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Management: Urine glucose testing Diet Cholesterol consumption should be restricted and limited to 300 mg or less daily.

ly. Increase the amount of fiber to approximately 50 grams per day in their diet. Protein intake can range between 10-15% total energy (0.8-1 g/kg of desirable body weight). Carbohydrates provide 50-60% of total caloric content of the diet. Excessive salt intake is to be avoided. Artificial sweeteners are to be used in moderation. Nutritive sweeteners (sorbital and fructose) should be restricted. Alcohol tends to increase the risk of hypoglycemia in those taking anti-diabetic drugs and should be

particularly avoided in those with lipid abnormalities and patients with neuropathy. Exercise Physical activity promotes weight reduction and improves insulin sensitivity, thus lowering blood glucose levels. Drug Treatment Oral hypoglycaemic drugs (OHD) are considered only after a regimen of dietary treatment combined with exercise has failed to achieve the therapy targets set. Metformin is primarily used in the obese not responding to dietary therapy. Insulin therapy

DIABETES MELLITUS

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease resulting in either insulin resistance or inadequate insulin secretion. What are the classifications of Diabetes Mellitus? Type 1 DM results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Insulindependent diabetes mellitus) Type 2 DM results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) Gestational Diabetes: Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy. Typically, it disappears after delivery, although the condition is associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes later in life.

Signs and Symptoms:


Frequent urination Excessive thirst Unexplained weight loss Extreme hunger Sudden vision changes

How Can I Keep My Blood Glucose at a Healthy Level? Eat your meals and snacks at about the same times each day.

Diagnosis: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia: Fasting plasma glucose level 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL). Plasma glucose 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) two hours after a 75gm oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test. Symptoms of hyperglycemia and casual plasma glucose 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) 6.5%.

Take your medicines at the same times each day.

Exercise at about the same times each day.