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1. Introduction This document outlines the way BDC will implement Cash on Delivery (COD) aid program, which will bring attention to secondary school learning and examination outcomes in Bumbuli. Based on our research, the Bumbuli constituency is in a desperate position to gain support for its Secondary Education Sector. Bumbuli Development Corporation (BDC) will implement a three-year pilot COD program, which will make payments based on the number of students who pass the Form IV National Examinations. BDC aims to improve learning outcomes in the Bumbuli constituency through this incentive-based program. 2. Rationale COD is a relatively new form of aid where funders pay for measurable progress on specific outcomes. It links payment directly to a specific outcome giving the recipient an incentive to increase their power to achieve progress.1 The rationale behind COD, originally pioneered by the Center for Global Development in Washington, centers on a concern that development work must be assessed on its impact. The approach represents a shift away from both tracking the energies and resources that agencies invest in aid inputs, and also the activities and facilities it has produced outputs. Instead it aims to focus on how the lives of poor people have been transformed impact.2 We do not pretend that COD Aid is the solution for all problems in the education system but believe it holds enough promise to be worth trying, adapting, and assessing. 3. Background The Tanzanian government gives high budget priority to the education sector. The total budget for the education sector for 2011/12 is 2,283 billion Shillings, which is an increase of 11.68% from 2,045.4 billion Shillings allocated in 2010/2011.3 However, the allocation and use of public education funds is still not ideal for achieving desirable learning outcomes. Fig. 014 shows the budget allocation to the education sector and the pass rate in form IV examinations in Tanzania. It shows how the education budget increases as the pass rate continues to decline. Table 01 shows the performance of Form IV students in 17 Secondary Schools in Bumbuli based on 2011 CSEE results. The 2011 NECTA results further confirmation that the number of students who pass the Form IV National examinations (i.e. get Division I-III) in Bumbuli is alarmingly low. In September 2011, BDC commissioned a comprehensive survey on the learning environment in Bumbuli and found that most schools, teachers, and students in Bumbuli do not have the resources and incentives needed for them to perform as expected. We found that most schools have no electricity (89%) and get their water from a spring (48%). On average, each classroom has 63 students, although the figure varies from 116 students to 31 students per classroom. On average three students sit on each desk. It was reported that 93% of schools receiving capitation grant, although 67 % claimed the
1 2 3 4

Centre for Global Development Catholic Overseas Development Agency COD briefing Ministry of Finance, Government budget for financial year 2011/2012 Graph generated using data from MoE

grants were delayed for over 2 months. On average, each of the school that provided financial data spent Tsh. 5,268 per student in 2010 academic year. Additionally, the survey revealed that only 71% on teachers were found in school, of which only 19% were actually in class. The survey indicated that teachers received their salaries regularly and on time. An average net salary for a Bumbuli teacher is 395,000 minus debt repayment of 74,000 monthly. Most indicated a secondary economic activity (67%), mainly agriculture (90%). Most (98%) claim not involved in school budgetary process. The Average income for rural Tanzania (Bumbuli inclusive) is Tshs. 152,000 (HBS, 2010). While 89% of students indicate that they participate in economic activities at home, 70% still manage to have ample time to finish homework, while 34% indicate that they had missed school in the last month to help at home. BDC-COD wants to show that money can be allocated appropriately to impact the quality of education as measured by the performance of students. Fig.1 Budgetary allocation to education sector and pass rate in form IV examination

Table 1: 2011 CSEE Results Bumbuli Constituency


Regional Rank (out of 192 schools) 54 89 45 120 48 31 34 11 91 46 150 30 167 86 16 137 49

Country Rank (out of 3108 schools) 2016 2507 1802 2843 1816 1318 1496 522 2543 1807 2970 1242 3031 2466 751 2919 1819

2011 FORM IV 46 83 76 64 76 122 50 36 104 72 51 106 59 65 128 65 74 1327 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Division I 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4

Division II 2 4 1 0 0 6 0 0 2 5 0 7 1 0 7 0 4

Division III

Failed 44 79 74 64 66 115 50 36 101 67 51 99 58 65 120 65 74 1274


The COD for Bumbuli Secondary Schools program will involve an agreement between BDC, Bumbuli Secondary Schools and the Education Council in Bumbuli to pay a fixed total amount of $100 for each student who passes the Form IV examinations with Division I-III. COD payments will be made after verification of the Form IV national examination outcomes. The funds will be disbursed to the Education Council, Secondary Schools, and their teachers and students. These funds will be earmarked for the academic needs of the schools as prioritized by School Boards. 5. Goal: The principal goal of the COD program for Bumbuli Secondary Schools is to improve Learning. 5.1 Unit of Measurement: The unit of measurement is the number of students passing exams with pass marks between Division I and III. 5.2 Project Beneficiaries: For each student that passes the examinations at the end of Form IV, the BDC-COD program will pay the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Teachers: US$ 38 (approx. Tsh 60,040/=) for each student who passes the exams Students: US$ 32 (approx. Tsh 50,500/=) to each student who passes the exams Schools: US$ 20 (approx. Tsh 31,600/=) for each student who passes the exams Council: US$ 10 (approx. Tsh 15,800/=) for each student who passes the exams5

6. Measurements and Verification: The examination data from 2011 will provide an initial baseline and the baseline will be adjusted annually with performance for one year becoming the baseline for the next years payments. The indicator for this outcome will be the number of students who pass Form IV examination with Division I-III. To maintain the outcome, measures will be reported annually by the schools and council. The contract, outcomes, and other info will be made fully public to enhance accountability of donors and recipients.

Table 2: Logical Framework: COD for Bumbuli Secondary Schools

USD-TZS Exchange Rate of 1580

Project Structure Goal Improve learning Purpose Increased number of students passing Form IV examinations

Objective Verifiable Indicators (OVIs)

Means of Verification


Increase percentage of students passing examinations Increase number of students passing with division I-III to 20% in 2013 Increase number of students passing with division I-III to 50% in 2014 Increase % of students who feel motivated to learn Increase % of teacher who feel motivated to teach Increase teacher attendance Increase student attendance Increase number of Secondary teachers from 128 in 2011 to 200 in 2014 Reduce the teacher-student ratio in secondary schools from 1:13 in 2011 to 1:10 in 2014 Reduced turndown by new teachers

Periodic Uwezo tests NECTA CSSE results NECTA CSSE results

Output 1. Motivate students and teachers

Monitoring and Evaluation 2013 and 2014 Attendance rate Graduation rate

CSEE examinations are an adequate measure of the students learning Teachers follow legit methods of teaching Schools provide the necessary resources Secondary School Curriculum is adequate to achieve examination pass marks

Output 2. Attract teaching staff to Bumbuli

Bumbuli Education Council Teachers Internal Assessments

Activities for output 1.

1.1 1.2

Give a payment of Tsh. 50,500/= to each student who passes Form IV exams with division I-III

Give payment of Tsh. 60,000/= to teachers for each student that passes Form IV examinations 1.3 Revive School Boards Activities for output 2. 1.1 Produce and publish a report on COD-Bumbuli pilot

7. Sustainability For the sustainability of the program, BDC will have to create a strong evaluation and feedback system, which will act as a tool for measuring accountability, and maintaining transparency. It is also important to build on local participation and ownership of COD program. This can be achieved by creating a campaign to promote improved education as local investment, and a network of Bumbuli Secondary School Alumni for the COD Fund. Furthermore, BDC will revive and fully utilize the schools boards, which will consist of parents, and teachers. This way the people of Bumbuli will appreciate their own effort to improve their communities.

9. Risks Assessment and Management These risks may affect the programs viability, cost-effectiveness and outcomes. Risk Pressure to cheat in exams Risk Reduction Action

Create/promote a climate of academic integrity: Clear ethical standards, Positive reinforcement, Code of Academic conduct Train teachers Revitalize School Boards, which will identify and prioritize the use of school funds Enforce sanctions against unprofessional conduct Part of the recipients Involve in project design

Misuse of Funds Lack of cooperation from Bumbuli Education council

10. Conclusion In implementing COD, BDC will establish a new relationship between outcomes and the development of the secondary education sector. Focusing on outcomes will give a real meaning to learning. The COD program will also create a source of data for future use and encourage competition and evaluation of schools.