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g]kfnsf] kl/j]zdf eflifs ;fd|fHojfb

(Linguistic Imperialism in the Context of Nepal)


d, d]/f], xfdL / xfd|f klxrfgsf w/f]x/x efiff, ;+:s[lt, e]ife'iff, rfnrng,
/Lltl/jfh tyf d"NodfGotf xg\ . oL ;Dk"0f{ kIfx? Ps cfk;df lgtfGt cGt;{DalGwt
5g\ . ;d[4 ;+:s[lt, e]ife'iff, rfnrng, /Lltl/jfh tyf d"NodfGotfx?sf] ;du| :j?k
g} ;d[4 ;dfh xf] . efiff ;dfhdf JofKt ;Dk"0f{ rfnrng, /Lltl/jfh, d"NodfGotf,
lqmofsnfksf ;fy} ljZjf;sf] cfk;L ;~rf/sf] dfWod xf] . eflifs ljsf;;u
kl/:s[t ;dfhsf] klxrfg hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . h:t} c+u|]hL, k|m]Gr, rfO{lgh, hfkflgh
h:tf ljsl;t efiffx?n] tL /fi6sf pRr ;d[l4nfO{ k|:6\ofpb5g\ .
{;fd|fHojfb sf] cjwf/0ff ;fdfGo?kdf cfly{s tyf /fhgLlts If]qx?df a9L k|of]u
ul/Psf] kfOG5 . {;fd|fHojfbsf] cy{ s'g} klg Pp6f kIfn] csf]{ kIfdfly Ps5q
cflwkTo jf k|efj hdfpg' xf] . (The dominance of one phenomenon
over others) s'g} zlQmzfnL /fi6n] /fhg}ltscfly{s;F+:s[lts ?kdf cGo
/fi6nfO{ cfgf] cflwkTo jf k|efjdf /fVg' /fhg}ltscfly{s;f+:s[lts ;fd|fHojfb
xf] .
s'g} Ps efiffn] cGo ax';+Vos ;d'bfodfly hj/h:t k|e'Tj hdfpg'' eflifs
;fd|fHojfb xf] . hf] ljsl;t / k|efjzfnL ;dfh jf /fi6x?sf] cGo ljsf;zLn
ax'efifL ;dfh jf /fi6x?df ePsf Psnf}6L eflifs cflwkTo;u ;DalGwt 5 . (The
transfer of a dominant language to other peoples) ljZj kl/j]zdf
c+u|]hL efiffsf] k|of]un] cGo efiffx?df, g]kfndf v;g]kfnL efiffn] cGo ax';+Vos
;d'bfodfly hdfPsf] k|e'Tj cflb eflifs ;fd|fHojfbsf] HjnGt pbfx/0fx? x'g\ .
eflifs ;fd|fHojfbsf] l;4fGt ;g\ !(() sf] ;'?af6 rrf{df cfPsf] kfOG5 . o;sf]
;zQm k|of]u !((@ df /f]j6{ lkmlnk;g (Robert Philipson) sf] k|Voft
lstfj'Linguistic Imperialism' sf] k|sfzgkl5 ePsf] xf] .
lkmlnk;gsf] cg';f/ eflifs ;fd|fHojfb cGo ;fdflhs ;fd|fHojfbx? h:t} cfly{s
;fd|fHojfb, /fhg}lts ;fd|fHojfb, ;f+s[lts ;fd|fHojfb cflbsf nflu klxnf] cfwf/
xf] . cyf{t ljZjdf eflifs ;fd|fHojfbsf] lj:tf/kl5 dfq /fhg}lts tyf cGo

;fd|fHojfbx? cl:tjdf cfpg ;Sb5 . ("Linguistic imperialism is


defined as the power and status of the dominant language.
Linguistic imperialism is taken as the prerequisite to other social
imperialisms, such as economic imperialism, political
imperialism and cultural imperialism and so on." Philipson, R.
1992)
efiff s'g} klg JolQm tyf /fi6sf] zlQm, ;Ddfg, cfbz{ tyf k|lti7fsf] ljifo xf] .
efiff JolQm tyf /fi6sf] klxrfg xf] . JolQmn] k|of]u ug{] efiffn] p;sf] ;fdflhs,
cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts tyf /fhg}lts cflb cj:yfx?sf klxrfg u/fpb5g\ . dfS;{jfbL
wf/0ffg';f/ eflifs ;fd|fHojfbL ;f]rn] efiffxdF lje]bsf] l;h{gf ub{5 . ljsl;t
tyf k|efjzfnL efifLxn] ax';+Vos ;dfhdf cfgf] efiff k|of]u ug{ afWo agfp5g\ .
h:t} g]kfndf g]kfnL efiff af]Ng jf k|of]u ug{' kg{] afWotf eflifs ;fd|fHojfbsf]
pbfx/0f xf] . h;sf] kmn:j?k g]kfndf af]lng] w]/} efiffx? nf]k x'g] cj:yfdf
k'lu;s]sf 5g\ .
ljutsf] Pp6f efiff Pp6f b]z gLlt cfh klg g]kfnL dft[efifLzfifs ju{x?sf
nflu plQs} lk|o 5 . of] g]kfnsf] eflifs ljljwtfsf] 7Ls ljkl/t 5 . eflifs
ljljwtf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] nflu qfzsf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . ljljwtfnfO{ ljv08gsf]
kl/efiff lbP/ ;o eGbf a9L efiffx v;g]kfnL efiff nfb\g' eflifs ;fd|fHojfbsf]
k/fsfi6 xf] . (One nation-one language of the past is still dear to
the present ruler class of Nepal. The wrong concept that if there
are many languages in the nation, it becomes weak is still
believed by many Nepalese particularly by Nepali native
speakers.) efifflj1fgsf] zAbdf o:tf] gLltn] g]kfnL efiffnfO{ ax';+Vos efiffx?sf]
xTof/fefiff (killer-language) dfq agfpg] 5 . efiff;u} wd{, ;+:s[lt, k/Dk/f,
/xg;xg, /Lltl/jh, rfnrng cflb kIfx k|ToIf hf]l8Psf] x'G5 . o:tf ljljwtf
af]s]sf] g]kfnL ;dfhdf ;Dk"0f{ efiffxnfO{ pko'Qm ;Daf]wg u/]/ g]kfnnfO{ ;d[4
agfpg ;lsG5 . au}rfdf yl/yl/sf km"nxn] h;/L x/fe/f kfb{5, ToxL xf] efiff
klg .
ljfg\ af]8]6n] eg]sf 5g\, Pp6} b]zdf s]xL ju{sf dflg;x ;Dk"0f{ z}lIfs tyf
j}1flgs k|fljlwxsf] pknAwtf x'g', t/ csf]{tkm{ 7"nf] ;+Vofdf /x]sf hgtfx Pp6f

cIf/j0f{ ljgf afRg'n] ;fdflhs zflGt s]jn d[ut[i0ff dfq ;fljt x'G5 ("As
long as in the same nation some people have all the technical
advantages of education and science while others in large
number exist without even an alphabet, social peace will be but
mocking mirage." - Bodet, 2002) . zflGtk"0f{ Pj+ Goflos ;dfhsf] nflu
eflifs ljsf;df Gofof]lrt Joj:yf x'g h?/L 5 . lje]bk"0f{ eflifs gLltn] ;dfhnfO{
;xL dfu{bz{g ug{ ;Sb}g .
g]kfnsf] Oltxf;nfO{ x]g{] xf] eg], rfN;{; Dofs8f]pun (Charles McDougal,
1979) n] pNn]v u/]g';f/, k[YjLgf/fo0f zfxsf] g]kfn PsLs/0f eGbf cl3 g]kfndf
ljleGg efiffxsf Gofof]lrt ljsf; ePsf] kfOG5 . To;} ;dolt/ ls/ftL efiffx?
h:t} s'n', y'n', rflDn, afGtfjf, === cflbsf ;fy} du/, u'?, g]jf/, === h:tf
efiffx w]/} ljsl;t lyP eGg] tYo klg kfOG5 . cof{n / hf]zL eG5g\, uf]vf{efiff g]kfnL_ clxn];Dd km}ln;s]sf] 5}g . c;Eo, hnL efifLx? h:t} g]jf/, du/, u'?,
lnDa", ;'g'jf/, bg'jf/ / yf? cflb h:tf efiffx? clxn];Dd klg k|of]u x'b} cfO/x]sf
5g\ . ha;Dd uf]vf{efiff -g]kfnL_ n] cGo c;Eo, hnL efiffx k5fl8 kfb{}g,
Toltv]/;Dd g]kfnL efiffsf] g t ljsf; g} x'g ;S5, g t d'Vo efiff g} aGg ;S5
. ("Gorkha bhasa (Nepali) is not widespread yet. The languages
of the barbarians such as Newar, Magar, Gurung, Limbu,
Sunuwar, Danuwar and Thahru, etc are still in use. Until and
unless Gorkha bhasa does not push other barbarian languages
out, it can neither develop nor become the chief language." Aryal and Joshi, 1917)
g]kfn PsLs/0fkl5 Pp6f b]zPp6f efiffsf] kl/sNkgf u/L v;g]kfnL efiff ;a}sf
nflu afWosf/L agfOof] . o; gLltsf] cjnDag /f0ff zf;gsfn -!)$ jif{_,
k|hftGqk|flKt -lj=;+= @))& ;fn_ x'b} lgb{nLo k~rfotL zf;g Joj:yf -@)!& b]lv
@)$^ ;fn_] cflbn] klg lg/Gt/ ul/g} /x] . o;/L nueu tLg ztfAbL nfdf]
3f]/k]nfgdf k/]sf ax';+Vos efiffxdWo] s]xL efiffx k"0f{ ?kdf nf]k eO{ ;Sof] /
s]xL nf]k x'g] qmddf cem} klg 5g\ . of] eflifs ;fd|fHojfbsf] HjnGt pbfx/0f xf] .
@)$^ ;fnsf] hgcfGbf]ngaf6 k|fKt ax'bnLo Joj:yfsf] Dof08]6 cg';f/ @)$&
;fndf hf/L ul/Psf] g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf
jwfg ;j{k|yd b]jgfu/L lnlk ePsf] g]kfnL
efiffnfO{ g]kfnsf] /fi6efiff tyf sfo{nloo efiffsf]
efiff ?kdf ;fy} ljleGg ;d'bfox?df

af]lng] cGo ;Dk"0f{ efiffx?nfO{ /fli6o efiffsf]


efiff ?kdf pNn]v ul/Psf] kfOG5 .
o;nfO{ cGtl/d ;+ljwfg @)^# df klg lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] kfOG5 . (The
constitution of Nepal (1990) declared Nepali with Devanagari
script as the national and the official language of the country and
all other languages used in different communities as the
'language of the nation' whatever that means.)
clxn] dfq[efiffdf k|fylds lzIff lbg] Joj:yf ;+ljwfgdf pNn]v eP tfklg cem;Dd
k"0f{ ?kdf cjnDjg ul/Psf] kfOb}g . xfn ;+3Lo /fHo;+/rgfsf] rsf{] ax;;u} eflifs
d'2f klg Aofks ?kdf pl7/x]sf 5g\ . o;n] s]xL eflifs ljsf;sf] lhhLljiff cjZo
af]s]sf] kfOG5 tyflk eflifs ljsf;sf nflu efiffnfO{ z}lIfs kf7\oqmddf ;Lldt
gu/fO{ To;nfO{ sfdsfhsf] efiff tyf sfo{noLo efiffsf] ?kdf ;d]t :yfg
lbOg'kb{5, k|of]udf NofOg' kb{5 . olb To;f] gul/Pdf ;+:s[t efiffs} xfn t gxf]nf <
cyf{t ;+:s[t ljZjljBfnodf ;+:s[t efiffd} lzIff lbg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 t/ ;+:s[t
efiff sfo{noLo sfdsfhdf k|of]u gx'bf ;+:s[t efiffnfO{ arfO/fVg g;lsPsf] oyfy{
Ho"bf] 5 . To:t} xf] eg] cGo dft[efiffx? klg ;+:s[t h:t} nf]kf]Gd'v clg nf]k eP/
hfg] t xf]Og < cfzf u/f}, cfpb} u/]sf] g]kfnsf] u0ftflGqs gof ;+ljwfgdf ;a}
efiffx?sf] Gofof]lrt (Equity) Joj:yf / tL efiffxsf] ljsf;sf lglDt ;xL
efiffgLlt NofO{ kxnufdL sbd rflnPdf pQm sbd eflifs ljsf;df sf]z]9'f ;fljt
x'g] ;'lglZrt 5 .
lzIffljb tyf efiffljb 8]le8 lqm:6nn] eg] h:t} s'g} efiff nf]k eP/ hfg'sf] cy{ Tof]
efiffefifLxsf] cGTo dfq geO{ ltgLxsf cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts tyf ;Dk"0f{
;Eotf g} ;du| x/fpg' xf] . oL ;Dk"0f{ kIfx? nf]k x'bf tL efiffefifLx?;u ePsf
ljljw ;sf/fTds kIfxsf] :jtM cj;fg x'g k'Ub5 / o;n] ;dfhdf s}of}
gsf/fTds k|efj kfb{5 . dfx'/Lsf] nf]k x'bf h;/L jftfj/0fLo kfl/l:ylts k4ltdf
7"nf] c;/ kb{5, Tof] eGbf ljs/fn ;fdflhs ;d:of eflifs nf]kn] lgDTofpb5
lsgeg] lj?jfx?sf cfk;L ;dfudsf] Ps dxTjk"0f{ dfWod dfx'/L] xf] eg] ;fdflhs
cGt{lqmofsf] Psdfq dfWod efiff xf] . dfx'/L ljgf gof kmnkm"n, lj?jf cflbsf]
;Dej x'Gg, To:t} efiff lagf dfgjLo efjgf, d"NodfGotf, OR5fcfsf+Iff tyf
cfjZostfx?sf cfk;df ;6f;f6 tyf kl/k'lt{ x'b}g . ;a} efiffx?n] ;dfhdf a/fa/,
plts} dxj / e"ldsf /fVb5g\ . efiffx?n] a9L36Lsf] dxj /fVb}gg\ . To;}n] t
eg]sf 5g\ M s'g} klg efiffn] c?sf] efiffsf] jf:tljs :j?k b]vfpg ;Sb}g, o;y{
k|To]s efiffsf] cfk\mgf] 5'} ;+;f/klxrfg x'G5 . ("No language is an exact

map of any other; each is, in a sense, its own world." Sampat,
P. 2001)
To;}u/L hj PsfTds ;+:s[ltn] ;+;f/el/ h/f uf8\5, cGo xhf/f} dfgj efiffx?
nf]k x'g yfNb5g\ . ("As cultural homogeneity spreads over the
Earth, thousands of human languages are headed for extension."
ibid)
ctM efiff ljgf dfgj ;Eotfsf] kl/sNkgf ug'{ s]jn cfO;\Nof08df ;k{sf] sNkgf
ug{' h:t} xf] . To;}n] eflifs ljsf;sf nflu ;fd|fHojfbL ;f]+raf6 d'Qm eP/ ;Dk"0f{
efiffx?sf] ;d'lrt ljsf;sf nflu ;a} ldn]/ cufl8 a9\g'sf] ljsNk 5}g .