional de Acar e lcol (private sector, National Sugar and Alcohol Co.) - Comando Naval de Braslia (Braslia Naval Command Marine Corps base) - Conferncia Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil (National Conference of Brazilian [Roman Catholic] Bishops) - Confederao Nacional de Comrcio (National Commerce Confederation) - Conselho Nacional de Direitos da Mulher (Natonal Council on Womens Rights) - Comisso Nacional de Enegria Nuclear (National Nuclear Eneergy Commission) - Confederao Nacional da Indstria (National Industry Confederation) - Conselho Nacional do Judicirio (National Council of the Judicial Branch) External Control body for the Judiciary - Comando Naval de Manaus (Manaus Naval Command)


CNMP- Conselho Nacional do Ministrio Pblic (National Council for Public Prosecutors external control of prosecutors, similar to CNJ CNOOC CNPCP CNPE CNPJ - Chinese National Offshore Oil Corporation - Conselho Nacional de Poltica Criminal e Penitenciria - MJ (National Council for Criminal and Prison Policy Ministry of Justice) - Conselho Nacional de Poltica Energtica (National Council for Energy Policy) - Cadastro Nacional da Pessoa Jurdica (corporate income tax ID number)



- Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas (National Research Council, within MCT) - Confederao Nacional de Transportes (National Transportation Confederation) - Confederao Nacional dos Trabalhadores no Comrcio (National Confederation of Commercial Workers) - Confederao Nacional dos Trabalhadores em Educao (National Confederation of Workers in Education) - Confederao Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Indstria (National Confederation of Industrial Workers) - Confederao Nacional dos Trabalhadores Metalrgicos (National Confederation of Metal Workers) - Confederao Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Sade (National Confederation of Health Workers) - Conselho de Controle de Atividades Financeiras at Finance Ministry (Council for Control of Financial Activities anti-money laundering) - Computadores e Sistemas Brasileiros Brazilian Computers and Systems now extinct) - Companhia de Desenvolvimento dos Vales do So Francisco e Paranba (Company for the Development of the So Francisco & Paranba Valleys) - Compagnie Franaise dAssurande pour le Commerce Extrieur - French Insurance Group insurable trading risks HQ Paris - Coface university created in 2007 - Annual conferences held in January - Companhia Siderrgica do Par (Iron & Steel Company of Par State) - Companhia Municipal de Gs in SP (SP municipal gas comapny, initial investment by British in 1872, then Light in 1912, nationalized in 1959, control to CESP in 1984, privatized BG Group and Shell in 1999. - Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento (National Food Supply Company)





- Conselho Nacional da Aviao Civil (National Civil Aviation Council) - Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (National Environment Council) - Conselho Nacional de Segurana Pblica (MJ) National Council for Public Security Ministry of Justice)

CONCRAB - Confederao das Cooperativas de Reforma Agrria do Brasil (fiscal front organization operated by the MST in order to receive funds from Brazilian and foreign sources like ANCA) Condor - Operao Condor joint intelligence survailance of anti-military regime militants by Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil torture, murder, capture/extraditon , officially established in 1975 - Conselho Nacional de Poltica Fazendria (Natonal Council for Tax Policy, state secretaries of finance) - Contribuio para Financiamento da Seguridade Social (contribuion tax on gross incomes of private firms; reduce the social security deficit) - Confederao Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Agricultura (National Confederation of Agricultural Workers)

CONFAZ Confins


COOPERMIBRA Cooperativa Mixta Agropecuria do Brasil (Brazilian Agro-Livestock Cooperative joint venture with CHS in 2008) COPOM Coppe Corregedor - Comit de Poltica Econmica (at BC) (Central Bank Monetary Policy Committee) - Coordenao de Programas de Ps-Graduao em Engenharia (UFRJ) (Graduate engineering research center at RJ Federal Univ.) - Ethics Magistrate investigates alleged breaches of ethics in Senate and Chamber of Deputies and prepares reports for the respective Ethics Councils that may reccommend expulsion of the accused [cassao] -- Comisso Sino-Brasileira de Alto Nvel de Concertao e Cooperao (Chinese- Brazilian High-Level Comission for Negotiation & Cooperation) - Conselho para Poltica Aduaneira Min. Fazenda

Cosban CPA


(Customs Policy Council Finance Ministry) CPCM- Comisso Parlamentar Conjunto do Mercosul (Joint Parliamentary Commission for Mercosul) CPD CPF CPI CPI CPLP CPMF CPOR CPqD - Centro de Processamento de Dados (Data Processing Center) - Cadastro de Pessoas Fsicas (personal income tax ID number, used like SS# for ID in the US) - Comisso Parlamentar de Inqurito) (Congressional Investigating Committee) - Corruption Perception Index (used by TI) (compiled yearly by Transparency International HQ in Berlin) - Comunidade de Pases de Lngua Portuguesa (community of Portuguese-speaking nations) - Contribuio Provisrio sobre Movimentao Financeira (temporary tax of financial transactions, began in 1992) - Centro de Preparao de Oficiais da Reserva (Reserve Officers Training Center) - Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (Research and Development Center)

CPRM- Companhia de Recursos Minerais (Mineral Resources Research Unit at MM&E) CPT CPTEC CRA CRE CREA - Comisso Pastoral da Terra (Catholic Church Pastoral Land Reform Commission) - Centro de Previso do Tempo e Estudos Climticos (Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies Center) - Comisso de Agricultura e Reforma Agrria (Senate Committee for Agriculture and Agrarian Reform) - Comisso de Relaes Exteriores e Defesa Nacional (Senate Committee on Foreign Relations & Defense) - Conselho Regional de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Agronomia (Regional Council for Engineering, Architecture & Agronomy)



- Conselho Regonal de Corretores de Imveis (Regional Council for Real Estate Agents) - Comisso de Relaes Exteriores e Defesa Nacional (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Foreign Relations & Defense) - Conselho de Reitores das Universidades Brasileiras (Council of Brazilian University Rectors) - Conselho de Reitores das Universidades de So Paulo (Council of SP University Rectors) - Companhia Siderrgica do Atlntico (new Thyssen steel mill in Santa Cruz, RJ, come on line in 2009) - Contribuio Social sobre Grandes Fortunas (Social Contribution [Tax] on Large Fortunes exceeding R$10 million) - Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington-based think tank) - Contribuio Social sobre o Lucro Lquido (federal tax levy on net corporate profits) - Conselho Nacional de Sade Ministrio de Sade (National Health Council Ministry of Health) - Conselho de Segurana Nacional Presidncia da Repblica (National Security Council under the President) - Companhia Siderrgica Nacional in Volta Redonda (National Iron & Steel Company Brazils first steel mill built in the 1940s with US asistance, not privatized) - Comisso de Segurana Pblica e Combate ao Crime Organizado (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Public Security & AntiOrganized Crime) - Contribuio Social da Sade (possible new tax on financial transactions to replace CPMF) - Comisso de Seguridade Social e Famlia (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Social Security & Family) - Centro Tcnico Aeroespecial




(aerospace technical center, FAB in S. Jos dos Campos, SP) CTASP CTBC CTC CTNBio CTD CTEEE - Comisso de Trabalho and Public Administration (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Labor and Public Administration) - Companhia Telefnica Brasil Central (Central Brazil Telephone Co., HQ in Uberlndia) - Centro Tecnolgico de Cana de Aucar part of Petrobrs (Sugarcane Technology Center) - Comisso Tcnica Nacional de Biossegurana ((National Technical Commission for Bio-Security) - Comisso de Turismo e Desporto (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Tourism & Sports) - Centro de Treinamento e Estudos em Energia (Center for Training and Studies on Energy) - Centro Tecnolgico do Exrcito (Army Tecnological Center in Braslia) - Cubas State Petroleum Enterprise - Central nica dos Trabalhadores linked to PT (Workers Labor Union Central HQ in So Paulo) - Citigroup Venture Capital - Comisso de Valores Mobilirios (Brazilian Securities Commission like SEC in the US) - Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (Brazils largest mining firm) - Comisso de Viao e Transportes (Chamber of Deputies Committee on Transportation) - 2% bio-diesel additive - Dirios Associados - powerful media chain (TV, radio & newspapers) established by Assis Chateaubriand in 1927. TUPI TV network annulled in 1980.




- Deutsche Akademie Austauschdienst Doktor (German Academic Exchange Service) - Dept. de Aviao Civil (Civil Aviation Authority linked to FAB) replaced by ANAC - Direo e Assessoramento Superior (1 to 6 classification for federal confidence appointments) - Departamento Administrativo do Servio Pblico (federal unit to supervise federal public administration created in 1938, replaced by Planning Ministry in 1970) - Survey research unit at Folha de So Paulo




DATAMEC - Empresa privada de processamento de dados (private data processing firm) DATAPREV Empresa de Processamento de Dados da Previdncia Social (Data processing unit at Ministry of Social Security) DBRS DCE DCN DCNS DEA DECEA DEM DF - Dominion Bond Rating Service (Canada) - Diretrio Central dos Estudantes (Central Student Organization at each university) - Dirio do Congresso Nacional (daily record of the National Congress) - Direction des Constructions Navales Services (French naval construction firm) - US Drug Enforcement Administration liaison with Brazil (Agncia Americana de Represso s Drogas) - Departamento do Controle do Espao Areo (Dept. for Air Space Control part of FAB) - Democratas (partido poltico) political party, replaced the PFL in March 2007 - Federal District (Braslia)



- Duty free, quota free international trade access to markets - General Armament Delegation (part of French Defense Ministry) - Dept. Intersindical de Assessoria Parlamentar (top labor union lobbying operation in Braslia) - Dept. Intersindical de Estatstica e Estudos Socio-Econmicos) (Labor Unions Bureau for Statistics & Socio-economic Studies - in So Paulo) - Dept. Nacional de Estradas de Rodagem (National Highway Dept. replaced by DNIT) - Dept. Nacional de Infra-estrutura de Transportes (Dept. of Transportation Infrastructure replaced DNER) - Dept. Nacional de Obras contra a Seca (National Dept. of Public Works against the Drought)



DNPM- Dept. Nacional de Produo Mineral part of MM&E (National Dept. of Minerals Production) DOC DOF - Documento de Ordem de Crdito (deposit from one bank account to another) - Documento Original Florestal (Original Forest Document)

DOHA- Doha Round of WTO trade talks DOI-CODI Doleiro DOU DPF DRCI - Departmento de Operaes Internas-Centro de Operaes de Defesa Interna (Detention & Torture Center in SP during Military Regime) - unauthorized, illegal money changer used for money laundering - Dirio Oficial da Unio (federal daily record) - Dept. da Polcia Federal (Federal Police) - Dept. de Recuperao de Ativos e Cooperao Jurdica Internacional (Dept. for Recovery of Assets and International Cooperation, at MJ)



- Delegacia Regional do Trabalho (regional offices of Ministry of Labor) - Desvinculao de Receitas da Unio - waiver allowing the government to reallocate up to 20% of federal revenues out of earmarked constitutional revenue sharing; initiated in 1994 in support of the Real Plan and extended every 4 four years by PEC (Constitutional Amendment) - Dispute Settlement Body at the WTO - Doenas Sexualmente Transmisveis (Sexual Transmissable Diseases) - Destaque para Votao em Separado (line item voting) - Emirados Arabes Unidos (United Arab Emirates) - Escola Brasileira de Administao Pblica (FGV-Rio) (Brazilian School of Public Administration at FGV-Rio) - Empresa Brasil de Comunicao (Brazils new public TV system, nicknamed TV Lula) - Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telgrafos (replaced ECT) (Brazilian Postal Service state enterprise) - European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - Brazilian holding group founded by mega investor Eike Batista in 1983 - European Community (Comunidade Europeia EU) - Estatuto da Criana e Adolescente approved in 1990 (Statute for [Protection of] Children & Adolescents) - Escola de Comando e Esrado-Maior da Aeronutica (Air Force Officers Traning Program, MajorColonel) - Escola de Comando e Estado Maior (do Exrcito) (Army Officers Training Program, MajorColonel)




- European Council on Foreign Relations - Economic Climate Index, complied by the German Inst. for Economic Research -- HQ in Munich - Economic Commission for Latin America & the Caribbean (formally ECLA) (CEPAL-Comisso Econmica para Amrica Latina e Caribe, UN) - UN World Summit on the Environment, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992 (also called Rio-92) - United Nations Economic and Social Council - Empresa dos Correios e Telgrafos (replaced by EBCT) (Federal Postal Service) - Esquerda Democrtica PSB (leftist spinoff from UDN, 1946-1950; formed PSB in 1950) - Environmental Defense Fund (1967), HQ New York - Economic Freedom Index, complied by the Heritage Foundation and WSJ - Escola de Guerra Naval (Navy War College, located in Rio de Janeiro) - Environmental Goods and Services Agreement - being negotiated at the WTO Doha Round - [The] Economist Intelligence Unit (London and New York) - Federal electrical holding firm - Federal electrical holding firm in Northern Region

Eletropaulo - Eletricidade de So Paulo S.A. (So Paulo Electricity Distribution Company) EMATER EMBI+ - Empresa de Assistncia Tcnica e Extenso Rural (Rural Extension Service) - Emerging Markets Bond Index (compiled daily by JP Morgan)


EMBRAER - Empresa Brasileira de Aeronutica (Brazilian Airplane Factory, located in So Jos dos Campos, SP) Embrapa Embratel Embratur EMFA EN ENAP - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agro-Pecuria (Brazilian Agricultural Research Enterprise) - Brazilian long distance and international telecommunications service (owned by Telmex Carlos Slim Hel - Indstria Brasileiro de Turismo (Federal Tourism Institute) - Estado Maior das Foras Armadas (Joint Chiefs of Staff, abolished in 1999) - Escola Naval in Rio de Janeiro (Brazilian Naval Academy) - Escola Nacional de Administrao Pblica (Fundao) (national government training school management specialists) replaced FUNCEP - Energia Argentina S.A. (Argentine energy state enterprise created by the Kirchner government in 2004) - Estratgia de Defesa Nacional approved 15th December 2008 (National Defense Strategy) - Engenheiros Especializados S.A. (Specialized Engineering Firm arms manufacturer) - Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi S.p.A. (Italian petroleum firm) - Empresa de Pesquisas Energticas (Federal Energy Research Unit linked to MM&E)



EPFR Global Emerging Portfolio Fund Research Inc. - based in Cambridge, MA EPP poca - Empresa de Pequeno Porte (small size business) - weekly news magazine published by Globo



- State of Esprito Santo - European Space Agency (Agncia Espacial Europeia) - Escola de Administrao Fazendria (Ministry of Finance training school) - Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras (MG) (federalized in 1994 UFLa) - Escola Suprerior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (agricultural university of state of SP in Piracicaba) - Escola de Aperfeioamento de Oficiais do Exrcito (Army Officers Training School) - Escola Superior de Guerra (Superior War College) - Escola do Servio Nacional de Informao (former SNI training school) - Brazilian Institute for Ethics in Corporate Competition - Exchange Traded Fund - the new currency of the European Common Market nations


EXIMBANK US Export-Import Bank FAA FAAP FAB FAC FAO - US Federal Aviation Administration (Dept. of Transportation) - Fundao Armando lvares Penteado (traditional private university in city of So Paulo) - Fora Area Brasileira (Brazilian Air Force) - Fundo de Aplicao em Cotas (buys and sells quotas in other funds, the fund of funds) - Food and Agriculture Organization - UN (organizao da ONU para agricultura e alimentao)



- Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (largest anti-government guerrilha movement in Colombia)

Farroupilha Day 20th September state holiday in Rio Grande do Sul - marks the begining of the Guerra dos Farrapos in 1835 FASE FATF - Federao de rgos para Assistncia Social e Educacional (Federation of Social Assistance and Educational Groups) - Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (GAFI-Grupo de Ao Financeira sobre Lavagem de Dinheiro) - Foreign Direct Investment (IED Investimento Estrangeiro Direito) - Faculdade de Economia e Administrao (USP) (USP School of Economics and Administration) - Fundao Estadual do Bem-Estar do Menor (SP foundation for juvenile offenders, now called CASA)



FEBRABAN Federao Brasileira das Associaes de Bancos (Brazilian Federation of Banks) FED FELABAN - US Federal Reserve Bank - Federao Latinoamericana de Bancos (Loatin American Federation of Banks)

FENABRAVE Federao Nacional da Distribuio de Veculos Automotores (National Assoc. of Automobile Dealerships) FENAJ FENTAC FFIE FGC - Federao Nacional dos Jornalistas (National Journalists Federation) - Federao Nacional de Trabalhadores na Aviao Civil (National Federation of Civilian Airline Workers) - Fundo Fiscal de Investimento e Estabilizao (Fiscal Investment and Stabilization Fund) created for the FSB - Fundo de Garantia de Crdito (Bank Deposit Guarantee Fund; like the FDIC in the USA)



- Fdration Internationale de Football Association (International Soccer Federation HQ in Zurich - Fundo de Garantia por Tempo de Servio (workers severance guarantee fund, 8% contribution per month by firms) - Fundao Getlio Vargas (Getlio Vargas Foundation HQ Rio de Janeiro) - former president Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2002) - Persons with dirty records - criminal accusations are allowed to run for office in Brazil; in 2008, the AMB publicized lists of candidates with fichas sujas. - Financiamento do Estudante o Ensino Superior (federal educational fellowship program for private university students; based on tax rebates to private univ. that grant these fellowships) - Fundo de Investimentos no Exterior (domestic investment fund, up to 60% in Brazilian foreign debt) - Fundo de Investimento Financeiro (several types of investment funds: fixed rate, DI, derivatives, etc.) - Federao das Indstrias do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (RJ state industrial federation) - Agncia Especial de Financiamento Industrial (special fund for industrial expansion)


FINEP- Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (federal agency that finances large research projects Fiocruz FIPE - Fundao Oswaldo Cruz (federal bio-tech research center in Rio de Janeiro) - Fundao Instituto de Pesquisas Econmicas (USP) (Foundation for Economic Research at USP)

Fisiologismo - Distribuio de nomeaes e verbas entre deputados e senadores (pork barrel distribution of political goods to politicians to guarantee their consistent voting in Congress) Fitch - Fitch Ratings HQ in New York (sovereign risk ratings for 90 countries)



- Fundo de Investimento de Ttulos e Valores Mobilirios (new category of fund with variable income) - Facultad Latino-Americana de Ciencias Sociales (Latin American School for Social Science) - Fundo Monetrio Internacional (IMF-International Monetary Fund) - Fundao Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educao (National Foundation for Education Development) - Fora Nacional de Segurana (National Security Force recruited from police in the states and trained to be deployed to insure security and public safety in states and cities) - Central Bank survey of economic projections by financial instutitions - published every Monday


Fora Sindical Labor Union central HQ in So Paulo Foro privilegiado - privileged forum president, ministers, senators, and deputies can only be prosecuted by the STF for criminal acts, was considered equivalent to impunity before 2007

Forum de So Paulo Annual encounter of Left parties and groups in Latin America and elsewhere, promoted by the PT as of 1990 (Read: Prof. Marco Aurlio Garcia); includes inssurectional some groups like the FARC. FPM FPSO FRIDE - Fundo de Participao dos Municpios (Municipal Participation Fund federallocal revenue sharing) - Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessels (petroleum extraction) - Fundacin para las Relaciones Internacionaled y el Dilogo Exterior (Foundation for International Relations and Foreign Dialogue) -European think-tank HQ in Madrid, founded in 1999 - Fundo Soberano Brasil established in December 2008 (Brazils Sovereign Wealth Fund) - Folha de So Paulo



(Major newspaper in So Paulo) FTAA FTSE Funai - Free Trade Agreement of the Americas Miami 1994 (ALCA Area de Livre Comrcio das Amricas) - London stock exchange index - Fundao Nacional do ndio (National Indian Foundation) replaced SPI-Indian Protection Service - Fundao Nacional de Arte (National Foundation for the Arts) - Retirement fund for CEF employees - Fundao Centro de Formao do Servidor Pblico (federal public employee training center) replaced by ENAP - Fundao Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educao Bsica (National Foundation for Development of Primary and Pre-School Education) replaced FUNDEF - Fundao Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educao Fundamental (National Foundation for Primary School Development) replaced by FUNDEB




FUNRURAL Fundo de Assistncia ao Trabalhador Rural (social security fund for rural workers) FX FX-2 G-3 G-4 G4S G-7 - Foreign Exchange FAB project to buy new 36-plane squadron of jet fighter planes - Grupo dos 3 Group of Three (Brazil, South Africa & India) - Grupo dos 4 Group of Four (Brazil, South Africa, India & Japan UN Security Council) - The worlds largest security company - created in 2004 by a merger of Group 4 Falck (Denmark) + Securicor (UK) - Grupo dos 7 Group of Seven


(7 most developed industrial nations) G-8 G-20 G-20 GAFI Galeo GALP GAPA GATT Gazprom GB GDF GDF GECF GEF GEIPOT - G-7 plus Russia - Grupo dos 20 Group of 20 (emerging nations led by Brazil and India WTO negotiations) - G-8 nations plus 12 emerging nations new international economic forum; after Sept./09 blowout - Grupo de Ao Financeira sobre Lavagem de Dinheiro (FATF-Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering) - Rio de Janeiros International Airport (Aeroporto Tom Jobim) - Portuguese petroleum firm - Grupo de Apoio e Preveno de AIDS (Support Group for AIDS Prevention) - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (replaced by WTO in 1995) - Russian natural gas firm - the state of Guanabara (created in 1960 from old DF; merged with RJ in 1975) - Government of the Federal District Braslia - Gaz de France (French gas company) - Gas Exporting Countries Forum (the Natural Gas OPEC) founded in 2001; approved its formal charter in 2008 - Global Environmental Facility, began in 1991 - Grupo de Estudos para a Integrao da Politca de Transportes (within MT) (Study Group for the Integration of Transportation Policies) founded 1965 - transformed into Empresa Brasileira de Planejamento de Transportes (1973) - extinguished in May 2008 - Grupo Executivo das Terras do Araguaia-Tocantins (Executive Group for Land in the Araguaia and Tocantins river basins)




- Global Innovation Forum - Gs Liquifeito de Petrleo (LPG-Liquefied Petroleum Gas) - Gazeta Mercantil (business-economics-finance newspaper published in So Paulo) - Genetically Modified Organisms ( OGMs Organismos Geneticamente Modificados) - Gas Natural Veicular (natural gas fuel for autos, buses & trucks) - State of Gois - GOL-Linhas Areas Inteligentes, fundada em 2001 (no-frills airline founded in 2001, purchased Varig in 2007) modeled after Southwest Airlines in US - Global Peace Index incidence of violence, complied by EIU for 121 nations (Brazil ranked 83rd in 2007) - Swedish fighter plane that competed for the FX-2 - Gabinete de Segurana Institutional (Office of Institucional Security linked to the Presidency) - Global System for Mobile (European cell phone system, uses chip) - Generalized System of Preferences [via USTR in the US] (Facilitates access of emerging nation exports to the US market) - Grupo de Trabalho (working group, task force) - US firm (HQ Rhode Island) that administers lotteries, purchased Racimec in 1997 and inherited its contract with the CEF to operate its lotteries. G-Tech was accused of using pressure techniques on CEF to renew its contract in 2004. - Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (German Technical Cooperation Agency)





- UN Conference of Human Habitations - Hospital das Clnicas (hospital with diverse clinics) - Human Development Index (index complied by UNDP every year) - High Density Polyethylene - Helicpteros do Brasil S.A. former state-owned firm that manufactures helicopters as of 1978, HQ Itajub, MG now owned by Eurocopter (EADS) - Hospital das Foras Armadas (Armed Forces Hospital in Braslia) - Horrio Gratuito de Propaganda Eleitoral (Free Election Propaganda Hour, allocated by TS) - Human Inmmunodeficiency Virus - Hong-Kong Shangai Bank Corp. (acquired Bamerindus in 1999)

Hudson Institute Research Inst. fun by Herman Kahn - proposed grandiose development plan for the Amazon in 1970s IAA - Instituto do Aucar e do lcool (sugar and alcohol institute) - Instituto de Advogados do Brasil (Brazilian Institute of Lawyers) - Instituto de Arquitetos do Brasil (Brazilian Institute of Architects) - Inter-American Development Bank (BID Banco Interamericano do Desenvolvimento) - International Atomic Energy Agency UN Agency, HQ in Vienna (AIEA Agncia Internacional de Energia Atmica) - Instituto Brasileiro de Administrao Municipal (private organization in Rio; research & training for local govt.)




- Inst. Brasileira do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Renovveis (Environmental Protection Inst.)

IBASE- Inst. Brasileiro de Anlises Sociais e Econmicos (Brazilian Inst. for Socio-Economic Analyses in Rio de Janeiro) IBC IBES IBGE IBICT Ibope IBRA IBRAM IBSA ICAO ICBC ICMS ICONE ICSID ICV - Instituto Brasileiro do Caf (Brazilian Coffee Institute, extinct in 1991) - Institutional Brokers Estimate System - Inst. Brasileira de Geografia e Estatstica (National Statistics Bureau inflation indexes & census) - Inst. Brasileiro de Informao em Cincia e Tecnologia (Brazilian Inst. for Science & Technology Information - MCT) - Inst. Brasileiro de Opinio Pblica in Rio de Janeiro (Survey Research Firm, does surveys for CNI) - Instituto Brasileiro da Reforma Agrria (Brazilian Inst. for Agrarian Reform) - Instituto Brasileiro de Minerao (Brazilian Mining Inst.) - India, Brazil and South Africa IBSA Summit (G-3) (met in South Africa on 17th October 2007) - International Civil Aviation Organization UN agency, HQ in Montreal, Canada - Industrial and Commerce Bank of China - Imposto sobre Circulao de Mercadorias e Servios (tax on goods and services, replaced ICM) - Inst. de Estudos do Comrcio e Negociaes Internacionais (private research inst. for foreign trade issues HQ in SP) - International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes - World Banks dispute resolution forum, HQ in Washington, DC - ndice Custo de Vida (Consumer Cost of Living Index, compiled by Fipe)



- Inst. for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (UN organization - HQ in Stockholm) - International Drug Enforcement Conference - International Electrotechnical Commission HQ in Geneva - Investimento Estrangeiro Direto (FDI-Foreign Direct Investment) - Instituto de Estudos para o Desenvolvimento Industrial (private organization to promote industrial development) - Independent Evaluation Office monitors IMF - International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Assoc. - International Finance Corporation established 1956 (member of the World Bank Group) - Instituies Federais de Ensino Superior (federal universities) - International Foundation for Election Systems HQ in Washington, DC - International Financing Review (published by Thomson Reuters) - International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations - ndice Geral dos Preos (a wholesale price index) - ndice Geral dos Preos Disponabilidade Interna (general price index, excludes imported goods) - ndice Geral dos Preos - Mercado (general price index market prices) - Instituto Interamericano de Cincias Agrcolas (Inter-American Inst. for Agriculture training & research) HQ in Turrialba, Costa Rica - International Intellectual Property Alliance




(represents some 1,900 US companies) IIRSA ILO ILS Imazon IMD - Iniciativa para a Integrao da Infra-estrutura Regional Sul-Americana (South American Regional Infrastructure Integration) - International Labor Organization (UN unit in Geneva) (OIT-Organizo Internatioanl do Trabalho) - Instrument Landing System ILS-3, the most advanced, sophisticaed version - pro-sustainable development NGO based in Belm, PA - International Institute for Management Development (Switzerland-based business school) publishes WCY-World Competitiveness Yearbook - Instituto Militar de Engenharia (Military Engineering Inst. run by the Army) undergrad. & graduate programs, HQ in Rio - International Monetary Fund (FMI-Fundo Monetrio Internacional) - International Management Group ssports & entertainment - acquired by Theodore Forstmann in 2004 In Nov. 2010, IMG formed a joint venture (IMGX) with Eike Batista - Instituto Medico Legal (state government morgue completes autopsies of the dead & issues death certificates) - Imprensa Nacional (Federal Government Printing Office, in Braslia) - ndice de Nvel de Atividade level of industrial activity (used by Fiesp) (Index of Level of [Industrial] Activity) - Indstrias Nucleares do Brasil, S.A. (Brazilian Nuclear Industry) Instituto Nacional de Cancer (National Cancer Institute) - ndice de Preos da Construo Civil






(Index for Construction Prices) INCOR INCRA INEP - Instituto do Corao (heart institute hospital in SP) - Instituto Nacional de Colonizao e Reforma Agrria (National Inst. for Colonization & Agrarian Reform) - Inst. Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais (National Inst. for Educational Studies & Research MEC) - Instituto de Estudos Socio-Econmicos (Inst. for Socio-Economic Studies pro-active NGO in Braslia) - state enterprise that controls and administers Brazils airports - Inst. Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizao e Qualidade Industrial (National Inst. of Standards, Norms & Industrial Quality) similar to US National Bureau of Standards - Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Amaznicas HQ in Manaus - National Inst. for Research on the Amazon Region - Indce Nacional de Preos ao Consumidor (Consumer Price Index up to 8 minimum wages) - Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Space Research Inst., So Jos dos Campos, SP) - Inst. Nacional de Propriedade Industrial (Brazilian Patent Office) - Inst. Nacional de Seguro Social (replaced INPS) (National Social Security Inst. for private sector) - Organizao Internacional de Polcia Criminal (International Criminal Police Organization) congregates police from 182 nations - Informaes Objetivas Publicaes Jurdicas Ldta. (private firm, provides detailed technical business information) - Imposto sobre Operaes Financeiras (tax on financial operations)

INESC Infraero Inmetro





- Industrial Production - ndice de Preos por Atacado (wholesale price index) - Instituto de Previdncia dos Congressistas (retirement fund for members of Congress) - ndice de Preos ao Consumidor (a consumer price index up to 6 minimum wages) - Consumer Price Index for the lowest income bracket - from 1 to 2.5 minimum wages - ndice de Preos ao Consumidor Amplo (Broad Consumer Price Index, up to 20 minimum wages) - Inst. de Pesquisa Econmica Aplicada (Inst. for Applied Economic Research at MPOG) - Inst. do Patrimnio Histrico e Artstico Nacional (National Inst. of Historic and Artistic Patrimony) - Imposto sobre Produtos Industrializados (tax on industrial products) - Intellectual Property Rights - Institute de Pesquisas em Relaes Internacionais (International Relations Research Inst. part of MRE) - International Political Science Assoc. - Imposto Territorial Urbano (local real estate tax) Inter-Parliamentary Union HQ in Geneva, founded in 1889 - Imposto de Renda (income tax; IRPF = personal income tax; IRPJ = corporate income tax) - Instituto de Resseguros do Brasil (Brazilian reinsurance Inst. public autarky, to be privatized in 2008)




- Inst. Rio Branco (diplomat training course at MRE) - Imposto de Renda de Pessoa Fsica (personal income tax) - Imposto de Renda de Pessoa Jurdica (corporate income tax) - International Sugar Organization HQ in London since 1954 (OIA-Organizao International do Aucar) - International Standarization Office HQ in Geneva - Imposto sobre Servios (municipal tax levied on services) - weekly news magazine - Inst. Tecnolgico da Aeronutica (FAB engineering school, in So Jos dos Campos, SP) - nickname for MRE, Ministry of Foreign Relations - Banco Ita Brazils 3rd largest private bank - Imposto Territorial Rural (tax on rural lands) - Inst. Universitrio de Pesquisas de Rio de Janeiro (private graduate research center in Rio, offers MA & Ph.D. in Political Science and Sociology) - Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus Bishop Edir Macedo (Universal Church of the Kingdom of God) TV Record - Imposto de Valor Agregado (VAT Value Added Tax) - nickname for Pres. Joo Goulart (1961-1964) - Jornal do Brasil (Major newspaper in Rio de Janeiro) - Japan Bank for International Cooperation





- Juventude Estudantil Catlica (Catholic organizaiton for high-school age youth, repressed by military) - Japanese International Trade Organization - Justia Federal (Federal Judiciary) - Japan International Cooperation Agency - New hydro-electric project on the Madeira River (Rondnia) - Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (former Brazilian President, 1956-1961) - Juventude Operrio Catlica (Catholic workers organization, repressed by military after 1964) - Jnio Quadros (former Brazilian President, 7 months in 1961) - Juventude Universitria Catlica (Catholic organization for university students, harshly repressed by the military after 1964, many militants joined AP and other anti-military organizations) - large deepwater, pre-salt oil field southeast of So Paulo - Konrad Adenauer Stiftung (Konrad Adenauer Foundation, German Christian Democratic Party)

Jupiter KAS

Kasato Maru - First ship carrying Japanese immigrants, docked at Santos on 18th June 1908 Keidanren KC-390 KKR KWU - Nippon Keidanren confederation of Japanese industrial sector leaders - New twin-engine jet cargo transport plane being developed by Embraer - Will replace the workhorse C-130 (1950s vintage) cargo plane - Kohlberg-Kravis-Roberts US private equity firm - Kraftwerk Union Kraftwerksgeschft von Siemens (German manufacturer of heavy equipment for nuclear power plants and other electricity generation facilities) - literally an orange [citrus fruit] - political slang for a stand in, cover up, eminence gris



- a person used (some times involuntarily) to be the person legally responsible for some entity, for tax evasion purposes LATAM LBA - New holding [merger] between TAM and Lan Chile - announced in August 2010 - Legio Brasileira de Assistncia (social assistance administered by Brazils First Ladies, began with Darcy Vargas in 1942 abolished in 1995) - So Paulo-based consulting firm founded in 1993 - Light commercial vehicle - Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educao Nacional (basic education law in Brazil) - Lei de Diretrizes Oramentrias (Budget Guidelines Law) finalized by Congress by 30th July every year - Low Density Polyethylene - LG Electronics, South Korean firm (previously Goldstar until 1995) (LG symbol means The World, The Future, Youth, Humanism and Technology) - Lei do Oramento Anual (annual budget law) transmitted to Congress on 1st August every year - Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (Fiscal Responbibility Law, penalizes deficit spending by state and municipal governments) - London School of Economics and Political Science - Lei de Segurana Nacional (National Security Law) - Letras Financeiras do Tesouro (national treasury bonds, fixed term, SELIC rate - Letras do Tesouro Nacional (fixed rate treasury bonds)




Luz para Todos Electricity for Everyone Lulas rural electrification program



- State of Maranho - Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens (Movement of those Desplaced by Power Dam Projects) - Ministrio da Aeronatica (Air Force Ministry, incorporated into Min. of Defense in 1999) - Ministrio de Agricultura e do Abastecimento (Ministry of Agriculture) - MAN AG Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nrnberg HQ Munich (large German firm that manufucuters motors and trucks) - acquired VW truck and bus division in Brazil in January 2009 - nickname for Francisco de Assis de Moraes Souza (PMDB Senator and former governor of Piau) - Ministrio da Administrao Federal e Reforma do Estado (Ministry for Federal Administration & Reform of the State) abolished in 2003 - Ministrio das Comunicaes (Ministry of Communications) - Ministrio das Cidades (Ministry for the Cities) - Ministrio de Cincia e Tecnologia (Ministry of Science & Technology) - Ministrio da Defesa (Ministry of Defense, created in 1999) - Mobilizao Democrtica (Democratic Mobilization, party merger attempted by PPS-PMN-PHS in early 2007 that did not materialize) - Ministrio do Desenvolvimento Agrrio (Ministry of Agrarian Development) - Movimento Democrtico Brasileiro (became PMDB in 1980) (Brazilian Democratic Movement, 1966-1979) opposition party versus military regime

Mo Santa MARE





- Ministrio do Desenvolvimento, Indstria e Comrcio (Ministry of Development, Industry & Commerce) - Ministrio dos Esportes (Ministry of Sports) - Micro Empresa (micro business) - Ministrio da Educao (Ministry of Education) - a BIG monthly allowance allocated to deputies to vote the right way, in 2003 and 2004, funds from suspect sources, mostly siphoned off from public contracts and laundered via government propaganda contracts with advertising firms scandal exploded in 2005. - Mercado Comum dos Pases do Cone Sul (South American Common Market) - Ministrio do Exrcito (Ministry of the Army, incorporated into Defense Min. in 1999) - Argentine stock market index - Ministrio da Fazenda (Ministry of Finance) - State of Minas Gerais - Railroad equipment & service firm founded in 2001, acquired by Caterpillers Progress Rail Sevices in Latin America in June 2008. - Ministrio da Integrao Nacional (Ministry of National Integration) - Middle Income Country - Russian jet fighter plane Mikoyan-Gurevich - Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (Agncia Multilateral de Garantia de Investimentos) - Ministrio da Cultura (Ministry of Culture)

Mercosul MEx Merval MF MG MGE MI MIC MiG MIGA Minc


Minc Minustah Mittal MJ MLST

- Carlos Minc, Minister for the Environment (2008-??) - UN Peace Keeping Mission in Haiti (commanded by a Brazilian officer, largest contingent of troops from Brazil) - Indias largest steel maker (Mittal family) - Ministrio da Justia (Ministry of Justice) - Movimento de Libertao dos Sem-Terra (Movement for the Liberation of the Landless - radical splinter from MST led by PT militant Bruno Maranho - Ministrio da Marinha (Navy Ministry, incorporated into Defense Min. in 1999) - Ministrio do Meio Ambiente (Ministry of Environment) - Ministrio de Minas e Energia (Ministry of Mines and Energy) - Minerao e Metlicos firm owned by mega investor Eike Batista (Mining and Metals firm) - Mitsui Ocean Development & Engineering Co. - a Tokyo-based provider of off-shore drilling equipment - Month on Month


Montoneros - The largest guerrilla movement in Argentina. Moodys MP MPAS MPDFT - Moodys Investor Service HQ in New York (sovereign risk ratings for different countries) - Medida Provisria (provisional measure, issued by presidentforce of Law) - Ministrio da Previdncia e Assistncia Social (Social Security Ministry) - Ministrio Pblico do DF e Territrios, also MPF (Federal Prosecutors for the DF and federal territories)



- Ministrio Pblico Estadual (state government prosecutors) - Micro e Pequenas Empresas (small and micro businesses) - Ministrio Pblico Federal (v PGR) (Federal Prosecutors, see PGR) - Ministrio Pblico Militar (junto ao STM) (Federal Prosecutors at STM-Superior Military Court) - Ministrio do Planejamento, Oramento e Gesto (Ministry of Planning, Budget & Management) - Ministrio da Previdncia Social replaced MTPS & MPAS (Ministry of Social Security) - Ministrio Pblico do Trabalho (federal prosecutors assigned to labor courts) - The electrical energy group linked to EBX Mega-investor Eike Batista - Ministrio de Relaes Exteriores (Ministry of Foreign Relations, Itamaraty) - State of Mato Grosso do Sul - Ministrio de Sade (Ministry of Health) - Morgan Stanley Capital International (stock market index, MSCI-Brazil) - Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra (Landless Rural Workers Movement) - State of Mato Grosso - Ministrio do Turismo (Ministry of Tourism) - Ministrio dos Transportes (Ministry of Transportation)



- Master Top Airlines hired by ECT to carry air mail in Brazil - Involved in Erenice Guerra corruption scandal in 2010 - Ministrio do Trabalho e Emprego (Ministry of Labor & Jobs) - Ministrio do Trabalho e Previdncia Social divided into MTE & MPS (former Ministry of Labor & Social Security) - Movimento Trabalhista Renovador, 1960-1965 [Fernando Ferrari] (Labor Renovation Movement, splinter party from PTB in 1960) - Brazilian municipalities (5,563 towns and cities), within the federal system - Ncleo de Estudos Estratgicos (Strategic Studies Unit, within Sec. for Social Communication) - North American Free Trade Association (US, Canada & Mexico in 1993) - Non-Agricultural Market Access (WTO negotiating point in Doha Round) - Mini-automobile launched by Ratan Tata in India - US National Aeronautics and Space Administration - National Assoc. of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation (launched in 1971, securities market for large technology firms, recently merged with AMEX) - Notas do Banco Central (minimum 3-month term, 6% p.a. + US$ fluctuation) - National Cotton Council - National Conference of State Legislatures HQ in Denver, CO - Nordeste (Northeast region of Brazil) - Nippon Electronics Company - Near Field Communication - US National Foreign Trade Council




- Japanese Stock Market Index - Non-market economy - Norte (North)

Nossa Caixa - Bank owned by State of So Paulo, sold to the Banco do Brasil in 2008 Notam - Notice to Airmen Official communication to pilots

NOVACAP - Companhia Urbanizadora da Nova Capital do Brasil (state company that built and administers Braslia) NPT NTBs NTN Nuci NYSE OAB OAS - Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (TNP-Tratado de No Proliferao) - Non-tariff barriers (term in WTO negotiations) - Notas do Tesouro Nacional (variable rate Treasury notes) - Nvel de Utilizao de Capacidade Instalada (level of use of installed industrial capacity, index complied by Fiesp) - New York Stock Exchange - Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil (Brazilian bar Association) - Organization of American States (OEA-Organizao dos Estados Americanos) replaced Pan American Union in 1943 - Construtura OAS Ltda., HQ Salvador, Bahia, major partner Cesar Mata Pires (son-in-law of ACM) - Operao Bandeirantes (SP clandestine police organization to surpress anti-military guerrila organizations with private funding, 1968-1975) - Organizao das Cooperativas Brasileiras (Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives) - Organizao para Cooperao e Desenvolvimento Econmico)




OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ODF ODIC OEA - Open Document Format - Organizao dos Indgenas da Cidade (Organization of Indian City Inhabitants) - Organizao dos Estados Americanos (OAS-Organization of American States) replaced Pan American Union in 1943 - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (founded in 1948 as OEEC, membership extended to non-European states in 1961 OCDE Oganizao para Cooperao e Desenvolvimento Econmico) - Organizao dos Estados Latinoamericanos e Caribenhos OAS do B (Organization of Latin American and Caribbean States) - proposed during 2008 CALC; with Cuba, without the US & Canada - Original Equipment Manufacturer - O Estado de So Paulo (Major So Paulo newspaper) - Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (GMOs-Genetically Modified Organisms) - Oramento Geral da Unio (final version of federal budget) approved by Congress before 31st December - OGX Petrleo e Gas Participaes - Oil and gas firm owned by mega investor Eike Batista - Obrascon Huarte Lain S/A (Spanish construction firm, won highway concessions in Brazil) - Brazilian cell phone operator owned by Telemar - Organizao International do Caf (WCO-World Coffee Organization) - Office International des Epizooties (World Organization fro Animal Health) - Organizao International do Trabalho





(ILO-International Labor Organization) OMC OMS ONG ONS OPA OPAS OPEC Oscip ONU OTCA PA PAC PAEG PAHO PAN - Organizao Mundial do Comrcio (WTO-World Trade Organization) - Organizao Mundial da Sade (WHO-World Health Organization) - Organizao No-Governamental (NGO, Non-Governmental Organization) - Operadora Nacional do Sistema Eltrica (coordinates the national electrical grid) - Operao Pan Americana launched by Pres. Kubitschek in 1958 (proposal for a massive assistance program, coopted by Alliance for Progress) - Organizao Pan-Americana de Sade HQ Washington, DC (PAHO-PanAmerican Health Organization) - Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEP-Organizao de Pases Exportadores de Petrleo) - Organizaes da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Pblico (Public Interest Civil Society Organizations NGOs with legal status) - Oranizao das Naes Unidas (UN-United Nations) - Organizao do Tratado de Cooperao Amaznica (Organization of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty) - State of Par - Programa de Acelerao do Crescimento launched by Lula govt. in 2007 (Growth Acceleration Program, +5% GDP per year through 2010) - Plano de Ao Econmica do Governo (Government Economic Action Plan launched by Pres. Castelo Branco in 1964) - Pan-American Health Organization (HQ in Washington, DC) (OPAS-Organizao Panamericana de Sade) - Partido Agrrio Nacional PSP in 1947 (National Agrarian Party, 1945-1947)



- Partido dos Aposentados da Nao absorbed by PTB in 2006) (Party of Retirees of the Nation, 1998-2006)

PARLAMAZ Parlamento Amaznico (Amazon Region Parliament) PARLATINO Parlamento Latino-Americano (Latin American Parliament, HQ in So Paulo) PAS PASEP - Plano de Amaznia Sustentvel created in 2008 (Sustainable Amazon Plan) - Programa de Formao do Patrimnio do Servidor Pblico, (supplement of lower income brackets of public servants, created by military regime in 1970) - Consultancy in Braslia (with a branch in Washington, DC), that conducts institutional relations and lobby activities - State of Paraiba - Partido Comunista Brasileiro PPS in 1993 (Brazilian Communist Party, 1945-1947 & 1985-1993) - Partido Comunista Revolucionrio Brasileiro (Brazilian Revolutionary Communist Party, 1968-1975; militants then transfered to a PT tendency-Brasil Socialista and to the MLST) - Primeiro Comando da Capital (de So Paulo) (worst and best organized crime group in SP) - Partido Comunista do Brasil (Communist Party of Brazil, 1986- ) - Partido da Causa Operria (Party of the Workers Cause, 1997- ) Partido Democrata Cristo (Christian Democratic Party, 1947-1965) - Partido Democrtico Social PPR in 1991 (Social Democratic Party, 1980-1991) - Partido Democrtico Trabalhista Leonel Brizolas party




(Democratic Labor Party, 1980- ) PDVSA PE PEA PEC PED PED Pedgio Pel PEMEX Petrobrs Petros PFL PGFN PGO PGR Phenon - Petrleos de Venezuela S.A. (Venezuelas petroleum state enterprise) - State of Pernambuco - Populao Economicamente Ativa (economically active population, those working or looking for jobs) - Proposta de Emenda Constitucional (Proposed Constitutional Amendment) - Pesquisa de Emprego e Desemprego (monthly survey of employment/unemployment by Dieese) - Processo de Eleio Direta (PT direct election of state and national party officers) - Toll collected by highway concesison holders. - Esdon Arantes do Nascimento, born Trs Coraoes, MG in 1940; became the King of Brazilian soccer a national idol - Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexican Petroleum State Enterprise) - Petrleo Brasileiro S.A. (Brazils large petroleum state enterprise) - Retirement fund for Petrobrs employees. - Partido da Frente Liberal Democratas (DEM) em maro 2007 (Liberal Front Party, 1985-2007) - Procuradoria-Geral da Fazenda Nacional (Chief Prosecutor at Finance Ministry) - Plano Geral de Outorgas revised by Pres. Lula in 2008 (General Plan of [Telecom] Authorizations) - Procurador-Geral da Repblica (Chief Federal Prosecutor) - The Embraer corporate jet plane



- Partido Humanista da Solidariedade, 1997- (former PSN) (Humanist Solidarity Party) - State of Piau - Produto Interno Bruto (GDP Gross Domestic Product) - Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain - the five EU nations with the worse budget deficits - Polo Industrial de Manaus (Industrial Sector in the City of Manaus) - Programa de Integrao Social (Program of Social Integration) - Partido da Juventude (1986-1989) PRN (Party of Youth, 1986-1989 PRN) - Communist Party of Vietnam - Partido Libertador (Liberator Party, 1945-1965) - Partido Liberal became PR in 2006 (Liberal Party, 1985-2006) - Participao no Lucro (profit sharing) ndice Preo/Lucro (price/profit index, compares stock prices) - Palcio do Planalto (Presidents office building on the Three Powers Square) - Polcia Militar (uniformed police organization in states) - Partido do Movimento Democrtico Brasileiro (Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, 1980- ) - Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego


(Monthly Employment Survey) PMN PMR PNAD PNUD PNUMA Portobrs Postalis PP PP PP PP-G7 PPA PPdoB PPB PPG-7 - Partido da Mobilizao Nacional (National Mobilization Party, 1985 - ) - Partido Municipalista Renovador, succeeded by PRB in 2005 (Renovating Municipal Party, 2005) linked to IURD - Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domiclios (IBGE national sample of residences) - Programa das Naes Unidas para o Desenvolvimento UNDP-United Nations Development Programme - Programa das Naes Unidas para o Meio Ambiente UNEP-United Nations Evironment Programme - Empresa estatal para administrar os portos brasileiros (1975-1990) (state firm for administration of Brazils ports, 1975-1990) - Inst. de Seguridade Social da Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telgragos (Pension fund for EBCT) - Partido Popular (joined PMDB in 1982) (Popular Party, 1980-1982) - Partido Progressista became PPB in 1995 (Progressive Party, 1993-1995, result of PTR + PST merger in 1993) - Partido Progressista (former PPB) (Progressive Party, 2005 - ) - Pilot Programme for the Protection of Brazils Tropical Forests (Programa Piloto para a Proteo das Florestas Tropicais Brasileira) - Plano Plurianual (Multiyear Plan) - Partido Proletrio do Brasil, transformed into PST in 1950 - Partido Progressista Brasileiro became PP in 2005 (Brazilian Progressive Party, 1995-2005) - Programa Piloto para Proteo das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil (Pilot Program for Tropical Forest Protection, G-7 funds via World Bank)



- Projeto Piloto de Investimentos (pilot program for investments, that would be excluded from the primary surplus target (4.25% of GDP) via IMF sanction - Parcerias Pblico-Privadas (public-private partnerships, for infrastructure development) - Partido Progressista Republicano became PPB in 1995 (Progressive Republican Party, 1993-1995) - Partido Popular Sindicalista joined PSP in 1947 (Popular Sindicalist Party, 1945-1947) - Partido Popular Socialista (Popular Socialist Party, 1993 - ) former PCB - State of Paran - Partido Republicano, 1945-1965 [Arthur Bernardes] (Republican Party, derived from the PRs in 1898-1930 period) - Partido da Repblica, created by PL+Prona merger in 2007 (Party of the Republic, 2007 - ) - Proportional Representation (RP in Portuguese) (Brazil uses open list PR) - Partido Republicano Brasileiro [Vice-President Jos Alencar] (Brazilian Republican Party, 2005- ), successor of PMR, linked to IURD - Partido da Revoluo Bolivariana Nacional (National Bolivarian Revolution Party, registered in Rio de Janeiro by Hugo Chvez sympathizers in December 2006) - Partido Revolucionrio Comunista (PCB splinter during military regime0 (Revolutionary Communist Party) - Partido Republicano Democrtico, became PRT in 1950 (Democratic Republican Party, 1945-1950) - Retirement fund for Banco do Brasil employees - Polcia Rodovirio Federal





(Federal Highway Police Ministry of Justice)) PRN PROBEN PROCON - Partido da Reconstruo Nacional (party created by Fernando Collor de Mello) (National Renovation Party, 1989-2003) became PTC - Programa Brasileiro de Ecologia Nuclear (Brazilian Program for Nuclear Ecology) - Servio de Proteo do Consumidor (consumer protection service)

PRODECER Programa para o Desenvolvemento dos Cerrados (Program for the Development of the Cerrado Region) PROER Prona - Programa de Estmulo Reestruturao e ao Fortalecimento do Sistema Financeiro Nacional (program to recover finanical inst. in dificulties began in Nov. 1995) - Partido da Reedificao da Ordem Nacional Enas Carneiro (Party for Rebuilding the National Order, 1989-2006) merged with PL to form PR in January 2007 - Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar (program do strengthen the family farm) - Programa Nacional de Segurana Pblica com Cidadania (National Program for Public Safety with Citizenship) Lulas anti-crime, anti-violence program in cooperation with state governments - Programa Universidade para Todos (federal scholarship program for poor students at private universities) - Programa de Valorizao da Pequena Produo Rural (Program to Promote Small Farms) - Partido Republicano Populista PSP in 1947 (Popular Republican Party, 1945-1947 founded by Adhemar de Barros) - Partido Representao Popular party led by Plnio Salgado) (Popular Representation Party, 1947-1965) - Partido das Reformas Sociais, 1990-1991 (Party of Social Reforms, organized by Hlio Garcia in 1990)






- Partido Rural Trabalhista, successor of PRD in 1950 (Rural Labor Party, 1950-1965 - Partido Socialista Brasileira (Brazilian Socialist party, 1947-1965 & 1985- ) - Partido Social Cristo (Social Christian Party, 1990- ) - Partido Social Democrtico (Democratic Social Party, 1945-1965) - Partido Social Democrtico Brasileiro (Brazilian Social Democratic Party, 1988- ) - Partido Social Liberal, 1994 (Social Liberal party founded in 1994) - Partido da Solidariedade Nacional, became PHS in 1997 (National Solidarity Party, 1991-1997) - Partido do Socialismo e Liberdade, organized by dissidentes (Socialism & Liberty Party, 2005- ) - Partido Social Progressista, fundado por Adhemar de Barros em 1947 (Social Progressive Party, 1947-1965 and 1989 - ) - Partido Social Trabalhista, successor of PPdoB in 1950) (Social Labor Party, 1950-1965 & 1989-1993) - Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado, splinter from PT in 1991 (Unified Socialist Workers Party, 1991- ) - Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers Party, founded 1980)


PTdoB- Partido Trabalhista do Brasil, 1996-2006 (Labor Party of Brazil, merger with PL and Prona PR in 2006) PTB PTC - Partido dos Trabalhista Brasileiro (Brazilian Labor Party, 1945-1965 & 1980- ) - Partido Trabalhista Cristo, successor of PRN (Christian Labor Party, 1990- )


PTN PTR PTR PTRB PUC PV QE-2 Quattor QonQ Radiobrs Rafale RBS

- Partido Trabalhista Nacional (National Labor Party, 1947-1965) - Partido Trabalhista Ruralista (Ruralist Labor Party, 1947-1965) - Partido Trabalhista Renovador, merged with PST PP in 1993 (Renovation Labor Party, organized by Joaquim Roriz in DF in 1989) - Partido Trabalhista Renovador Brasileiro, 1997 ? (Brazilian Renovation Labor Party organized in 1997) - Pontifcia Universidade Catlica (Catholic university) - Partido Verde (Green Party, 1993- ) - Quantitative Expansion the Fed buys back govt bonds from banks - Joint venture (Petrobrs + Unipar) in petrochemicals formed in June 2008 - Quarter on Quarter - Empresa Brasileira de Comunicao EBC in 2007 (State TV and Radio Enterprise) - French Dassault fighter plane that competed for the FX-2. - Rede Brasil Sul de Comunicaes (Southern Brazil media firm, TV, radio & press in RS and SC) owned by Sirotsky family - Recibo de Depsito Bancrio (fixed rate time deposit) - Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentvel (Sustainable Development Reserve) - Brazils currency adopted on 1st July 1994 (R$). - Banco Real, private bank HQ in Minas Gerais, sold to ABN AMRO (largest Dutch bank) in 1999, which in turn was sold to a consortium including Banco Santander that took over Banco Real.

RDB RDS Real Real


REDD Repsol RESEX Reuni RFS RG RGE RH RI RIO-92 RIO-2007 Rio Group

- Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation - plan that will be discussed at the Copenhagen Summit in December 2009 - Spanish petroleum firm, operates in Brazil and Argentina - Reservera Extrativista (Extractivist Reserve) - Reforma Universitria expansion program for federal universities, initiated in 2008 - Renewable Fuel Standard, expanded by the US Congress in 2007. - Registro Geral (ID number for national ID card system) - Rio Grande Energia serves northern part of the State of Rio Rande do Sul (electricity distribution firm privatized in 1997 part of CPFL Group - Recursos Humanos (Human Resources) - Regimento de Infantaria (Army infantry regiment) - United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 [ECO-92] - Symbol of the Pan American Games held in Rio de Janeiro in July 2007. - GRIO, created in Rio de Janeiro in 1986, with the merger of the Contadora Group (Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela and Panam) and the Support Group (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Peru) analyze and propose solutions for war-torn Central America - State of Rio de Janeiro - Regio Militar (Military Region, Brazilian Army term) - State of Rio Grande do Norte - State of Rondnia



RODOANEL Anel Rodovirio Metropolitano de So Paulo (circumvential highway bypass around metro SP area) RP RPK they fly. RR RS RSF - Representao Proporcional (Proportional Representation, Brazil uses open list PR) - the number of paying passengers times the number of kilometers - State of Roraima - State of Rio Grande do Sul - Reporters sans Frontires (Reporters without Boundaries) - Paris-based NGO that publicizes coercion against journalists worldwide & defends freedom of the press - Raposa Serra do Sol Indian reservation in the State of Roraima - Rdio Televiso Portuguesa (Portuguese Radio and TV Network) - Sociedade Annima (firm with public share holders) - Secretaria de Assuntos Estratgicos (secretariat for strategic affairs, replaced SNI in 1990) - School of Advanced International Studies - Washington branch of the Johns Hopkins University


Sanguessugas - Deputados acusados de participar do esquema de distribuio de ambulncias, escandalo explodiu em meados de 2006 (literally blood suckers, deputies accused of participation in the Ambulance distribution scandal in mid-2006 SBDC SBPC SBT - Sistema Brasileiro de Defesa da Concorrncia (Brazilian System for Defense of Competition) - Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Cincia (Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science) - Sistema Brasileiro de Televiso (Brazilian TV System, owned by Silvio Santos)



- State of Santa Catarina - Servio Central de Proteo de Crdito (bad check, non-payment, dead beat reference service) - Secretaria de Direito Econmico (Finance Ministry, Secretariat of Economic Rights, consumer rights watchdog, oversight on economic competion) - Social Democracia Sindical (labor union central linked to PSDB) - State of Sergipe - Fundao Sistema Estadual de Anlise de Dados (SP) (organizes, interprets, and publishes demographic and socio-economic data, collects and publishes unemployment data with DIESSE - Servio Brasileiro de Apoio s Micro e Pequenas Empresas (similar to the US Small Business Adminisration-SBA) - Overnight express postal service (by ECT) - Sistema Especial de Liquidao e Custdia (basic interest rate set by Copom, every 6 weeks) - Servio Nacional de Aprendizagem Comercial (national training service for retail sales) - Servio Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (National Industrial Arts Training Program) - Secretaria Nacional de Segurana Pblica (at Justice Ministry) (Minisry of Justice, National Secretariat for Public Safety - Survey research firm in Belo Horizonte, MG - does polls for CNT - Secretaria do Partrimnio Histrico e Artstico Nacional (National Secretariat for Historical Preservation) - Secretaria de Planejamento MPOG (Planning Secretariat)

SDS SE Seade

Sebrae Sedex Selic

Senac Senai SENASP Sensus Sephan Seplan


Seppir SERASA Serpro

- Secretaria Especial de Promoo das Polticas de Igualdade Racial (Special Secretariat for Promotion of Racial Equality Policies) - cabinet-level unit created by Pres. Lula in 2003 - Brazilian credit analysis service, acquired by Dublin-based Experian Group PLC in 2007 - Servio Federal de Processamento de Dados (Federal Data Processing Service) - Senado Federal (Federal Senate) - Sistema Financeiro de Habitao (incio em 1964) (federal housing mortgage system, via CEF, began in 1964)


- Sistema Geral de Preferncias (GSP-Generalized System of Preferences) - facilitates access of emerging market exports to developed nations SHV - Steenkolen Handels-Vereeniging] Holdings N.V. was created in the Netherlands in 1896 via a merger of eight large coal trading family firms. In Brazil, SHV controls Makro, Minasgs and Supergasbras. SIAFI SICA SIDA Sinduscon SINE Sinopec - Sistema Integrado de Administao Financeira (do Governo Federal) (Integrated System of Financial Administration (of he Federal Government) - Sistema de Integrao Centro-americano (Central American Integration System) - Sindrome de Imunodeficincia Adquerida (AIDS) - Sindicato da Indstria de Construo Civil do Estado de So Paulo (Assoc. of the Civil Construction Industry in the State of SP) - Sistema Nacional de Emprego (job placement service, Labor Ministry) - Chinese petroleum firm

SIPAN- Sistema de Proteo Amaznica SIVAN - Sistema de Proteo Amaznica (radar surveilence system for the Amazon Region)



- Sistema de Vigilncia Orinoco e Amaznico (radar surveilence system for Orinoco and Amazon rivers) - Sistema Nacional de Debntures (part of the CETIP system, registers all debentures in circulation) - Sindicato Nacional de Empresas Areas (National Syndicate of Airline Firms) - Servio Nacional de Informaes (National Information Service, replaced by SAE and later by ABIn) - School of the Americas located in the Panama Canal Zone - US military training school for Latin American officers - after 1999, the SOA was transferred to Fort Benning, GA and in 2001 renamed the Western hemisphere Inst. for Security Cooperation (WHINSEC) - Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos de Empresas Transnacionais e da Globalizao Econmica (Private group that studies the role of transnationals in globalization)


SOMA- Sociedade Operadora de Mercado de Acesso (over the counter stock market operators) SRF SP S&P SPC SSM STF STJ - Secretaria da Receita Federal (Federal Tax Service) - State of So Paulo - Standard & Poors HQ in New York (stock market and sovereign risk evaluation agency) - Servio de Proteo de Crdito (credit protection service for retail sales) - Special safeguard mechanism (term in WTO negotiations) - Supremo Tribunal Federal (Supreme Court) - Superior Tribunal de Justia (Highest Federal Appeals Court)



- Superior Tribunal Militar (Superior Military Court) - Secretaria do Tesouro Nacional (Federal Treasury) - Modern port facility in Recife, PE - Sociedade dos Usurios de Computadores e Equipamentos Subsidirios (private society for computer users) - Superintendncia do Desenvolvimento da Amaznia (Development Agency for hte Amazon Region) - Superintendncia do Desenvolvimento do Nordeste (Development Agency for the Northeast Region)

SUDHEVEA Superintendncia de Desenvolvimento da Borracha (Federal program for development of rubber plantations) Suframa Sukhoi Supar Suplente - Superintendncia da Zona de Livre Comrcio de Manaus (Amazon Free Trade Zone in Manaus) - Modern Russia jet fighter plane Sukhoi-35 - Subchefia de Assuntos Parlamentares (Presidents Congressional Relations Office) - alternate who [temporarily or permanently] assumes seat when Senator or Deputy vacates office -- a Senators suplente is elected on same ticket, a deputys suplente is the next candidate on the PR open list - Sistema nico de Sade (Single, unified Health System) - Sport Utility Vehicle - Sector Wide Approach (Abordagem Setorial Ampla) - Sovereign Wealth Fund - US computer chip manufacturer - Technical Assistance Loan



(Emprstimo de Assistncia Tcnica) TAM TAP TBF TCA TCEs TCU TDA TDMA TEC TED Telebrs - Transportes Areos Marlia (one of Brazils leading airlines) - Transportes Areos Portugueses (Portugals flagship airline) - Taxa Bsica Financeira (basic financial rate, with no reduction clause, like the TR - Tratado de Cooperao Amaznica (Amazon Cooperation Treaty) - Tribunais de Contas Estaduais (state level accounting courts) - Tribunal de Contas da Unio (federal accounting court, external control) - Ttulos da Dvida Agrria (bonds used in land expropriations, considered rotten paper - Time Division Multiple Access (cell phone system that permits multiple users) - Tarifa Externa Comun (common external tarrif) - Technology, Entertainment & Design - Telecomunicaes Brasileiras S.A. (former Brazilian telecommunications state enterprise) privatized in 1998 - Retirement fund for Telebrs and telecommunications employees - Singapore Sovereign Wealth Fund - Tribunal Electoral Paraguayo (Paraguays Election Court) - Transparency International HQ in Berlin - Tratado Interamericano de Assistncia Recproca

Telos Temasek TEP TI TIAR


(Inter-American Mutual Assistance Treaty) TIFA - Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (a trade pact which establishes a framework for expanding trade and resloving outstanding disputes) - Telecom Italia Mobile (Brazilian cell phone operator, owned by Telecom Italia) - Joaquim Jos da Silva Xavier, martyr of Brazilian independence, (captured and excecuted by Portuguese colonial administration in 1792) - Tribunal de Justia (State Supreme Court) - Taxa de Juros de Longo Prazo (long-term interest rate, used by BNDES for development loans) Tratado de No Proliferao (NPT-Non-Proliferation Treaty) - State of Tocantins - Taxa Referencial de Juros (created by the Collor Plan II in 1991, currently used as a monthly and daily rate for several types of investments) - Tractebel Energia S.A. (Suez-Tractebel responsible for 20% of electricity generated in Brazil, HQ in Santa Catarina) - Founded as Sadia Transportes Areas in 1955, - with an IPO in 1973 Transbrasil S.A. (major Brazilian airline, began in 1955, bankrupt in 2001) - Tribunal Regional Eleitoral (regional electoral courts in each state) - Tribunal Regional Federal (Regional Federal Court) - Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectural Property Rights (unit within the WTO) - Tribunal Regional do Trabalho






(Regional Labor Court) TSE TST Tucano Tucuru Tupi UBES UBS UDN UDR UE UERJ - Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (Superior Election Court) - Tribunal Superior do Trabalho (Superior Labor Court) - the toucan bird, symbol of the PSDB - large hydro electric installation on the Tocantins River in Par - large deep-water, pre-salt oil field southeast of So Paulo - Unio Brasileira de Estudantes Secudrios (National high-school student assoc.) UBS AG, Union of Swiss Banks, after merger with Swiss Bank Corp. in 1998. - Unio Democrtica Nacional (National Democratic Union, political party, 1945-1965) - Unio Democrtica Ruralista (Democratic Ruralist Union land owners who combat MST) - Unio Europia (European Union) - Universidade Estadual de Rio de Janeiro (state university of RJ)

UFABC - Federal University of ABC (region), HQ in Santo Andr, SP UFAC - Federal University of Acre UFAL - Federal University of Alagoas UFAM- Federal University of Amazonas UFAP - Federal University of Amap UFBA - Federal University of Bahia UFCE - Federal University of Cear UFGO - Federal University of Alagoas UFERSA - Federal University of the Semi-Arid Region UFES - Federal University of Esprito Santo UFF - Federal University Fluminense (Niteroi) UFGO - Federal University of Gois UFJF - Federal University of Juiz de Fora( MG) UFLA - Federal University of Lavras (MG)


UFMA- Federal University of Maranho UFMG - Federal University of Minas Gerais UFMS - Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul UFMT - Federal University of Mato Grosso UFOP - Federal University of Ouro Preto (MG) UFPA - Federal University of Par UFPB - Federal University of Paraiba UFPE - Federal University of Pernambuco UFPel - Federal University of Pelotas (RS) UFPI - Federal University of Piau UFPR - Federal University of Paran UFRGS - Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul UFRJ - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro UFRRJ - Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro UFRN - Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte UFRO - Federal University of Rondnia UFRPE - Federal Rural University of Pernambuco UFRR - Federal University of Roraima UFSC - Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSCar - Federal University of So Carlos (SP) UFSE - Federal University of Sergipe UFSM - Federal University of Santa Maria (RS) UFTO - Federal University of Tocantins UFTM - Federal University of the Tringulo Mineiro (in Uberaba, MG) UFU - Federal University of Uberlndia (MG) UFV - Federal University of Viosa (MG) UnB - University of Braslia UNEF - State University Northern Rio de Janeiro (Campos, RJ) UNESP - University of the State of So Paulo Unicamp - University of Campinas (SP) UNIFAP - Federal University of Amap Unifesp - Federal University of So Paulo (former Escola Paulista de Medicina) UNIR - University of Rondnia Unisinos - Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos So Leopoldo, RS (private univ.) Unifasf - Federal University of the So Francisco Vally USP - University of So Paulo UTFPR - Federal Technical University of Par UIA UJS - Unin Industrial Argentina (Federation of Argentine Industrialists) - Unio da Juventude Socialista linked to PDT (Union of Socialist Youth)

Ultra Group - an industrial group founded in SP by Ernesto Igel with participation of the Monteiro Aranha Group. Includes Ultragaz & Brazilgs, plus Ultracargo & Oxiteno.


In 2007. acquired Petrleo Ipiranga with Petrobrs and Braskem. In 2008, the Grupo Ultra acquired Texaco do Brasil. UNASUL UNCTAD UNDP UNE - Unio das Naes Sul-Americanas (Union of South American Nations) - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Conferncia das Naes Unidas sobre Comrcio e Desenvolvimento) - United Nations Development Programme PNUD Programa das Naes Unidas para o Desenvolvimento - Unio Nacional dos Estudantes, repressed by military in 1964 (National Student Unio, repressed by military in 1964, resuscitated in 1979) - United Nations Environment Programme PNUMA Programa das Naes Unidas para o Meio Ambiente - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Oorganization - Universidade do Estado de So Paulo (multi-campus SP state university system) USP and Unicamp are separate units - Unio das Indstrias de Cana de Aucar (Union of Sugar Cane Industries) - United Nations Childrens Fund (Fundo das Naes Unidas para a Infncia) - UN Research Inst. for Social Development - United Nations Security Council - Unio Parlamentar Interestadual (Unio of State Legislatures) - Unidade Real de Valor (daily currency index rate for prices and salaries used during the pre-Real period, Feb. 1st July/94) - US Agency for International Development - Unio Socialista Internacional





(International Socialist Union) USIMAR - Usina Siderrgica de Marab (Marab Steel Mill).

USIMINAS - Usinas Sidergicas de Minas Gerais S.A. (steel mill complex in Ipatinga, MG) USTR UTE UTI VASP VARIG VAT Vav VCP Veja Vereadores - US Trade Representative - Unidade termo-eltrica (Thermal electric generating unit combustion engine or via steam turbine) - Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo (ICU-Intensive Care Unit) - Viao Area de So Paulo (major Brazilian airline, founded 1933, bankrupt in 2005 - Viao Area Rio-Grandense S.A. (Brazils former flagship airline, purchased by GOL in 2007) - Value Added Tax (IVA - Imposto de Valor Agregado) - Genival Igncio da Silva (Pres. Lulas oldest brother) - Votorantim Celulose e Papel (Votorantims Cellulose & Paper subsidiary) - weekly news magazine published by the Abril Group - city council members

Verticalizao - Verticalization a concept imposed by the TSE in 2002 & 2006 elections. - presidential coalitions must be replicated (same parties) in state elections Via Campesina militant group of landless rural workers in Latin America Viracopos Vivo Vox Populi - airport located in Campinas, SP - Brazilian cell phone operator, jointly owned by Portugal Telecom and the Spanish Telefnica - survey research firm in Belo Horizonte



- Vertente Socialista, 1945-1950 (Socialist Vertent, merged with ED to form PSB in 1950) - World Competitiveness Yearbook (published by IMD) -- World Intellectual Property Organization HQ in Geneva - Western Hemisphere Inst. for Security Cooperation Ft. Benning, GA - formerly the SOA located in the Panama Canal Zone - Wall Street Journal - World Trade Center in New York (destroyed by terrorist attack on 9/11 2001) - World Trade Indicators published by the World Bank annually www.worldbank.org/wti2008 - World Trade Organization OMC - World Wildlife Fund (Fundo Mundial para a Natureza) - Anglo-Swiss mining firm - Yancimientos Petrolferos Fiscales Bolivianos (Bolivian State Petroleum Enterprise) - Year on Year - Jos Orcrio Miranda dos Santos elected PT governor of Mato Grosso do Sul in 1998 and 2002 - US polling firm - leader of escaped slave community in Palmares, AL, killed by Portuguese slave owners on 20th November 1695 20th November became the Day of Afro-Brazilian Consciousness Braslia, 20 October 2009