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Chemistry 3rd Quarter I. Concentrations of Solutions a. Mass Percent of Solute and Mass Percent of Solvent concentration= b.

Parts per Million c. Freezing Point Depression ppm= x106 II. Colligative Properties a. Vapor Pressure Lowering

Psolu=x solute Psolv


b. Boling Point Elevation

Tb=Tb(solution)-Tb(solvent)=kbm

Tf(solution)= Tf (solvent)-

Tf

c. Volume percent of solute and Volume percent of solvent volume percent= d. Proof number x100

d. Osmotic Pressure = MRT where M= molar concentration R= ideal gas constant T= temperature on Kelvins scale III. Types of Chemical Reactions/Equations A. Combination/Synthesis Reactions A+BAB

e. Molarity M=
where M = molarity, mol/L n= num of moles of solute, mol V=Volume of solution, L

a. metal + oxygen metal oxide b. nonmetal + oxygen nonmetal oxide c. metal + nonmetal salt d. metal oxide +water base (metal hydroxide) e. nonmetal oxide+ water oxy-acid B. Decomposition Reaction AB A+B a. metal oxide metal oxide metal chloride+oxygen metal oxide lower oxide + oxygen b. Carbonates and Bicarbonates carbonate metal oxide + carbon dioxide bicarbonate carbonate + water + CO2

f. Molality m=
where m= molality, mol/kg

g. Normality Normality=(
)( )

c. Miscellaneous carbonate metal chloride + oxygen nitrate nitrite +oxygen peroxide water+oxygen C. Single Replacement Reaction a. metal + acid hydrogen + salt b. metal + water hydrogen + metal hydroxide/ metal oxide c. metal + salt metal + salt d. halogen+ halogen salt halogen + halogen salt D. Double Replacement Reaction a. Neutralization Reaction acid+base salt + hydrogen b. Relase of Heat and Production of Water Molecule metal oxide+acid salt + water IV. Reactivity Series of Metals and Nonmetals List of metals arranged in decreasing order of reactivity. Metals Halogens Li Mn Pb Fluorine (F) K Zn H2 Chlorine(Cl) Ba Cr Cu Bromine (Br) Ca Fe Ag Iodine (I) Na Co Hg Mg Ni Pt Al Sn Au Standards and Constants
Standard Pressure Standard Temperature Standard Volume Gas Constant 1 atm 273 K 22.4 L 0.821

V. Gas Laws Boyles Laws Charles Law Gay-Lussacs Law Avogadros Law Daltons Law of Partial Pressures Combined Gas Law Ideal Gas Law

P1V1=P2V2

= = =
Ptotal=P1++Pn

=
PV= nRT

VI. Properties of Common Solvents Solvent Normal Kb Normal -1 Boiling (cm ) Freezin Point g Point (c at (c) 1atm) Acetic Acid 117.9 3.07 16.604 (C2H4O2) Benzene 80.10 2.53 5.50 (C6H6) Carbon 76.54 5.03 -22.99 Tetrachlorid e (CCl4) Chloroform 61.22 3.63 -63.5 (CHCl3) Ethanol 78.5 1.22 -117.3 (C2H6O) Phenol 181.75 3.56 43 (C6H6O) Water (H2O) 100 0.512 0.000

KG -1 (cm )

3.90 4.90 2.98

4.68 0.199 7.40 1.86