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Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System

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Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
Contents
o. Compressed Air System o_tc5to5t .............................................................................. 6
_. Compressed Air Application ac Characteristics of Compressed Air ....................................... 7
o) Working Air (o ) Energy Air ....................................................................................... 8
o) Active Air .............................................................................................................. 8
o) Process Air ............................................................................................................ 8
o) !ndustrial vacuum ................................................................................................. 8
p. Compressor o_tc5to5t ............................................................................................... 9
p.o Reciprocating Air Compressors ................................................................................. 12
p._ Rotary Air Compressors ........................................................................................... 18
p.p Sliding vane rotary compressors ............................................................................... 21
p.g Centrifugal Air Compressors ..................................................................................... 22
g. Primary ac Secondary Air Receivers ............................................................................... 2+
_. Compressed Air Systems o co`oco_ Auxiliary Component o5t ...................................... 26
_.o !ntercoolers ac After-coolers .................................................................................... 27
_._ Filters .................................................................................................................... 29
_.p Separators ac Drains ............................................................................................. 31
_.g Air Dryers ............................................................................................................... 33
o. Compressor Controls ..................................................................................................... 36
o.o Start f Stop Control ................................................................................................. 37
o._ Loadfunload Control ................................................................................................ 37
o.p Throttling or Nodulation Control ............................................................................... 38
o.g Auto - Dual Control ................................................................................................. 39
o._ variable Displacement Control .................................................................................. 39
o.o variable Speed Drive Control .................................................................................... +0
o.g Nultiple Compressor System Controls ....................................................................... +0
g. Compressed Air System Leak ......................................................................................... +0
g.o Leakage _oco_ oo5o oqoqto ooo_oct .......................................................... +1
g._ Leak Detection ........................................................................................................ +2
o. Air Quality .................................................................................................................... ++
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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_. Code Reference Code Title ............................................................................................ +5
oo. ootoqt ac o_oo5t .................................................................................................... +6
co g. oogo5toc ot_o_oqo_ Utilities System o5tqo Electricity . Natural gas
ac water o _oto c Compressed air o ootoo_o5o (fourth) utility _ocoo oooo`o_oo_
Electricity . Natural gas ac water oOoc5oc compressed air o_ oct_otot ac
o qocgoo5tot utility system _oco_
Compressed air o o5o o` oqg5o5t qc o ocqto5toc og o_ocot_o__oo_
o) aircraft engines o5tcocoo5ctgq (qtgq) oo.
_) Pneumatic powered weapons - Air gun o5t oo
p) Pneumatics . pressurized gases _oc tools o5toc ot_o_gq oo
g) vehicular transportation oo
_) Scuba diving for breathing and to inflate buoyancy devices.
o) Electronic components o5to oqccooto_o5gqoo
(og_ocooto_o5oqccgqo_ocqco_ electronic components o5too )
g) otgO5to5t o ogo o5too (railway braking systems)
o) oo5oo5o5to5t ogo o5to o (road vehicle braking systems)
_) _o to5too5oooco5t cocoo5ctgq (qtgq ) oo- Diesel engine cranking (air-start
systems)
oo) oc5tcg5 ooooqoo5t oo (paintball ammunition propulsion and airsoft ammunition
propulsion)
oo) oo_ocoo5ctoo5 o go5 oc_to5t(Air tools) oo
o_) Electronic components o5t oqcc_octac assemblies oogqo o oocot_o_o_
Nanufacturing plant o5t 5toto 75 o 85 oc Compressed Air o
ot_o__oo_ oogot_o_oq_ooo5 Compressed Air System o5to q_to t 20 o
o5tot 50 cotc otco_ooo5o5c (Energy Saving) _o_o o qco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Compressed Air System ocoo c o`ocoo5 main component o5to5 Compressors. Dryers
. Filters . Air receivers ac Distribution System o _oc_oo_ o5o ooc Compressed Air
System ocooc o`oco_ compoment o5to ootcooo5_oO5to_
Air Compressor Piping and Naterial
1. Stud Fitting
2. Wall Bracket
3. Ball valve
+. vented valve
5. Plug-in Reducer
6. Fixing Clip
7. 1f2" !D (16.5 mm) Pipe
8. Reducing Bracket
9. Equal Pipe-to-Pipe
10. 1-1f2" (+0 mm) Pipe
11. Remote Control Shut-Off valve
12. Equal Tee
13. Pipe-to-Pipe Connector with vent
1+. Pilot Kit
15. 2-1f2" (63 mm) Pipe
16. Nodular Cantilever Bracket
17. Blowgun
18. Hose Reel
19. Nini valve
20. Recoil Tubing
21. Air Distribution Column (+ or 6
port)
22. Automatic Coupler
23. Equal Elbow
2+. Nini-Bracket
25. Braided PvC Hose
26. Reducing Tee
27. +5 Elbow
28. Fixture Canalis
29. End Cap
30. Bracket
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Gauge pressure o o_o5 gauge oooo instrument _oco ct@goo5
o5too oo_
Absolute pressure o o_o5 gauge pressure ac atmospheric pressure ooo`ct@goo5
o5too oo_
Standard pressure temperature (STP) oo_o5 1+.696 Psia 60F (101.33 kPa absolute
15.6C) ooooo_
CNF o o_o5 cubic feet per minute - ocoqc oc compress ooqc oo5 oooo5o
ooo _ocoo5_oO5t_oct_oco_
SCFN o o_o5 standard conditions oc octo o cgqcoo5 cubic feet per minute (CFN
Standard pressure temperature) o o oo_
Dew point ooo ctg ogotogoc o5tcoc @ condense (oooOoo 5t_oct) _oco_ ooq
(temperature)o o oo_
Free Air Delivery Free Air Delivery Free Air Delivery Free Air Delivery
Free air delivery oo_oo@ Compressors o5to cotg_o oo5_ooo go_
Air compressor oco to rate o_ 5m
3
fmin free air o o_o5 Air compressor o
ooocoo`o (inlet) oo 5 m
3
fmin oco_oooo_
Free Air Delivery (FAD) 5t common reference point _ocoooo_ot Air compressor o5to
rating o o_o5oogo_
Free air delivery (FAD) air intake at compressor inlet
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Free air delivery
F 1 =
(F2 x P2 x T1)
(T2 x P1 )
oo5
A machine uses 50 dm3fs of compressed air at 6 bar (absolute pressure). !f the compressed air
is supplied at 35C to the machine what is the FAD for the compressor if ambient air is 30C
and 1 bar pressure.
co gocoo ooo5 compressed air oo5o o5coc oo5toc_oc oo5_oO5to_
Ooo`ooooo o_oo@ Free Air Delivery o oqoqto` oooco_oct (leakage) ac
oq5cooo_ o`oc ot_o_gqoo _o o_oc O_oct o oooo`
o ooo5 oo5 (Total Demand) oo.g SCFN
_o oO5tgq _.o SCFN
ccoo`ct o_.o SCFN
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org)
O o_o5c o_.o SCFN Oo ootqccotgoo5 compressor o oo_
Utilization factor Utilization factor Utilization factor Utilization factor
Utilization factor o o_o5 actual consumption o maximum continuous consumption over 2+
hours _occ5tO5t_oct_oco_
Ut|||zat|un Factur =
Actua| A|r Cunxumpt|un |n 24 Hrx
Max|m|umCunt|nuuux Cunxumpt|un |n 24 Hrx
oo5
Rated compressed air use by a machine is 10 dm3fs. !f the
actual compressed air use is measured to be 260 m 3fday calculate the utilization factor.
Specific power Specific power Specific power Specific power
Specific power o_ compressor ocoto efficiency _oc_ot
electrical input (kW) o free air delivery (FAD) m
3
fs _occ5tO5t_oct_oco_
Spec||c Puwer =
F|ectr|ca| Input Puwer (kW)
Free A|r De||uery (m
3
per Secund)
o oo o. Compressed Air System . Compressed Air System . Compressed Air System . Compressed Air System o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t
o5o ocoo5_oO5too5 oo5 operation oooqo_ compressed air system oco
o_oco_
!ndustrial Sector Uses of Compressed Air !ndustrial Sector Uses of Compressed Air !ndustrial Sector Uses of Compressed Air !ndustrial Sector Uses of Compressed Air
!ndustry !ndustry !ndustry !ndustry Example Compressed Air Uses Example Compressed Air Uses Example Compressed Air Uses Example Compressed Air Uses
Apparel
Conveying clamping tool powering controls and actuators
automated equipment
Automotive Tool powering stamping control and actuators forming conveying
Chemicals Conveying controls and actuators
Food
Dehydration bottling controls and actuators conveying spraying
coatings cleaning vacuum packing
Furniture
Air piston powering tool powering clamping spraying controls and
actuators
General
Nanufacturing
Clamping stamping tool powering and cleaning control and
actuators
Lumber and Wood
Sawing hoisting clamping pressure treatment controls and
actuators
Netals Fabrication
Assembly station powering tool powering controls and actuators
inection molding spraying
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Petroleum Process gas compressing controls and actuators
Primary Netals vacuum melting controls and actuators hoisting
Pulp and Paper Conveying controls and actuators
Rubber and Plastics
Tool powering clamping controls and actuators forming mold press
powering inection molding
Stone Clay and
Glass
Conveying blending mixing controls and actuators glass blowing
and molding cooling
Textiles
Agitating liquids clamping conveying automated equipment
controls and actuators loom et weaving spinning texturizing
Quality Quality Quality Quality Applications Applications Applications Applications
Plant Air Air tools general plant air
!nstrument Air Laboratories paint spraying powder coating climate control
Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process air electronics
Breathing Air
Hospital air systems diving tank refill stations respirators for
cleaning andfor grit blasting
_ __ _. Compressed Air Application . Compressed Air Application . Compressed Air Application . Compressed Air Application ac ac ac ac Characteristics of Compressed Air Characteristics of Compressed Air Characteristics of Compressed Air Characteristics of Compressed Air
Compressed Air o cotcococo_t (Form of Energy)ocoo oqco_ ocoqo
(Speed). cot5t (Power). o oo (Precision) ac ootocto o_o (Safe Handling) o 5to t
oco_cqo ooo_ o to_o o5toc Compressed Air o_ ocoo5ot ac oo5ctot
oco_ Ooo o5to_o5c Compressed Air o o_o_ q_t aco c5tOtqcoct ogoo
o_oo5 application o5toc Compressed Air . Electricity q c Hydraulic oo oooo.
ocoooo ooooto_aco_ Compressed Air oOooogqoo o qocgoo_
o5too5 Electricy ac Hydraulic o Ooc5oc oqo5to_ ooo5 Speed . Reliability .
Naintenance Cost ooc Compressed Air o o_o o ooac Speed . Precision ac Flexibility
co_5to5oo o5to_o5c Compressed Air o coooocqto5t. co g oogo5toc
ogooco oo_
oqoo_ acoo`cto5tc5o coco to_o o_ Compressed Air o_ oooq
q_to_5o5to tooo5oo_o5c Compressed Air O ooogq cotco oo_ oo5
oo 5q_to5o_ oq_to@ Energy Efficient oco5o_
Compressed Air Compressed Air Compressed Air Compressed Air o_tc5t o_tc5t o_tc5t o_tc5t ot_o_o ot_o_o ot_o_o ot_o_o (Applications) (Applications) (Applications) (Applications)
Plant Air Air tools general plant air
!nstrument Air Laboratories paint spraying powder coating climate control
Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process air electronics
Breathing Air
Hospital air systems diving tank refill stations respirators for
cleaning andfor grit blasting
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Compressed Air o
o) Working Air (o ocoo ) Energy Air oco_too5ct.
o) Active Air oco_too5ct.
o) Process Air oco_too5ct.
o) !ndustrial vacuum oco_too5ct oco_to_toc o to__oo_
o oo o) Working Air ( ) Working Air ( ) Working Air ( ) Working Air (o o o o ) Energy Air ) Energy Air ) Energy Air ) Energy Air
Compressed Air o Working Air (o ooo ) Energy Air oc Compressed Air ooco` o5t.
Air Engine ac Compressed Air valves o _oc o @ oto__oo_Speed . Precision ac Flexibility
co_5to5oo o5to_o5c ogto`oo5 oqg5o o`oco_ Automation !ndustry oc Pneumatic
oc acoo`cto5tc5oo_to o_goot acc otco_ oo g5ocaqtoq ooo5to5to5o_
o oo o) Active Air ) Active Air ) Active Air ) Active Air
Compressed Air o transport medium oco to_o_oocqto5to c Active Air oc
oooooo`oo_
oc_to5t. g5oo_o5t ocoqg5o ocoqg5o ooogq o o Compressed Air o
oto__oo_ Air bearing o_ Compressed air o 5to5ooo5to oo5ctotoo5 oo5
oco_ Satellite o5too otoo5 Laser gun o5to position o_ ocoogo o pooo oo c
oo O oogqoo_ O Gun o5to air cushioned (o ) air bearing oo`oc oc@ ooo_
accuracy . o oo_ movement go5c o qo`oct (vibration) otooocoo`o5oco
o oo_oqg5oog5oo5c oo og qco_
Compressed Air oo`oco O oo oc_ocq_to_5ac oqtoo oo5 ogo5o_t
o_ocoo`acoo
o oo o) Process Air ) Process Air ) Process Air ) Process Air
Compressed Air o_ process o5toc oogoo`ocoqo_o` . process medium
ocoqo_o`o c process air ooo`oo_ oo5ooo_oocqto5t (drying process) ac
ooctoo5o octoocqto5t (fermentation processes) o c Compressed air o processes air oc
oto_o_
o oo o) !ndustrial vacuum ) !ndustrial vacuum ) !ndustrial vacuum ) !ndustrial vacuum
!ndustrial vacuum q_to_5o5to_ Compressed air ac oqo q oooooqo_
!ndustrial vacuum o oto_@ Oooto5t packing o ooct. oo5o ooct (dry) . perform
suction o ooct . hoist o ooct. position oooct o_o oaco_
Pressure Ranges Pressure Ranges Pressure Ranges Pressure Ranges
oto_oo5too5to c Compressed Air o o5t (pressure) o ooo o_o_t o og
oo5cto o_ Oo_o5c Compressed Air Systemo5to o5t (Pressure range)o
oo5toooogqo oo_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Compressed air System o5t pressure range oo`oc ooo@ o5oo`oct
oo5tooooaco_
o) vacuum and blower Application
_) Low Pressure Application
p) Standard pressure application (7.0 bar) ac
g) High pressure application o_oco_
o oo o) ) ) ) vacuum ac vacuum ac vacuum ac vacuum ac Blower Application Blower Application Blower Application Blower Application
vacuum ac Blower Application o pressure range o5 rough vacuum o 1bar oq
octo c oco_ Rotary valve . vacuum pumps . rotary piston blowers ac side Channel fan
o oto_aco_ Compressed air o o to_@ industrial vacuum o_o oaco_ Oo
o_oooctoc cotco5to o_qtotoco_ !ndustrial vacuum o vacuum pump oc
o_ooaco_ (oq_t ooqoqo_ o t_o__octo_t_oco_)
_ __ _) Low pressure application ) Low pressure application ) Low pressure application ) Low pressure application
Pressure 2bar o 2.5 barOo_ Low pressure application oc o`oco_ Rotating
Positive-displacement compressor o5t. turbo compressor o5to o to_aco_ oo`ogoc
Low Pressure application oo compressed air o 7 bar grid o cto o O5toog o_ o5t 7
bar goo5 Compressed Air o 2.5 bar O og5oo5c oo 5o@ oto__octo_o5c cotc
_o_qtg5og5o o_
p pp p) Standard Pressure Application ) Standard Pressure Application ) Standard Pressure Application ) Standard Pressure Application
7.0 bar pressure o Standard Pressure application ocoo oo o_
g gg g) High Pressure Application ) High Pressure Application ) High Pressure Application ) High Pressure Application
Oscillating positive-displacement compressor o5toc_ooo5 piston compressor o5t.
membrane compressor o5to oto__oo_ High pressure air oo5oo5t oooc
Radial turbo compressor o o t_o__oo_ Positive Displacement Compressor o5to_
oooO O_ (Air volume) o oo5q_to5co_oooctoc o5t (Pressure) oo5toco_
Dynamic Compressor o5to_ ooo velocity ooqoco_ Ooq5o Air velocity ooo5oot
pressure o o5to5co_oooctoco_
p pp p. Compressor . Compressor . Compressor . Compressor o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t
Compressors o5to o5o o`octo_to_tc5tc5to_o5tqco_
(o) compress ooo_ stage ooo @ single-stage . 2-stage ac multi-stage
o @o_to_o5toogo_
(_) otoo_q_t (Cooling method) ac medium ooo @ Air cooled . water cooled ac oil-
cooled o@o_to_o5toogo_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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(p) oo5cto_ co o_tc5t (Drive type) ooo@o_t Engine driven . Notor driven . Turbine
driven . Belt . chain . gear oooo direct coupling drives o@o_to_o5toogo_
(g) oo5oot_o_o_q_t (Lubrication method) o oo@o_t Splash lubricated o oo o
forced lubrication oooo oil-free compressors o@o_to_o5too go_
(_) o t_o_gqooo_ o5t (Service Pressure) o oo@o_t Low . Nedium . High
o @o_to_o5toogo_
Air Compressor o5toc o`go_ Lubrication System o ooo@ Compressed Air System o5to
a) Oil-Free Compressed Air System ac
b) Lubricated Compressed Air System o aco_too5tO5to_
co ooocqto5to c oto_o_ Compressed Air o oqcco oooo (Purification
requirements)o5to ooo@ Compressed Air System o_tc5to ogtoo_oo_
ooooqcco (General Purity)o_ o to_O5to_ !nstrument o5to g_oot (Quality)
oo`ocoo_o_
oo5o (Lubricating Oil) o o to_O5to_ Compressor o O oo5o_ oooc
oo o5too_ Oil Aerosols ac Oil vapour o5to gctoctoog5tocgq o oo_ O Oil
Aerosols ac Oil vapour oo_ Compressor o O oo5o_ o (Reected Heat) o_o5c
Carbonize oco cco (Solid) oco oo5q oo5cto5to_ Occoooto5to_
ot_o_o_oqg5 (Down Stream) o cgoo5 valve o5to oooococt. oootococt ac
o ooo5co o5to ctococt oo ocoo`oco_
oo5o (Lubricant Oil) o _coo o. ooo o. ooqcco o o ooooaco_
co ooocqto5t (!ndustries) oc Oil Free Compress Air System o_tc5to5too to_go_
oo5o o_o5c Compressed Air oc oqt oocto5tgo_
g_oot_ octo5tgo_Compressor o5toctg oo5o o_ ogoco ogacoo`ctcoo5
Sludge o5toco oo5cto5 co oc_t co octo5t ac Componento5to ooctocqco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Lubricated System Lubricated System Lubricated System Lubricated System
Compressor octg ogo5toqoo5. o og5toqoo5 coocto5t (Noving Parts)
oo5ctoqc5 ooooocgq. ooooo (Friction) q_tocgq oo oo5o (Lubricant Oil) o
oto_go_ Rotary Screw o_tc5t Compressor o c Lubricant Oil o_
_o5too`ooqg5oo o5to Seal ocoo oooto_ oooo (Compression) o_ooocto_o5c
ocoo`o5oo5 Heat of Compression oo_toog5tooto_ Lubricant oo5o o octoco
(viscosity) o_ Compressor oo5ctoqo_ ooO ooqq_to5t (Ambient Temperature
Range)oo`oc oo_o_ Bearing o5to_oooqoo5o` ocoo`oqo_ooqoc
oo5o o_ ooo5ooo5 Lubrication o ocoo`ocgo_ ooo` Lubricated Rotary Screw
Compressor ac High-Efficiency Purification System oo q_to_5o5totoooo_o5c
oqoq oqccoo5 Compressed Air o Ooqco oco_ Oooo5to_ Oil Free
o_tc5t Compressed Air oo5oqto`toqcco_
Compressor o capacity o CFN _ocoo5_ooogo_ ocoqcoc compress o oqcoo5
oooo5o o oo _ocoo5_oo_ cubic feet per minute of air (CFN)
o oo_ oooo5oo`ocoo_@ ot_o_go_ compressor o_tc5to5t o_o5t_oo_
co o_oocqto5tocot_o_o_ air compressor o5to capacity range o oo5_o O5to_
Compressor Compressor Compressor Compressor o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t free air delivery free air delivery free air delivery free air delivery Ooootqccot Ooootqccot Ooootqccot Ooootqccot
Reciprocating Compressor (Single Stage) 50 CFN O
Reciprocating Compressor (Two Stage) 50 CFN o 600 CFN O
Screw Compressors 150 CFN o 2500 CFN O
Centrifugal Compressors 2000 CFN o +000 CFN O
Compressed Air Energy !nput and Useful Energy Output Compressed Air Energy !nput and Useful Energy Output Compressed Air Energy !nput and Useful Energy Output Compressed Air Energy !nput and Useful Energy Output
Compressed air o_ cotc o tco_oqo5too5 system oco_t_oco_ Ooo`og
ot_o_o oo_ cotco oo o5 useful energy _oc (compressed air _oc )
o5_oqggo_ O o_o5c compressed air o ot_o_oo5o_ooc oqooo oo@
ot_o_o_ o ooo oo ccootgqooo_ o_o5too5 direct drive electric tool (o )
hydraulic tools o o t_o_@_ocqco`o cotc ooo5ocgq oo (Energy Efficiency oo )
ctc5toco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Compressed air o o t_o_o_ system o5toc ooocoo_o5t (air
leaks)o_oco5co5o o_oct. ooo5t (working pressure)o ooqcooo5o qoo_oct.
oocco5t (filter)o ooto_o5oqcc_oct. ooot_octo _oc q_to t oo o _o O
cotcotco_o oo 5oqco_
ocoo 5oqoqoo5 control o o q_t_oc compressoro5to oo5ct_oct. o_oto5to_
storage receiver O5tg_oct ac ooo5ctoqo_ air dryer o5t. filters oooc_oct _oco_t
cotcooo5qco_
Compressed Air System 5totoc compressor o_ ogo_oco`oco_
air compressor oco to o oo o5to5 ooOo ootqco_ (capacity) . ooo5t (pressure) .
oo5o5 oooo coc cot5t (horsepower) ac duty cycle o_oco_ Air Compressor o
Oo o5o_ ooo5t (pressure) o o_o5cto _oct_oc compressor o ooOo qco_ capacity o5
o_o5cto o5tooo_ ooooo ooO oootqco_ capacity ac ooo5t (pressure) o o5
ocoac oco ot_o5tc5 g_oo_
Compressor o5to o 5t_oc Positive displacement o_tc5t qc Dynamic
o_tc5t o@ qco_t acc5t o_o5tqco_ Reciprocating ac Rotary air compressors oo_
Positive displacement o_tc5t oc o`ocoo5 compressors o5t_oc_oo_ Centrifugal ac Axial
air compressors oo_ Dynamic o_tc5t oc o`ocoo5 compressors o5t_oc_oo_
p pp p. .. .o oo o Reciprocating Air Compressors Reciprocating Air Compressors Reciprocating Air Compressors Reciprocating Air Compressors
Reciprocating o_tc5t compressors o5to o_ocac O_o ocqto5toc (textile
industry) oocoqo ocoo c5ot_o__oo_ ooo5 oo` screw compressor o5to
cotc oqooo5o_ oo ocOooc oo oto5t o5_oo_o oo ggo_ screw
o_tc5t compressors o5to_ Reciprocating o_tc5t compressors Oo o@ cotc
o tco_q_to_ energy efficient o_oco_
oq_oco5to_ capacity o oo_co go5too centrifugal o_tc5t
compressors o ot_o_gqocoo 5o_ ootcoo_ compressors o_o5o o5to
o to_c5t _o to5to_ compressors q_tco oot_octo_ o@ energy efficient _oco_
oo5ctac_octac _o__ocO qtoot_oct (operation and maintenance) o_o_oog5oc ooo ooo_
compressor ogooq_tcooo5 _o__ocO qtootgq o o_
Reciprocating Air Compressor o o5to to to__oo_ Discharge Pressure
qoo_ococ. oco_ococ ooOoa_qt (Flow Out) o ooqoco5c O qtO5t aco_
Compressor o Capacity o_ oqa_qt (Speed) ac oogoo_too_ Speed oqoc Capacity
o5to_
Reciprocating Compressor o5to Configuration o_to_t ocgaco_ o5totoo aco_
Configuration o5to5
o) Horizontal
o) vertical
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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o) Horizatianal Balcance-Opposed ac
o) Tandom ooco_
Double Acting Piston Single Acting Piston
Reciprocating compressor o5to o5o o`oct Oooo_o5tqco_
(o) !n-line compressors
(_) v-shaped compressors
(p) Tandem Piston compressors
(g) Single-acting compressors
(_) Double-acting compressors ac
(o) Diaphragm compressors o _oco_
!n-line compressors v-shaped Diaphragm
vertical o_tc5t Reciprocating Compressor o5to Capacity Range o5 50CFN o 150CFN
octoco_ Horizational Balcance-Opposed Compressor o Capaity Range o5 200cfm o
5000cfm octoco_
oo5o ooto_o_ Air Compressor o5toOoo5o_ ooOoco`o5o_ oo5oo
oo Oogqooo_ oo5o oo to_ Oil Free Compressor o5to_ !nstrumentation
ocoo toco_ Process oocqto5toc oto_gqo_t ocoo 5o_ Non-Lubricated
Nachine (Oil Free) o5to_ ooo5cto_ Higher Specific Power Consumption (kWfcfm)
o gaco_ oooo5toc ooco`oco to5o`oo5 Single Cylinder Reciprocating
Compressor o5to_ air cool o_tc5to5tocot ooco`o5tc5 o`oo5 Nulti Cylinder
Reciprocating Compressor o5to_ Water Cool o_tc5to5t oc_oo_
Water Cool System o5to_ Air Cool System o5tOoo@ Energy Efficient oc_oo_
High Pressure gggqo o Two Stage o oto__oo_ Two Stage oOooo5 Discharge Air
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 14
oooq (Temperature) o5 1+0C o 160C oco_ Single Stage oOo oo5 Discharge Air
ooo q (Temperature) o5 205C o 2+0C oco_
Nulti Stage Compressor o5toc ooco`ocacO oococoo`o_ Differential
Pressure o_ q_too go_ O o_o5c Compressor o Components o5toc_ooo5 o5to5t
(valves) ac Piston Rings o5too`oc oo og5ooo5 Stress o5tq_too go_
Reciprocating air compressors o5to_ positive displacement machines o5t_oc_oo_
cylinder octgooo piston o oqtoot_oct_oc ooo5t (pressure)
o5to5c_o_oo_oct_oco_
Reciprocating compressors o5to
o) Piston o o ooooo o_oo@ Single acting operation ac double-acting operation
o @o_o5tO5to_
o) Compress ooo_ oc(Stage)o5t o o_oo@ Single-stage configuration ac multi-stage
configuration o @o_o5tO5to_
o) otoo_ q_to o_oo@ Air cooling(oo_ocoto_oct) ac water
cooling(og_ocoto_oct) o@o_o5tO5to_
o ) oo5o ot_o__oct gogo o_oo@ Lubricated ac Non lubricated (oil free)
o @o_o5tO5to_
Single-acting compressor o5toc piston o_ stroke _oco5to_ o`oco5
o oooo_ (oq_t ooo oooo_) double-acting compressor oc piston o_ o5tac
_oq acoo co toc ooooo_
double-acting compressor o_ o 5tac _oq acoocoto c o 5t_oq
oooooo5o_o5c o@ efficient _oco_ ( Ooootaco_ oo oo5o oc ) double-acting
compressor o_ single-acting compressor Oo goc5t o@ootcoo_ double-acting
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 1S
compressor ac single-acting compressor go c5tooc double-acting compressor o_
ooOoootqccotoo5to_
ooo5 double-acting compressor o_ o@ootoo_ oct_oto_ ooto _oct ac
unbalanced forces o5t_octo o_o5c double-acting compressor o ooocgq oqocoo_
foundation ac support ggqo oo_
Compression stages Compression stages Compression stages Compression stages
Air compressors o5to_ Single Stage Compression o ooo multiple stages
compression _ocqco_ discharge pressure o_ 80 psig Oo _ococ multiple stages
compressor o5t_ocoo _ocqco_ Nulti stage compressor o5to_ stage ocoac oq5o
stage oco_o5toc compressed air o oo_oc oto5c_o_ooO5t_octo_o5c energy
efficiency ooo5ct_oo_ stage ocoac oq5o stage oco_o5toc ogoc o5t(moisture)
o o_tooOoqco_
Nultistage compression o5to 5to5oo o5to5
(o) Cylinder oOo_otoq5o (discharge) _o5t cylinder ocoo ctoooco external cooler _oc
compressed air o oto5c_o_ooqco_
(o) Smaller flywheel o o5o t_o__ot multi-crank machines _ocoo5o_o5c mechanical balance
ooo5cto_ uniform torque o gaco_
(o) Lower pressure in !P cylinder Clearances _ocoo5o_o5c volumetric efficiency
oo5to5tgqco_
(o) Drive o ogqoooooo5 power o oo5oqco_
(c) High speeds _oc oo5ctaco_
(c) Smaller working temperature _ocoo5o_o5c lubrication ooo5cto_
(o)oo`o`to_ cylindero5to o t_o_qcoo5o_o5c leakage loss q_to_
Nultistage compression Nultistage compression Nultistage compression Nultistage compression
Nulti Stage Compressor and !ntercoolers.
Compressor o capacity (RPN ac volumetric efficiency) oo5q_too5tocgqqc high
compression ratios o oo_o`o5t cotco tco_( power input) o5tocgqo o inter-
cooling _o_o oO5too5 multi-staging Compressor o5to ot_o__oo_
ooq5t_oc multi-staging o oco5t5to t speed o __oo_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Compressor ocoo to volumetric efficiency o_ first stage o volumetric efficiency
aco_o_ first stage oocog5oo5o_ inlet temperature ac o_o5too5 stage
o5toocog5oo5o_ inlet temperature ac o_o c oo5cto t (perfect) inter-cooling
_oco_o o_o5qco_
Stage ococoo work input o_ O stage o c compress ooootgo_ pressure
ratio oo`ocoo_oqo_ (ooo_o5cooo5 stage o5t 5toto o Air Flow
o __oo_) stage ocooctc work input o ocoo 5o5c O5t_oct_oct_oc compression
ratio o5to _oo5c_o_ooqco_
Single-stage unit o_ oooc(inlet) o ooOo o_ (discharge) oqO
ococo5 compress ooo_ oooo5t_oc 95 psi (6.5bar)Ooqoo_ o5t(pressure
ranges) oo ococo5 compress oogq (single stage operation o5oogq ) ooo_
multi-stage unit o5toc oooc(inlet) o ooOoo_ (discharge) oqO oco5tc5 (_
ocoo) compress o ogo_ Nultiple stage units o5to_ o gg o@ efficient _oc_oo_
ococ_ot (stage) oq5cococooog5ooc oqoc ooo otoqcoo5o_o5c
compress gqo oo_ work oo5o oo5oqco_ oooo5t_oc 100 o 175 psig
o5tocoooc two-stage operation _o_oogqoo_ three-stage reciprocating units
o_ o5t 250 psig Oog5oo5c compress o oqccotgo_
Air compressor o5toOoo_oo5to oo(air) og(water) o ooo o (oil) oo
ot_o_@ oq_tq_t_ocoto5c_o_o oqco_ Air-cooled compressors o5toc air cooler
o5to oct ooocO5tqco_ oooo _oc o_tooocqco_
Water-cooled compressor o5too pressure _oc_ocac quality oo5cto_og (lower
temperature water) ggqoo_ . air compressors o5to_ _octoo5cog ooo5ct5toct(for
every 1 hp) oo 2000 - 2500 Btufhr oq heat o reect o oooto_ . Water-cooled units
o5to_ energy efficiency o@oo5ct_oo_
Ambient air _oc compressor o oto5c_o_o ooo5o_o5c Air-cooled compressor
o oo oo oo`o _oct_oco_ compressor o cylinders head o5to c fin
oooto5tooocO5t_oct_oc heat transfer oo5to5c (ooto5c ) _o_ooqco_
Duty cycles 50 o 75 o o_oo@ Air-cooled units o5to ooct _o_oo _oo_
(go c5t size ogtooo_)
water-cooled compressors o c water acket o5to cylinders heads o q5tocO5tgo_
og_ocotoc_oct (water cooled) q_to_ oo_ocotoc_oct (air cooled) Ooo@ efficient
_oco_
Drive o_tc5to5t Drive o_tc5to5t Drive o_tc5to5t Drive o_tc5to5t
Air compressor o5to electric motor o ooo engine o ooo steam oooo turbine
_ocoo5ct_oo_ co o_oocqt (industrial) o5toc Electrical motor _ocoo5ctoo5 Air
compressor o5to o5totoo goo go_
Heavy-duty o ocqtoco5t ac o occotogqco_ oo_octoqg5o5t. mobile air compressor
o5to Engine oooo turbine _ocoo5ct_oo_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Duty Cycle Duty Cycle Duty Cycle Duty Cycle
Duty cycle o o_o5 compressor oo5cto_ oqo5o (time) ooo_ 50 duty
cycle go_ compressor o_ oq5goo5ct _ot o c ocq5g goq5toqo_o oo o_
_octoo5cog ooo5c 5toto c ooqc g o oo O oootqc (+ cfmf hp) _ot 32.65 cfm oo
50 duty cycle _ocoo5ctgq oooc compressor o capacity o5 16.32 hp _oco_ (8.16 hp
oo oo`)
32.65 cfm + cfmfhp 50 duty cycle 16.32 hp _oco_
Reciprocating compressor o continuous duty (100 duty cycle) _ocoo5cto oc double
acting _ocgo__oc_ot. og_oc otocgo_ (oq_t water cooled reciprocating compressor
_ocgo_) reciprocating compressors o o Onfoff control q_t ac loadfunload control q_to
ot_o_aco_ Two-step control q_to o_o5 o oc compressor o startfstop _o_oo_oct
o ooo loadfunload oo_octo _oco_
ooooO5to_ ooo5t (Pressure)oog5ooqo c compressor o gogq (Stop)
ooooO5to_ ooo5t (Pressure) o5o og5ooqoc compressor o oo5ctgq (Start)
_oco_ Oq_to Onfoff control q_t o ooo startfstop control q_t o oo`oo_
loadfunload control q_to_o_t O oooc_oco_ startfstop control oc Pressure setting
o cut in f cut out pressure _ocoo5_ooog o_ OnfOff Control q_to o_o5 compressed air
demand go_o` (oo_o`) Air Compressor o oo5o5o oo5ctO5t_ot (running)
demand ogo_o` (ooo_o`) Air Compressor o oo5o5o goq5tO5t_oct_oco_
Loadfunload oo_o5 Air Compressor o oo5o5o _o oo5ctO5t_ot compressed air
demand go_o` (oo_o`) load o o_oct demand ogo_o` (ooo_o`)
unload oo_oct_oco_
Cut in Pressure 7 bar ( 7 bar og5ooc oo5ctgq )
Cut Out Pressure 10 bar ( 7 bar og5ooc oo5ctgq )
Ooo` Cut infOut pressure o o`o o5 Pressure vessel o octoc goo5
oooo5t(Pressure)o_ 10 bar oog5ooc compressor o gogq oooo unload oogq
_oco_ 10 bar ooo5t (Pressure) o Cut out pressure o oo`o_
Ooq5o compressed air o5to ot_o_oqoo5o_o5c ooo5t (Pressure) o_ 7 bar
o og5ooc compressor o _oqoo5ctgq o ooo load oogq _oco_ ooo5t (Pressure) 7
bar o Cut in pressure ooo`o_
Three - step (0 50 100) oc oco toc goo5o_o5c compressor
co acotgqco_ compressor co acot otoo5ctoqo`o 100 _oco_ compressor co ac
qoo ocot otoo5ctoqo`o 50 _oco_ compressor co ac oto tgooqo`o 0 _oco_
Five-step ooc 0 25 50 75 100 o ct control oo_oct_oco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
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Ooo control oo_oct_oc loaded capacity ac oo5o5o o occ`o5t otc_oct (motor
power consumption) o o ogooooo oqo_ oq_t loaded capacity o5to c motor
power consumption o_to5to_ _oco_ ooo o5t_oc reciprocating air compressor
o5to_ screw compressors o5tOo o@ oo5cto_ unloading characteristics
o@oo5ct_oo_ ooo oo_ o5to o. q_too _ocooo_ (fluctuating air demand)
o ocqto5t oo single compressor oco o_to5ooocO5to c reciprocating air
compressor o unloading characteristics o_ o@ ocoo 5o_
p pp p. .. ._ __ _ Rotary Air Compressors Rotary Air Compressors Rotary Air Compressors Rotary Air Compressors
Rotary Compressor o5toc (Piston oo`oco ) ooooo o_oqo_ Rotar o`go_
Prime Nover (oo5o5) ac o ogo o@oo ocO5too5o_o5c Starting Torque
oqq_to_ (Reciprocating Compressor acactoo c ) oqa_qtoc (High Speed)
ocoo5ctacoo5o_o5c oo5too5 Air Output o Oo ootaccot go_ (Reciprocating
Compressor acacto oc )
Rotary Compressor o5toc co octq_tco o5o`ocoo5o_o5c oocto_a_qt
(Failure Rate) q_to_ ootco oo5 Foundation o5 o_oogqooo_ o qo`o (vibration)
oqq_to_
Rotary compressor o5to o5oo`o ct o_o5tqco_
(o) Screw compressors
(_) vane type compressors ac
(p) Lobe and scroll compressors ac o_o5too5 o_tc5to5t (other types)
Rotary air compressor o5to_ positive displacement compressor o5t_oc_oo_
oto5to_ Rotary air compressor o5to goc5to5 5HP o 900 HP oct_oc_oo_
rotary screw compressors o lubricated o_tc5t _oco_too5ct dry (oil free)
o_tc5t_oc o_too5ct oooqcco_oooo oo`oo_t@ ogtoo oooc_oo_
Oil - cooled rotary helical screw compressors Oil - cooled rotary helical screw compressors Oil - cooled rotary helical screw compressors Oil - cooled rotary helical screw compressors
22 CFN o 3100 CFN O oooo5o ooc Oil - cooled rotary helical screw
compressors o5too t_o__oo_
150 o +00 psia pressure range oo Two-stage rotary-screw compressors o ot_o_gq
ocoo 5o_ Two stage _ocoo5o_o5c Stage ococo c compression ratio q_t_oo_
Oo_o5c Rotors o ocacOo o5t_o5tq5too (pressure differential across the
rotors) q_too5 o_o5c thrust-bearing oc OotO5tgo_ oqoo5o_tq_to_ two-stage
units o c ooocoo`oacooOooo`o acoo`o o`ggq o ooo5o_o5c oct_oto_ lubricated
compressor o5t oo5oo5to ooOoocog5ooc_ot ooooo ooo5o_o5c_ocoo`o5oo5
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 19
heat of compression o oo5oo cooo5to_ O o_o5c oo5o o ooqo_ _ocoo
o5o_ (oq_t oo5o_)
Ooq5o oo5oo5 oo5o o oo (air) ooo o og (water) _oc heat exchanger
octo c _oq@otoco_ compressor octoco5 otocoo5o_o5c oooooco_
oqg5ogqcoo Oo_o5c oil cooled rotary-screw compressors o _oco t load ac _ocot
pressure _oc _g q5g oo otoo5ctoqqco_ q5tootgqoooo
o_o5too5 continuous-duty air compressors _ocqctooc oil-cooled rotary-screw
Compressor o 5to5ooo5t o5
Oil cooling o_o5c internal temperatures o oo5ctot(qoot) OqtO5tqco_
Oooo(discharge air)o_ oq ooqqoo_ ( ooOooqOo 180F o5
o@_oco5to_o_o5too5 compressor o_tc5to5to O ooo5ooo5to_ 180F
Ooo@_oco_ Oo oo (discharge air)o_ o qoqgcto_ otoo5cO5to_
oo5o o5t ac o5qo5too`ocoo
Rotary o_tc5t_ocoo5o_o5c speed o5to_ Oto_oc goc5t_oto_
compressor o5t o_oqo_ speed o gqco_ oqg5o o_ oo5qctooc
ootco o_oqg5 o5too5 oooOo ootqco_ O o_o5c foundation o ooqg5otot
a c cooqtoqg5 q_tcoo5ooo_
goc5tootco o__oc o_o _ocoo`o_o_tq_to_ o occoo5o5
_ocoo5ctoo5 compressor o ooo5 o5ooto cocto c 75 dB o 85 dB oqo5go_ og
o5toqo_ co octo5t o`oco_q_too5o_o5c O oo_ ooqq_t_ot (ooqqoo_)
o qo`o_ (vibration) o_tq_to_
o`oco_ coocto5t q_too5o_o5c spare part q_tco oo5
o otO5tgqoo_ _o__ocO qtoot_oct . _ococ_oct oogqo_too oo_
_ooo5ctoqgq ooo_ base load o oo5ctgq oo5cto t compressor o_tc5t _oco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 2u
Screw compressor oco to _oo _oO5to_o_oco_
o5o oc Rotary screw compressor oc o to Schematic Diagram o oo5_oO5to_
1. Air filter 2. !ntake valve 3. Airend
+. Coupling 5. Notor 6. Ninumum pressure valve
7. Separator elemet 8. Blow down valve 9. Receiver tank
10. Ball valve - drain 11. Oil filter 12. Thermal valve
13. Oil cooler 1+. After cooler 15. Ball valve - service line
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 21
16. Fan 17. Pressure transmitter 18. Temperature sensor
19. Noisture separator
Non Non Non Non- -- -lubricated rotary screw ac lubricated rotary screw ac lubricated rotary screw ac lubricated rotary screw ac lobe compressors lobe compressors lobe compressors lobe compressors
Non-lubricated rotary screw ac lobe compressors o5to clearance-type compressors
o5t_ocoo oooo`o _oo_ oo o_o5cooo5 octg coocto5t (internal parts)
o_ ocoac oco Ooo _octogoo5o_o5c _oco_ Gear arrangement _oco5oo5ctqco_
Compression chamber octoc oo5o (lubrication oil) O_gq ooooo cylinder
qgo5to water acket o ogo5t_oqtoot_oct_oc otoco_
Lobes compressor o ooo screws compressor o o_
ocoac oco drive _o_oo_octogo gear arrangement
_oco5oo5ctac_oo_ Compressor octg drive system
_ocoo5 rotor ac lobe o oooo oqoo __
oooooqo5c timing gear o oo5cgooot_oo_
oo5o (Lubricant) o5t bearing ac gear qtoqg5oco5
goqocgq ac compression chamber octoo_t
oocog5o ocgq oo o5gootO5tgo_
End covers ac rotor _o5tgo ooqo_ oqg5 o clearance o_ oqooo_ +00 o
12000 CFN Ooootqco_ Oil-free rotary helical screw compressors o5to octoooc
ggqco_ 100 to 500 cfm O oootqco_ oil-free rotary lobe compressor o5to octo ooc
ggqco_
p pp p. .. .p pp p Sliding vane rotary compressors Sliding vane rotary compressors Sliding vane rotary compressors Sliding vane rotary compressors
Sliding vane rotary compressors o5to_ o_oooqo_ vane
o5t_o5tocooo5too ooq_ot. vane o5tocoo_o_o5co_ooqoc vane
_o5tgoqg5o_ o_o_t_o_tootcoo5_ot ooo5to_t o_o_t_o_t _ocooo5o_
oq5o otOooo`ooog5o oq ooo5to_ o go_ discharge pressure
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 22
o og5oo5to_ oo5o o5t (lubricant) o oooo`o _oqtoot_oct_oc Heat of compressoion o
oo Oooco_ oo5o (lubricant)o_ vane Ooo5t oooqo_ oqg5o5to o_t seal
o oooto_
Sliding vane rotary compressors o5toOoootqco_ ooOO_o5 3000 CFN oq_oco_ O
compressor o5to oil inected o_tc5t . oil- flooded o_tc5t .ac oil-free type o_tc5t
o5t_ocggqco_ oo5ctgq o qocgoq_t_oct ac oqo`o_og_oct o o_
5to5ooo5t_oco_ ot_o_gqoqg5oc ooqo (foundation) oo`oo ocqco_
Control ooqco_q_to5to5 variable speed drive q_t . loadfunload q_t . adustable rotor
length q_t ac throttling oo_octq_to_oco_ (listed in order of most efficient to least
efficient at part load).
variable speed drive q_t part load o c Efficient _ocot_oco_
Loadfunload q_t part load o c Efficient _oco_
Adustable rotor length q_t part load o c Efficient q_tco _oco_
Throttling o o_octq_t part load o c Efficient o oo_oco`
Rotary positive displacement compressors o5to_ reciprocating compressor
OoO5toc o@ootco_ot. o@ o _oq_to_ ooocgq oqg5 (footprints)
q_tco o5o o_
Screw compressoro5t o 5to5oo o5 ogoq5to ooo_oooo5ctaco_
reciprocating compressor o5to_ 60 duty cycle o oo Oo q_to_ duty cycle
_oco5oo5ctqco_
Two-stage rotary compressor o5to_ single-stage reciprocating compressor o5tOoo@
efficient _oco_ o oo5 two-stage . double-acting reciprocating compressor o5t o efficiency
o oo5ooqcoo
Rotary compressor o5t o 5tq_too o5 part load _ocoo5cto c efficiency
o oo5o5oocto 5to_ part load oc reciprocating compressor o5to o@ogqcoo
p pp p. .. .g gg g Centrifugal Air Compressors Centrifugal Air Compressors Centrifugal Air Compressors Centrifugal Air Compressors
Roto-dynamic compressor o5to o5o o`octoqco_
(o) Centrifugal compressors ac
(_) Axial flow compressors o _oco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 2S
Three stage integral gear compressor
Centrifugal compressors o5to_ dynamic compressor o5t_oc_oo_ dynamic
compressor o5to_ oil free compressor o5t_oc_oo_ o_oqo_ impeller o5to ooooqt@
ooo o c(velocity) o (kinetic energy) o o5to5c_o_ooo_
Ooq5o velocity energy o pressure energy _oco o_o5ctooco_
!mpeller pressure energy ocoo oq _ocoo`_ot oqgo_ pressure energy
ocoo o_ air speed o diffuser ac volute oct oo5q_toco5 velocity energy o
pressure energy o o_o5cto _octo5to_ ooo5tq_tq_t (low pressure)ac oo
O O_o5to5t(High volume) o oo_ o_ooqo_to5to c Centrifugal compressor o5t o
ot_o__oo_ 600 hp Ooqoo_ Centrifugal compressor o5too5 gqco_ Centrifugal
compressors o5to_ oil-free o_tc5to5t_oc_oo_ ooO oc oo5ooto oo`ocoo (0
ppm oil carryover).
Centrifugal compressor o_ oooo O5to_ capacity o oo Ooq_to c
compressed air o ooOo cto O o oco_ blow-off o oo_o oo`o_ Ooo blow-
offoooc_oct o ooo compressed air o ooOocto vent oo_oc_oct o_
cotc_o_qt_oct_oco_ Oo_o5c Centrifugal compressor o5to Base-load compressor
o5t_oco5 ot_o_ oco_ Base-load compressor o o_o5 oqo ct 100 capacity _oc
oo5ctoqo_ compressor o oo`o _oct_oco_ centrifugal compressors o5t o_ full load
efficiency oqoo5ctoo5o_o5c base-load compressors o5t_oco t_o_oco_ oqoct
ooo oo5ctoqo5c oocto ooco_
Rotor shortening oo_oct. variable speed driveoooc_oct co_oc efficient unloading
q_to5t_oc reciprocating compressor o ooo screw compressor o trim compressor _oc o @
otoco_ oo goo5ctoqo_ load o_ base-load compressors o capacity Oo o5to_
o` partial load _ocoo5cto_ compressor o_ trim compressor _oco_
Centrifugal compressors oc inlet valves o inlet guide vanes _oc capacity o
O qto_o_octo_ rotary screw compressor o5toc inlet valve o oo _oct.oc_oct capacity o
O qto_o_oct ac oco o_
Oo_o_oo_octo_ efficient _oco_q_tooooo centrifugal compressor o maximum
Capacity Oo g_ - oo Ooq_to5c throttle ooo c Surge _ocoo` qco_ Surge
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 24
o o_o5 compress oo_oto5tooo5t compressor octo _oqo_ ocog5o o5_oct_oco_ (
ooo5to ooqcooo_ooo5toqo5c OqtoO5tqcoc) Surge _ococ
oqocto qo`o_o5t ac oqooct coocto5t oo ct_octo _ocqco_
g gg g. Primary . Primary . Primary . Primary ac ac ac ac Secondary Air Receivers Secondary Air Receivers Secondary Air Receivers Secondary Air Receivers
Receiver tank o_ oo(compressed air)o5to ooo5cO5to_ vessel oco_oc o_
oqo5to_ oooo5 (peak demand)o oo_o` receiver tank Ooooo5cO5to_
ooo5t oO oot_ot System pressure ooocoOqtO5tqco_
Air receiver tank o_ o5oo`oooo5coo o5to oo5cgo ooto_
o) reciprocating compressors o flow oooo Pressure o5too5coo_oct o o5oo ooto_
_) oqooct oqo5to_ oooo5 (peak demand)o oo_o` Air receiver tank o
o oo5cO5to_ ooo5t o Ooo t_ot_oct_oc compressor oq5o Oooco toOooo5ctgq
oo ooo
p) Air receiver tank o ooocO5too5o_o5c loadfunload go_ _ooogoo oooo
startfstop oogo__ooogooo oo5oqc o_ screw compressor o_
ocq5go ctoc g_o oo o_o o Ooo@ go_oct.oo5ct_oct o_oco5c oqoo O5to_
g) ooo5ctoqo_ compressor control ac oo__coo_ system pressures o5to
_ococqco_
_) ogotogoc .( moisture)ac oil vapor o Air receiver tank octoc o_o5tooto_ after
coolers o o`o5o_ ogotogoc o5t (moisture carried over) o Air receiver tank octoc
qoOcoqgcoco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 2S
Air receiver tank o primary storage ac secondary storage o @ aco_t o_o5tqco_ Air
receiver tank o Primary storage _oco to_o` o c compressors o
qtotoqg5ocO5tggo_ ooo5 oqq_tcoo ct oo oct o q_oqqco_
Air receiver tank o secondary storage _oco to_o` ot_o_o_oqg5o
qtotoqg5oc O5tggo_ ooo o5t_oc (oq_t rule of thumb q_tg) "size your "size your "size your "size your
primary air receiver tank at about one gallon primary air receiver tank at about one gallon primary air receiver tank at about one gallon primary air receiver tank at about one galloncapacity for every CFN of air compressor output". capacity for every CFN of air compressor output". capacity for every CFN of air compressor output". capacity for every CFN of air compressor output".
Primary receiver tank goc5to ooOoqqt Primary receiver tank goc5to ooOoqqt Primary receiver tank goc5to ooOoqqt Primary receiver tank goc5to ooOoqqt 1 11 1 CFN oc one gallon qqtO5tggo_ CFN oc one gallon qqtO5tggo_ CFN oc one gallon qqtO5tggo_ CFN oc one gallon qqtO5tggo_
oo5 1000 CFN Ooootqcoo5 compressor oo receiver tank o goc5to5 o`o
oooo (1000 gallons) _ocgo_ receiver tank o goc5t o ooooo_ o`oc capacity
control ac compressor starting delays ooo_tO_octoo oooco_
Primary receiver o_gg5oqg5o_ air dryer oo` o5tc5 o_tooog5oo_ go_
oo@ air dryer o o5ooo(downstream)oc o_goo5 Receivers o_ dry air
ooo5tc5o ooo5cqccotgo_ compressor capacity Oooo5to_ oooo o
ooocto oo`o receiver o cto o oo5cO5to_ooo5t o O ooqco_ (System
Pressure o ooocoOqtO5too )
oo@ primary receiver o_ dryer o oo`oo (upstream side)oco_goc
compressor o Flow ac o receiver octo o oo5cO5to_ ooo5t dryer
octo ocog5o qco_ O o_o5c O qcooo`ct Flow o_ dryer capacity Oooo5tqco_
O o_o5c primary Receiver o dryer ac filter oo o5o oooc (downstream)
O5tg_oct_oco_
Secondary Receivers Secondary Receivers Secondary Receivers Secondary Receivers
oqq_tcoo5 oo oo5o_o5o o5tc5oo_oct (large fluctuations) oooo air
demand oqo5t_oct. oqq_t_oct_ocoogo_ Facilitie o5t. ooo5t oo oo5o o_
(insufficient air pressure) air distribution system o5t oc Primary Air receiver _oc oq5o Oo
oo t o ooo _o tOooo_ secondary air receiver o5tooocO5tgqooo_
Secondary receiver o5to_ ooo o t_o_o_oqg5(point of air use)o
qtoootoqg5oc ooocO5tgqo oo_ o o_tooo oooo5o_o5oo5tc5
oqq_tcooqo5 ot_o_o_ equipment qtoc ooocO5tgqo oo_
oooo5o_o5oo5tc5 _oooto ooqoc Secondary receiver gqoooo` compressor o
capacity o o5to5c _o_ooootqco_
Receiver o_ compressed air 1 cubic foot per per psi o_ o`o ooo
O O_ac_oo_ ooo_ cubic feet o pressure _occ5t@ ooo _oc o_o5o oc receiver
size o o oo qco_ ooq5tooocgq o5o o`oo5oooo5qco`o_
oo5 oo5 oo5 oo5
Sand blasting oogqoo compressed air 100 cfm 80 psi o oo_ sand blasting
o ogqoo o5t 80 psi ooo_ oq 10 minutes o ctoc sand blasting oooqo_ 1
minute oq_o5o_ system pressure (compressor o Ooo_ o5t)o_ 100 psi _oco_
o ooo5 transient load oo secondary receiver o goc5t (size) o oo`
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 26
oooo5 oo ooo (Cubic feet required) 100 cfm x 1 minute 100 cubic feet
o5to5_o5too -Pressure (psi) range 100 - 80 20 psi
secondary receiver o goc5t -
Storage receiver required 100 cubic feet 110f20 psi 550 gallons (US)
Receiver o ooqcoc 10 cfm qqt_oc 10 minutes oo5cto_o` 100 cfm ggo_
ooocoo`o (inlet) o orifice or needle valve _oc Oqto_oO5t_ot storage tank o
ocoo 5oo5 qoot flow rate _oc _oq_o_qco_ sand blasting oogqoo o oo_
o5t 80 psi o oo 5q_tocooo_ooooo
primary storage (o primary receiver tank) ac secondary storage (o secondary receiver tank)
aco_toto_ooo_ demand ac O oootqco_ supply o oo _o t_oco5c
oo5o go oot_oo_ o oooOooo5o_ Air receiver tanks o5to ASNE Boiler and
Pressure vessel Code Section v!!! o ooooO5to_ c_tot c_tooto5t
octo_oo5o ooocgqooo_
_ __ _. Compressed Air Systems . Compressed Air Systems . Compressed Air Systems . Compressed Air Systems oco`oco_ oco`oco_ oco`oco_ oco`oco_ Auxiliary Component Auxiliary Component Auxiliary Component Auxiliary Component o5t o5t o5t o5t
Compressed air system ocoo compressor ac sub-component ooogtoo o_o`
o qoo_ cotcotco_cgo o ooo5c5oo oo_oto ocoo5o_ compressor o_tc5t ac
sub-component oogtoo oco_ oo o_o5co oo5 ogg_o c o t_o_go_cotc
o qoo_ cgo o_ ac sub-component oo oqotOocoo`cto5tc5oo5to_ efficient
_oco_ compressor o_tc5t ac sub-component oogtoooco_
Compressed air auxiliary equipment o5t o5
o) Coolers
o) Filters
o) Separators
o) Dryers
c) Heat recovery equipment
c) Lubricators
o) Pressure regulators
o) Air receivers
c) Condensate drains ac
_) Automatic drains o_oco_
Oogo5o5to_ air compressor ac oo oooqo__oc ooo_ compressed air
specifications _ocoog5oo5c oq_tq_t_oco_ootootoqo_
Typical compressed air supply system ocoo o5oocoo5_oO5to_
O oocoo5_oO5too5 components 5to to_ compressed air system ocooto efficiency o
oq_tq_t_oc o_too og5o o_goco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 27
_ __ _. .. .o oo o !ntercoolers !ntercoolers !ntercoolers !ntercoolers ac ac ac ac After-coolers After-coolers After-coolers After-coolers
!ntercoolers !ntercoolers !ntercoolers !ntercoolers
ooo5to_ oo o_octogo_o` ooq_ocooo5o_ O ooooq_ocOoo_o_o5c
oooO O_o_toto5to5o_ o5to5o_ O o_o5c !ntercooler o ooo5t
oo oogo_o`oc O ooo`o5o_ oo5t(heat of compression)o oog5tgqo o
ot_o__oo_ !ntercooler o oto_ot ooqqoo5to_ ooo5to
O O_o_o_tq_to5to_ Oo`
!ntercooler o_o5c oo5to_ ooOO_ (air volume)o compress ooaco_ O o_o5c
compression efficiency o_o_tooo5cto5o_ !ntercooler o_ compression ocoac
oco_o5toc ooocO5to_ After-cooler o compressor o OoocooocO5to_
After-cooler After-cooler After-cooler After-cooler
After-cooler o_ heat exchanger oco_oc_ot compressor o Oo qtotoqg5oc
ooocoogo_ after-cooler o_ oo5o(lubricant) ac Ooo5o_oo (discharge air) o
goqo_ heat of compression o oo g5tooto_
air cooler o cqcooo t_o_gqogt_oto_ ooo_o5cooo5 compressed air oc
o`oco_ ogotogoc (moisture content) o_ Ooooo ooq (discharge
temperature)aco ogo oooo o_go_
1000 SCFN g_ot 100F ooqgoo5 saturated compressed air o oqoct(_gq5go ct)
oc 67 gallons O O_oo5goo5 ogo ooOoooto oo_ Oogo5to_ compressed air oc
o`oco_ ogotogoc (moisture content) o condensation _oc_otOo oo`o5oo5ogo5t_oco_
oo@ Oogotogoc (moisture content) o5to_ ooo5t (piping). pneumatic tools ac
instruments ooog5og_ot Oogo5o5toct condensation _ocoo`o`o ooctac ooq
ooooo_octo _ocoo`o5qco_
After-cooler o_ compressor ac air dryer oaco_o5t compressor qc
qtoootoqg5oco_ggo_ cooler o5to oqoq oqgctogt_o_o ogqooo_ o oo5
oo5to oo5ctc5ooOoqco__oco_
Cooler o Oo ooq 38C 100F Oooqooc air dryer o overload _ococqco_
ogoc o`oco_ _oq5o5t (moisture problems) _ocoo`o5qco_
Compressors o5to otoo_o_tc5t (type of cooling) o o@ o_o5t ooooO5to_
Air cooled compressors Air cooled compressors Air cooled compressors Air cooled compressors - oqo5 (Fan)oo t_o_@ ooo compressor 5t_ooo5toc_oct_oc
otooo5q_t_oco_ cooling efficiency qooo5o_o5c capacity q_too5 compressors
o5toco5toto t_o_o_
Water cooled compressors Water cooled compressors Water cooled compressors Water cooled compressors - heavy duty o ooo _ooo5ctgqo oo_ (continuous
applications) compressor o5toc og_ocoto_octq_t (water cooling system) oo t_o_o_
o5too55t_oc cooling efficiency oqoo5cto_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 28
Circulating Water Cooling System Circulating Water Cooling System Circulating Water Cooling System Circulating Water Cooling System
_ooo5ctgqooo_ (continuous operation) Air compressor o5t o_ heat of compression
Ooo5t_oo_ Oo_o5c O heat of compression o after-cooler ac oil cooler aco_toto
ot_o_@ oo Oogqo oo_
!ntercooler . cylinder acket ac after cooler o o oo5o oo5 cooling water
oo5goo5 compressor o otocqc_oct compressed air ooqo ooctoc_octac
o`oco5oo5 ogoc ogoc (moisture) o oo5ctc5ooOoqc_oct_ocooooo_
Compressor cooo5ctoc cooling water ctoctoqo__oco_oco flow switch oooc@
ccootgqooo_ cooling water ctoctoq_octogo`o flow switch o_ activate _ocooo_
oo ooo O o` compressor coo5ctgqo_ocqco`
Liquid seal o_tc5t rotary compressor ac after-cooler oo cooling water ooo
series oc_oc ooooO5tgo_ O oooog5ctoo o5t (compressor manufacturer) o
oot_q_o ootoo o5t (recommendations) oct ooo5to oocto o_oct. oooc_octo
_o_oogo_
Cooler system component o5to octo c qoOc_oct. ootoo_oct. o_ot_oo _oct
ac oootoo_octo (fouling) o_ocoo`ocgqoo piping system o5to c strainero5t oooo
filtero5tooocO5tgo_
!ntercoolers cylinder ackets and after-coolers o5t o oo5to ooOoqccoto
o5o ocoo5_oO5to_
Heat dissipation (BtufminutefBHP total) Heat dissipation (BtufminutefBHP total) Heat dissipation (BtufminutefBHP total) Heat dissipation (BtufminutefBHP total)
Single Stage Two Stage
!ntercooler None 20
Cylinder acket 15 5
After-cooler 26 17
intercoolers cylinder ackets and after-coolers o oooooo5 cooling water oo5o
o5o o`octoooqco_
0ollon Pcr Hinutcr (0HP) =
Brcok Eorsc Powcr (BEP) x Ecot issipotion
A I x 8.SS
Where
GPN gallons of water flow per minute.
BHP air compressor brake horsepower.
Heat dissipation value from table above ( Ooo`oo5to ocoo 5g5oqo to5t)
T o ooo T-rise degrees F water temperature rise.
cylinder inlet ports qtq5toc ogo t_oct(condensation) o_ocoo`ocgq oco5o_ cooling
water ooqqc O oo5to_ ooo ooq o o5_o5tooo 15F o5to5c_o_ooO5tgo_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 29
15F o5tocgq ogo intercooler Oo gcocog5o oc_otoq5oo o5 cylinder ackets
o5tooog5oo5tocgq_oco_ o_o5too5q_tocoo5 cylinder acket octooco5to_
ogoo5(ogctoca_qt)ooo 5ogq_oco_
compressor Oooooo5t (manufacturer) aco coc@ cylinder acket oooooo5
ogoo5(ogctoca_qt)o go gq_oco_
_ __ _. .. ._ __ _ Filters Filters Filters Filters
air compressors o5t5toto_ o_qo5t (dust) ac airborne vapors o5to
oqo_tooqc_ooo O contaminants o5to_ o_oqo_coocto5t oo`oc
ocoqgco5 o oc5t_octo5t_ocoo`qco_ mechanical unbalance _ocoo`o5 compressor
o5to oo ctocaco_
Compressor ocgoo5 intake filter o_ ooot_oco_ Compressed Air System
octo oco5o_ o_qo5t (dust) ac particulate o5t 5to to oo g5tootqccotggo_
downstream goo5 air filter o5to_ particulates . condensate ac lubricant co_
contaminant o5to oo g5tootgo_ oooqgc to_ (cleanliness) oooo oo`ocoo_@ filter
o5to ogtoo ooocqco_
Compressed Air Filters Compressed Air Filters Compressed Air Filters Compressed Air Filters o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t o_tc5to5t
Coalescing filters o lubricant ac moisture o5too g5t_ocgqooot_o_o_
Dsorbent filters o odors ac taste o5toog5t_ocgqoo ot_o_o_
Desiccant-type dryer o o5ooooc desiccant o_ oooto5t (fines) o oog5tgqoo
particulate filter o ot_o_oco_ Coalescing-type filter o desiccant bed o5t fouling
_oc_octo o5o ogqoo desiccant-type dryer o oo`oooc (before dryer) o c
ooocot_o_oco_ ot_o_o_oqg5o desiccant o_oooto5t (fines)
oog5o o5tocgqoo one micron filter o ot_o_oco_ _o5too5 special oooo o5t
go`o filtration oco_to_to Ooooo t_o_oco_
Air compressor o o5o oooc particulates condensate and lubricant co_
contaminants o5to oo g5tgqo o Compressed air filters o ot_o__oo_
ooo_ ocOo5 oo o5to oqccoco_ o oo_Ooo@ over filtration
_o_ooo`o o5toocto_ (pressure drop) o5to5_ot cotcotco_ (energy consumption)
o_too5to5o oo_ oooqcco_ Elements o5tac filter o5t pressure differential sensor
o5toooc@ oo ooO5to_ o5toocto_ (pressure drop) Oo oo5to5o`o oo o
oooc_oct. ooto_o5_octo5t_o_oooco_
Piping Piping Piping Piping
Compressor o compressed air o5to equipment o5t ac processes oo oo o5t_oc
oooo5co5to_ oto5oo5 oo o_tc5to5to5 galvanized oo. black steel oo ac
stainless steel ooo5t_oco_ oo oct (Diameter) _oooOooo5o_oo o5to schedule
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page Su
80 ocgoo5 oo o5to o t_o_go_ _oooOoootco o_ooo5to schedule +0
ocgoo5 ooo5to o t_o_go_
Schedule +0 ocgoo5 ooo5to_ 175 psig o5t (pressure range) oo
ocoo 5o_ oo@ compressed air oo o_otoo (Copper) ot_o_o c Type K or Type
L ocgoo5 o_otoo o5to ot_o_go_ Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) o5to o_t
compressed air oo o t_o_qco_ ooo5 o5oo` ooo5to oqoo oo
_ocO5tgo_
_ocoto5t(maximum pressure) 150 psig oo ooq 200F Oooocg
_ocoto5t(maximum pressure) 75 psig oo ooq 250F Oooocg
PvC ooo5to_ octooo5o_ ooocgqoo oo_ ootoqq_to_
o ootoooqc o oo5 PvC ooo5to_ o_toooo o_ (brittle) O o_o5c PvC ooo5to
o_oO oc _o_oO5t_octogo`o compressed air oo oto_o_ocoo
ot_o_o_ Pipe fitting o5to_ oo_ ooo5to o_tc5to oo@ ogtoo go_
o_otooo5t(copper pipe)o o t_o_oc o_otooooo5 _oct (brazing) _ocooo5t(oint) o5to
ooqco_
o_otooooo5_oct (brazing) _o_o ooc filler metal o melting temperature o5 1000F o
1600F o ct_ocgo_ Soldering ooq_t_oc ooO5too5 Soldered oints o5to
oto_o_oco`
oooqco_ (allowable velocity) oo`oco_oo@ compressed air oo go c5to
ogtoooco_ oo5o5 o5toocto_ (pressure drop) q_to oo_ oo@
oo octocoo 5ooc o5toocto_ (pressure drop) oocto_o5to`o compressor o o_oc o_
o5t (pressure)oOoootgqo oo_ Oo_o5c compressor o power consumption
o_o_too5to5o oo_ main header ac compressor . intercooler. after cooler . air receiver
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page S1
co_oo oo O5to_oo o5to o allowable velocity o_ occo qo c oo _o aqt (20
fps) ooo5ocoo
Network g branch oo o5t ac section o5t oo gq (isolating) oo g_g o @
ot_o__oo_ o oo_ flow o ooo pressure go5c Oqto_ogqoo o_t
ot_o_o_
oo5o5t oo5o5t oo5o5t oo5o5t (Ball valves) (Ball valves) (Ball valves) (Ball valves)
oo5o5t (Ball valves) o5to o t_o_go_oo_o5cto5 oo5o5t (Ball valves)
o5to_ o toocoqo_oq (fully open) o c o5toocto_ (pressure drop) o5
ogooo5oq_to_
ooo_o5cooo5 oo5o5t (Ball valves) o throat diameter o_ pipe o bore ac
goo oo5o_o5c_oco_ oo5o5t (Ball valves) o ooo c(handle) oqg5o _o__oct_oc
o5too O5to_ o ooo ocO5to_o oqco_ o oo5 oo5o5t (Ball valves) o_
oo o5t (gate valve) co_o Oo o@oct_o o_
ooo5t ooo5t ooo5t ooo5t (gate valve) (gate valve) (gate valve) (gate valve)
oo o5t (gate valve) o5to octoo o5oo5o_o5c o t_o__o_oct_oco_
o oo5 ooo5t (gate valve) o throat diameter o_ pipe o bore go Oo q_tco
ootco o_ O o_o5c oo o5t (gate valve) o o5toocto_ (pressure drop)
q_tco o5to_ ooO5to_ooq5_oc o_ oq_o5_oco_o` oootoo_octo_o5c
oooo5coogq (airtight seal) o_ocqcoo5oo ooo5t (gate valve) o _o_oo(fully
closed). _o_oc (fully open) o5oo partially open oq_oco_t ot_o_qco_
diaphragm ac globe valves oo_ o5toocto_ (pressure drop) o5too5o_o5c compressed
air systems oc ot_o_gq oocoo5oo
_ __ _. .. .p pp p Separators Separators Separators Separators ac ac ac ac Drains Drains Drains Drains
Compressed air o ogo5to ooOogq. ooacog o_o5tgqo o o t_o_o_ogo5o
Water separator ooo`o_ after-coolers o Oooc separators filters dryers ac
receivers co_oo ooocO5to_ cqcoo ooctoo oO5t_octac ooo5c5
O qtootoo5ctac_octo_o_o ooc compressed air o5t_o_qtoto__ocqco_ Condensate drain
o o q_t g o_tgo_ (oq_t condensate ogo5to q_t g o_t_ocooO ooc qco_)
( (( (o oo o) ero air loss traps with reservoirs ) ero air loss traps with reservoirs ) ero air loss traps with reservoirs ) ero air loss traps with reservoirs
zero air-loss traps q_t_oc condensate ogo5to oo5Oog5oc float o level sensor o_
ball valve o oo5cto (linkage) o ooc o coot_oct_oc condensate ogo5to
o oo5cO5to_oqg5 Ooo5toco_ low-level point oog5oo_oc oo5ooooto_
efficient _ocotoo5q_t_oc_ot Oqto otgqoooo_ ooooooqooqo oo oo
cotooqco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page S2
Wastes no air (ooo5to tg_t_octo_ocoo`qc )
Considered very reliable ( oq co ogo_q_t_oco_)
condensate ogo5to o oo5cO5to_oqg5 (Reservoir) o contaminants o5t
coq_octo_ocoo`ocgqoo o_o5ooo5oO oootgqooo_
zero air-loss traps _oc drain o oo_q_to5tq_tcoco_o5to_
( (( (o oo o) Electrically operated solenoid valves ) Electrically operated solenoid valves ) Electrically operated solenoid valves ) Electrically operated solenoid valves
ooooO5to_oqocto c o5t(drain valve)o solenoid
ocooto_ o oo_oqocto5go5co_t
o_o5ctqco_ o5t(drain valve) o_ condensate og
go__ococ. ogo__ococ ooo o q_to__ococ.
o5to__ococ oo ooO5too5 oqog5ooc ocooto_
O o_o5c oqo tgoo5 compressed air o5totg_tgo_ solenoid-
operated drain valve _oc condensate og oo5oOo_octo_
cotc ooo c _ococo_
oco_oq ooc System octo condensate og o5t oq Oo o5tooo_ooo oo
O o` System octo c condensate og o_o_t_o_to5to5ooo_ oo@ System
octo c condensate og gooqo ocoo`o compressed air o5to tg_to oo_
( (( (o oo o) Electrically operated solenoid valves. ) Electrically operated solenoid valves. ) Electrically operated solenoid valves. ) Electrically operated solenoid valves.
Solenoid-operated drain valve o5to c oqo oo oo ooto_ timing device o`oco_
_o _oc ooooO5to_ (preset adustable intervals) oct solenoid valve oc_oct oo _octo
_o_ooooto_ o oo5 _oq5co _ ooqgqco_
o5tocoq q_to`o condensate o5t5totoqo5c oo5O oootqcooo_ooooo
o5toco_o` condensate o5tq_tcooo5 gqco_ condensate og o5togo
o5tocooo5o_o5c compressed air otg_to_o5t_ocoo`qco_
Level-operated valve ac electrically operated solenoid valves o5toooco`o
contaminant _oco_oo5q_tocgq strainer o_tooocgqo oo_o5tocoq inlet port ac
discharge port oo oooo5totgqoo _oco_ Notorized ball valve o5to o_t
programmable timer _oco@ ot_o_qco_ reliable _oco_ device _ocoo5o_t Compressed
air otg_to_o5to_
( (( (o oo o) Float operated mechanical drains ) Float operated mechanical drains ) Float operated mechanical drains ) Float operated mechanical drains o o o o Level-operated mechanical traps Level-operated mechanical traps Level-operated mechanical traps Level-operated mechanical traps
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page SS
Float-type traps o5to cqcooo oo coc air oto oooo q_tcoo5 otg_to_
o oo5 ogoco Oqtootgqo oo_ condensate o qoo5t(sediment)o_o5c
oo oo_o5t_ocoo`qco_
!nverted bucket o_tc5t trap o5to_ q_tcooo5 _o__ocOqtooto_o5ooo_
condensate rate o o ooo5ooo5 og_oc (liquid level) ogoc compressed air
o5tog_tqco_
( (( (c cc c) Nanual drains ) Nanual drains ) Nanual drains ) Nanual drains
Condensate _oq5_ocqco_oqg5o5toc Nanual valve o5tO5tg_ot discharge
o oootaco_ moisture separators intercoolers refrigerateddryers ac filters co_oo c
drain o ogq o5t(valves)o5tO5tgo_ o5t(valves) o_ o oo5o (automatic)
oooooo5o_o5c o5too55t_oc o oo5 compressed air otg_to_o5t_ocqco_ o o
_o_oo_octq_to og5c_ooco_
_ __ _. .. .g gg g Air Dryers Air Dryers Air Dryers Air Dryers
Compressor oOoo5o_ compressed air o ooqo_ after-cooler ac moisture
separator o _oo_oto_oqo c _ocoooo ooqOo _oco cg_ot ogotogoc o5t (moisture)
o5tc5o`ocoqo_ ooo_ o_o_t_o_toto5o_aco O ooo oooo5cO5to_
ogotogoc o5t (moisture) o_ ooqoocto_o_o5c og _ocoo_o5cto5to_ condensation
_oco_ooo`o_ O oo5o_ogo condensate ogooo`o_ Oogo5to_ compressed air
lines o5tocgoq_ot oo o5too_ oo o5toootoo_oct. contamination _oc_oct co_
_oq5o5o _ocoo`ocqco_ Oo_o5c compressed air o5 oooo5cO5too5 ogotogoc o5t
(moisture)o oo g5tgqoo Air dryers o5to ot_o_g_oct_oco_
Compressed air dryer o_tc5t oo_oc o ooo5co_o5to_t oo_qcoo degrees
of dew point suppression o5to_to_ooo_oo ooo compressed air o5
oooo5cO5too5 ogotogoc o5t (moisture) coc @ og _ocoo_o5ctoo 5to_ ooqo
dew point ooo`o_ Air dryers o5to refrigerated dryer . desiccant dryer ac membrane dryer
o @ oto_to_o5tqco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page S4
Refrigerated dryers Refrigerated dryers Refrigerated dryers Refrigerated dryers
Refrigerated dryer o5to_ oootootcoo5too o ooo_oo_ compressed air
o ooooto5c (dew point Ooooqqoo5c ) cooling coil o_occtoco_
O o`ooOo ogotogoc o5t (moisture) coc @ og _ocoo_o5ctoo5to_
Refrigerated air dryers o5t o_ compressed air o 33-39F
Ooto5cooqccotgo_ o oo5 33-39F Oo oqoo5c _o_o ooc condensing water
o_ dryer o cooling coil oo`o c otoo5to oo_ refrigeration unit o operating parameter
o5to o_o5cto_oct_oc 50F O go5c_o_ooqco_
Desiccant dryers Desiccant dryers Desiccant dryers Desiccant dryers
Desiccant material o5to_ ooOo ogotogoc o5to coo qccotgo_ Compressed Air
o5to desiccant material o5too`o_oo oqtoco c desiccant material o5to_ ooOo
ogotogoc o5to coo oog5t_oco oo_
ooq 33F Ooq_to_ pressure dew point ggqooo`o desiccant dryer o5to
ot_o_gqoqocoo 5o_ Desiccant dryer o5to_ dew point -+0F
Oooctocgqoo ooct_o_ooO5to_ qoot dew points -150F O oocto5c
o oootqccotgo_
Desiccant dryer o5to_ desiccant towers _ o o`ggqo oo_ regeneration
_o_oogqooo_ desiccant towers ocoo_ ogotogoc o5to coooqc _o5too5
desiccant towers ocoo_ ogotogoc o5to cqO oocoqgqo oo_ (regeneration
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page SS
o ooqo_ ) o to5to t desiccant materials o5to5 silica gel . molecular sieve of crystalline
metal alumiosilicates ac activated alumina o_oco_ activated alumina o_ o a
oto5to_
Regeneration oogq q_t _ o_tgo_ o_oc Regeneration o o_octac oo
Regeneration o o_oct o _oco_
Heatless desiccant dryers Heatless desiccant dryers Heatless desiccant dryers Heatless desiccant dryers
Heatless desiccant dryers o5to c oco drying tower _oo`oco_ acoco toc
desiccant bed o5to`oco_ tower ocoo_ drying _o_o ooqc (ogotogoc o5to coooqc )
_o5t tower ocoo_ regenerating _o_o ooqo_ regenerating oo_o5 ogoc o5t
Oo o5tocgq Compressed air o o t_o_@ desiccant bed (ogoc o5tcooO5to_ o ogoc
o5t _o_ooqo_ ) o o_o Oooc_oct_oco_ O o_oOooco_ ooo purge air ooo`o_
compressed airflow o oo o oo O ot_o_o_ Compressed Air o5t otg_t_octo_o5c
Compressed Air System ocoo t efficient o_ocqcoo5oo
Heated desiccant dryers Heated desiccant dryers Heated desiccant dryers Heated desiccant dryers
Heat regenerative dryers o_ _ocoo o (oocccotco_ococ. ogoc o_ococ)o
ot_o_o_ ogoc o5to o_oOoocgqo o Compressed Air ooo5to oo t_o_o_
O o_o_oo_octo regeneration o oo_o oo`o_ purge air oo5oo5q_toco_ oo
heat regenerative dryer o5to oqocgoooo5o_
oq_oco_ ooq (High regenerative temperatures) o_o5c equipment ac desiccant
o5tooctocqco_
Nembrane Dryers Nembrane Dryers Nembrane Dryers Nembrane Dryers
Nembrane Dryer o5to_ semi-permeable membrane o ot_o_@ oo compressed air
oc o`o5oo5 ogotogoc o5t (moisture) o o toq_oco5cooO oooto_ Nembrane Dryer
o5toc o_og5oqoo5 coocto5t (moving parts) oo`ocoo
Nembrane Dryer o5to_ nameplate rating o _og5oca_qto sweep the membrane.
This sweep air o5to_ air system ootg_to 5to_ooo5t_oco_ Nembrane Dryer o5toc
oco5o_ooo q_qtac ooqo oo @ dew point o_ o_o5ctooqo_
Nembrane-type dryers Nembrane-type dryers Nembrane-type dryers Nembrane-type dryers
Nembrane-type dryer o5t o_ +0F O og5oo5c_o_o oootqco_ o qqoo_ -
+0F dew point O og5o o5c_o_o ooo`o ooo5to purge ooocgqo ooo5o_o5c
Compressed Air otg_to_o5t_ocoo`o5qco_
Nembrane dryer o 5to5oo o5to5
(o) ooocgqoqocgoq_t_oct (Low installation cost)
(o) ot_o_gqo qocgoq_t_oct (Low operating cost)
(o) _oco(outdoor) o c oooc ot_o_q co_
(o) ootag5o go_oqg5(hazardous atmospheres) o5toco_tooocqco_
(c) o _og5toqoo5 co octo5t oo`oco` (No moving parts) o _oco_
Nembrane dryer o 5tq_tooo5to5
(o) Capacity q_tcoo5ggqco_ system (low-capacity system) _oco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page S6
(o) High purge air loss (15 to 20 percent) to achieve required pressure dew points
(o) Nembrane may be fouled by oil or other contaminants and a coalescing filter is
recommended before the dryer. The total power requirement including pressure
drop and compressor operating cost is approximately 3 to + kWf100 cfm.
Dryer Dryer Dryer Dryer ogtoo_oct ogtoo_oct ogtoo_oct ogtoo_oct
Pressure dew point ac o qocgo (operation cost) oo`o c o_oo@ compressed air
dryer oogtoo_oo_ 35F Ooqoo_ pressure dew point ooo`o refrigerant-type dryer
o o t_o_gqo_ocqcoo dryer o5t o rating o_ saturated air at inlet oo`oc o_ooo_
ooocot_o_o_oqg5 (geographical location) acoooocoo
relative humidity q_toooo dryer o load q_toooo_oco_ ooo5 pressure dew point
oo_o5cto oo
Compressed air dryer o o5toocto_ (pressure drop) o_ 3 o 5 psi oct_oco_
oqooo oooo5 pressure dew point Oog5o o5c compressed air dryer
o ot_o_oco_ oo ooo t_o_o`o cotcac oc _o_qto t_octo5_oco_
o oo o. Compressor Controls . Compressor Controls . Compressor Controls . Compressor Controls
Compressor o5to controls o_ system performance ac energy efficiency
o acooocoo5o_o5c oqogt_oto_
oooco_oo`o5go5t (Key Terms)
Full Load Full Load Full Load Full Load o o_o5 air demand ac Compressor o total available capacity o o_o_o`
ocgo_ Load o ooo_ compressor5toto oo_ Full Load _ocoo5ctoqo_
oooc efficient _ocot_oco_
Part Load Part Load Part Load Part Load o o_o5 air demand o_ Compressor o total available capacity Oo q_to_
o` o cgo_ Load o ooo_ compressor5totooo_ part load _ocoo5cto_
o`oc efficient ooo_ocoo Compressors 5to to_ part load _ocoo5cto_o` oc
efficiency oocto 5t_oo_oo5oo ooo o tO5to_ control system oo`o coo_o_
Control strategy o og_goooo5 oto_o_o_ (o oo o o_ ) compressor
o5to oo oct oo _ocgq ac compressor coo5ctgqooo_ o`oc ooqcooo5o
oq5o oo@oo5ctgq _oco_
Control system oo5ctoqc5o ooooc average pressure o ooqcooo5o
qoo5c O qtO5tgq (oooqco_ qoot system pressure Ooo5ooooco ) _oco_
compressor output ac system demand o o o_ocgq_oco_
Compressor control mode o5to o5o o`o ct g o_t o_o5tqco_
(o) Startfstop ( coo5ct_oct goq5t_oct)
(_) Loadfunload (Load oc_oct)
(p) !nlet modulation
(g) Auto-dual
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page S7
(_) variable displacement
(o) variable speed ac
(g) System controls o_oco_
o oo o. .. .o oo o Start f Stop Control Start f Stop Control Start f Stop Control Start f Stop Control
Startfstop control o small reciprocating compressors o5to c o5tot o t_o_oogo_
Discharge pressure o_ oooo O5to_ pressure level Oo o5toqoc compressor
o oo_oc_oct _oc o_
Start f Stop Control q_to_ energy efficient mode _oco_ oo o_o5c ooo5
compressor o_ oo5cto_oooc 100 capacity _ocoo5ct_ot gooqo_ oo oc o to
goq5to5 (cotcotc_octo_o_oo) Oo_o5c energy efficient _oco_ o oo5 rotary compressor
o5to_ startfstop mode _ocoo5ctgq o_ocqc
5to5oo 5to5oo 5to5oo 5to5oo
Air compressor o_oo5cto_o`o ctoc fully load _ocoo5ctoo5o_o5c energy
efficient _oco_
5tq_too 5tq_too 5tq_too 5tq_too
oqoo ct air compressor o oo5o5 o_ _ooo5tc5 coo5ct_oct ac
goq5t_oct_o_oogq o_ocqcoo ooctgooo._oqoo5cto o oo_octo_o5c oo5o5o
ooqo_ o_o_t_o_t_ocooo5o oo_ocq5goctoc o5to t oot_o o o
o_o5o _oooctoco5 oo5ct_oct. go_oct. _o_oo qco_ O o_o5c O to_oc 10 hp o 25 hp
oo goc5tgoo5 oo5o5o5too automatic start-stop controls o5toc o_o5o
go_oct.oo5ct_oct ooogq oqoo o5t_ocO5to_
Compressor o_ minimum system pressure ooog5ooc oqoc
_oq@cocoo5ctoco_ ooo_o5co oo5 system pressure o_ minimum system
pressure Oooq_to`o ooo5too_otg_to_o5t_ocqco_ storage receiver o goc5t
ac working pressure bands oo o ooo @ Compressor oo5o5 _oqoo5ctgo_ oqo
gqco_ o oo5o o5c_oto5to_ receiver go c5t_o_o oO5t_octo_o5c efficient
operation o ggqco_ system ocooto_ oo5ctc5 oooo5coqooo_
o oo o. .. ._ __ _ Loadfunload Control Loadfunload Control Loadfunload Control Loadfunload Control
Loadfunload control oo_o5 discharge pressure o_ pressure setting
o oog5oocoq compressor o_ ooo load _oc oo5ctot efficiency
_ocoo5ctoqo oo_ ooo5 discharge pressure o_ pressure setting o og5oo5toqoc
compressor o_ coc unload ooooo_ Unload o oo_o`o c compressor o_
compressed air o5to ooOoootooo_ ooo oo o oo5 oo5o5o_
goo5tooo_ooooo
Outlet blows down o oo_ oo oc q_tcoo oo5 cotcotg_to__ocoo`ooo_
check valve o og5oo 5to_ compressed air o5to o5toocto 5tocgq vent
_ocoo5o_o5c_oco_ Reciprocating compressor o5to c cylinder o5t o unload oo _oct_oc air
output o o oo O qto_o_oct_oco_ control oo_oct_oco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page S8
oto5to_q_to5 two-step control _oc_ot ooocoo`o (inlet) o
o toocoqo5coc_oct (fully open)ac otoooO5t_oct (fully shut) _oco_
_o _ocooo oO5to_ qooto5t (preset minimum pressure) (or load point) o
_o _ocooooO5to_ _oco to5t (preset maximum pressure) (or no-load point)
octo c Compressor o_ fully loaded (or at full flow) _ocoo5ctoqooo_
Discharge Pressure o_ preset maximum pressure (or no-load point) Oo oo5to5oc
ooocoo`o (inlet) o o toooO5t_oct (fully shut) _oc idle _ocoqo_ Discharge Pressure o_
load point ooog5oooct idle _ocoqooo_
Discharge Pressure o_ load point oog5o o_ac oc_o_o qooooct ooocoo`o
(inlet) o o toocoqo5coc o o_oct (fully open)_oc full-flow capacity o og5oqco_
Pressure switch o_ two-step control ooc o oooo5cootoqoo5
o go5oco_oco_ pressure switch o_ primary control oooo dual-control system o
cooct_oco_
o_ oo5 reciprocating compressors o5toc 3- step oooo 5-step controls q_to
ot_o__oo_
5to5oo 5to5oo 5to5oo 5to5oo
o5too55t_oc Reciprocating compressor o5to_ part-load operation oc o @ efficient
_oc_oo_ pistons o_ q_tco ooo5 ooooo5to o5 o qtgoo5o_o5c
q_tco ooo5 cotcoo5_o_qto tg5og5oo_
o to unload ooO5to_ reciprocating air compressor o_ full load
oo5cto_oqo coto_ cotcoo5o ooo o5 ot_o_o_
5tq_too 5tq_too 5tq_too 5tq_too
Loadfunload control q_to screw compressor o5toc o t_o_oc oo5ctc5 efficient
o_ocqcoo otooq unload ooO5to_ screw compressor o_ full load
oo5cto_oqo coto_ cotcoo5o _o o __ o ot_o_o_
Screw compressor o c discharge pressure o_ 30 - +0 psig Ooq_toc
cotcooo5o_o5 o@oco_ocqcoo5oo
Energy saving _ocgq oo o_o5oo5 idle _ocoqo_ oqo ggq o oo_
O oo _oto5too5 air storage ooo5oo5c_o to5too5 air storage gO5tgqooo_
o oo o. .. .p pp p Throttling or Nodulation Control Throttling or Nodulation Control Throttling or Nodulation Control Throttling or Nodulation Control
ooocoo`o(inlet opening)ooo Throttling oo@ oto5c oo o5c_o_oo_oct_oc
o ooo5 air demand oo5o ggo5c compressor o capacity o O qto_o_oct_oco_
ooocoo`o o(inlet opening) ocooocO5too5 valve o_ System pressure q_to5to
o o@ ooo_ discharge pressure _oco5c oo octOqtootqcco tgo_ oq_t flow
capacity o air intake ogo5 oto5cooo5c_o_oo_oct_oc compressor o capacity o
O qto_o_oct _oco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page S9
System demand o_o5ctoogoq (Steady State) oc constant system pressure
_oco5c o5tog o5to_ q_to t_oc (minimal valve movement) OqtO5tqcgqooo_
Low load o_ooqo5to o oq_o5_occ5 Throttling mode o o tgq oocoo5oo
5to5oo 5to5oo 5to5oo 5to5oo
oo5ct_oct. goq5t_oct co_ q_t_ocOqto_o_octooooo5o_o5c (non-cycling control)
operation o5 oo5oo o_
oo o5 ooo load _oc oo5ctoqoq oo5ctc5 efficient _oco_ storage capacity
q_to__ococ o5to__ococ. oog_o__ococ oo__ococ o_o_o`o o_o5o
oo _octoo5ct_oct (short cycle) _ocooo_oo ooo ooogctoct o_q_t_ocoo5o_o5c
oo oc5 oo5ct_oct. Oqo ot_oct ac_o__oc _octo _o_o o qco_
5tq_too 5tq_too 5tq_too 5tq_too
loads o_ ooOoq_to`o Throttling efficient o_ocoo5oo full capacity ggqoo
o oo5o o_ Backpressure ggqo_ base load oooo5ctgqoooqoqoc pressure
q_to5to oooct oq_oqo_o_o5c (!nstant response) compressor o_ unload
o o_oct_ocqco_ q_tcoooo5 o5to_o5ctoo_o oqc_oct ac oq_oqo_ _oqoo5o_o5c
(Sensitivity and rapid reaction) oo5cto too5 o_ooq (optimum operation) o
_ocoo`ocqco_
o oo o. .. .g gg g Auto - Dual Control Auto - Dual Control Auto - Dual Control Auto - Dual Control
o oo o. .. ._ __ _ variable Displacement Control variable Displacement Control variable Displacement Control variable Displacement Control
variable displacement control q_to_ compressed air OO_ o g_ (effective length of
rotor compression volume)o oo5c o ooo g_o5co ooot_ot rotary screw compressor o
output o o ooo5 air demand ac oo_oco_ ocoooo5t(inlet pressure)
o__cooqooo5oooot compression ratio o_ o_t o__cooqo oo_
oo compression ratio o oo5toco flow o oo5q_to5c _o_ooqc_oct o_o5c
power o tco_oq_toc o_ O o_o5c modulating control ooq_tOo o_t ooo5cto_ 2-
step control o5oo full load o 50 load O ooct o 5t_oct o_t o_ocqcoo
Spiral-cut high lead valve ac poppet valve oo5 o to5too5 unloading controls q_to5t oc
ooocO5to_ valve o5t _oc_oo_
O acq_totoc compressor cylinder o port o5to oo_oct (open) ac oc_oct(close)
o o_o_ooootgo_ ooco`octgooo OO_ o oo5oootqco_ O o_o5c copress
o ogqoo oooo5 horsepower o_too5q_to 5tooo_
5to5oo 5to5oo 5to5oo 5to5oo
50 o 100 part-load performance o ct oq efficient _oco_
ooooO5to_ (Set O5to_ ) minimum system pressure o ctOqtO5tqco_
o q_oqo_ oq_oqo_ very responsive _oco_
5tq_too 5tq_too 5tq_too 5tq_too
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 4u
Load o5to_o` o_oo5 oqco5to_ oooco_oct(leakage) o_o5c efficiency
oocto 5to_
co oc_tcoocto5to_ g_ooOtoo oo_
Lower operating range o5t 2-step oooo modulation _ocoo5ctgo_
o oo o. .. .o oo o variable Speed Drive Control variable Speed Drive Control variable Speed Drive Control variable Speed Drive Control
Air Compressor o5t o Unloading ooq ccotgog
o5o o`oo5t o_ Air Compressor o5t o Unloading ooqccotgog oo5_oO5to_
Type of Type of Type of Type of
control control control control
Reciprocating Reciprocating Reciprocating Reciprocating
(single- (single- (single- (single-
acting) acting) acting) acting)
Reciprocating Reciprocating Reciprocating Reciprocating
(double- (double- (double- (double-
acting) acting) acting) acting)
Lubricant Lubricant Lubricant Lubricant- -- -
cooled cooled cooled cooled
rotary rotary rotary rotary
screw screw screw screw
Oil-free Oil-free Oil-free Oil-free
rotary rotary rotary rotary
screw screw screw screw
Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal Centrifugal
Automatic
start-stop
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Two step Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (dual)
Three and five
step
No Yes No No No
Throttled inlet No No Yes No Yes
variable
displacement
No No Yes No NfA
variable speed No No Yes No No
o oo o. .. .g gg g Nultiple Compressor System Controls Nultiple Compressor System Controls Nultiple Compressor System Controls Nultiple Compressor System Controls
g gg g. Compressed Air System Leak . Compressed Air System Leak . Compressed Air System Leak . Compressed Air System Leak
!ndustrial compressed air system o5to c ooocooct (Leakage) o_o5c cotc
o_qtotoo ococo_ o_oo5 System o5to c Compressor Output o _o o po O
ooocooocaco_ oo5ctc5o_ocO qtootO5toct ogoo5 Compressed air system o c
O oooo_ compressed air capacity o _o Oooo5to_ ocooocaco_
oooo5 o_ocoo5t_o_o ooctac oooo coo5c o5o ooo5t o_ooocto_o5c
o cooo ooOoq_to5c oo5oaco_ Leak ococto_o5c cotc o_qto too
ococaco_oc oo5too5 operation losses o5to o_t ococ aco_
Leak ococto_o5c system pressure oocto5_ot o to_oqo_ tools ac equipment
o5to cotoo5cg_o_t oocto5go_ Leak o_o5c equipment oac oqOotgooo oco5
oqooco oo ctoo5t _o _ooaco_ Leak ococto_o5c Compressor o5t ooo_Ooo@
oq_o5occ5 oo5ctac_ogo_ O o_o5c o_oc Oqtootoo5t o_o5o o_o o_ogo_oc
o_ocgqoo goO5tgo_ oq (Downtime) o_t ooo5to5to5o_ Leak o_o5c
o oo_Oo o@Capacity oco_ compressor o5tooocO5tgo_
ocooo5to_ System ocooct o c o_o_oqg5oc oo ocoo`aco_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 41
o5tot Leak ocoo`aco_ oqg5o5to5
o) Couplings . hoses . tubes ac fittings
o) Pressure regulators
o) Open condensate traps and shut-off valves ac
o) Pipe oints disconnects and thread sealants o_oco_
g gg g. .. .o oo o Leakage Leakage Leakage Leakage _oco_ _oco_ _oco_ _oco_ oo5o oo5o oo5o oo5o oqoqtoooo_oct oqoqtoooo_oct oqoqtoooo_oct oqoqtoooo_oct
Start f stop control ooq_t (o ) Load f Unload control ooq_toc oo5cto_
Compressor o5tgo_ System o5to Leakage Amount o o ooo o aco_
o) oto_oqo_ equipment o5t. tools o5t 5to to oo O5to` (o ) oo otoo_o
goO5to` O o`o_to No demand on the system ooo5oo go_
_) Compressor o cocoo5cto` (o ) Compressor coo5cto_ oqo ooO5to`
p) Compressor goo_oq (o ) unload ooo_oqo ooo`
Compressor o_ oo5ctoo. gooo (o ) unload oco o. load ocoo ocoqo oo_
ooo_o5cooo5 Leak o_o5c system pressure o_ oocto 5to_ oooo O5to_
pressure O oocto 5to_o` Compressor o5t oo5ctoct (o ) load oooct ocoo`o_
oo5ctoo5o_o5c System pressure o5tocoo o5o5 oooo O5too5 pressure o
og5o o_ o` goo 5tooo_ Oo compressor o_ cycle on (o ) off ocoqocto_o5c
compressor oo5ctoqo_oq (on load time) ac gooqo_ oq (off-load time)
o octoaco_
Total leakage (percentage) o o5o o` oooq_t_ocoooqco_
Leakage (%) =
T x 1
T +t
where T on-load time (minutes)
t off-load time (minutes)
Leakage o compressor o capacity otgto (lost) oc oo`oaco_ oo5ctc5
O qtootO5to_ System ocoo Leakage o_ oo Oo q_to_ Oqtooto _octo_
system ocoo_ total capacity o _o o po O ooo tgto ocoo`aco_
Leakage o o to_o_oqg5 (Down steam) ocgo_ pressure gauge o
oqo toc o_t oooa co_ ooo5 total system volume o o gqoo_ Down steam g
secondary air receiver o5t. air main o5t. ac piping oo`oco_
Leakage o o5o o` oooq_t_ocoo oqco_
Leakage (cmree a|r) =
F x (P1 - P2)
T x 14. 7
x 1. 25
where v OO_ (volume in cubic feet)
P1 and P2 pressure in psig
T Time in minutes
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org)
1.25 o_ Normal system pressure ocgqoo o to_O5too5 correction multiplier
oco_ Air leakage o ooq ccootoco_ Leakage test o_ oo5 o_o
o cooqo_o o5 oo`oo_ o_o_ oqg5o co_oo o cooqo_ o gq oocac Oo_o5c
Leak Detection o_oogqo oo_
g gg g. .. ._ __ _ Leak Detection Leak Detection Leak Detection Leak Detection
ooocoocto_ ooococ ocoo aco_ g5 oooo` ooocoo_ oqg5o
g5oogqo o ultrasonic acoustic detector o_ oo5cto toco_ Air leak o_o5c
ocoo`o5oo5 High frequency hissing sound o ultrasonic detector ocoga co_ Detector
oc microphone . amplifier ac audio filter oo`oco_ Earphones (o ) visual indicator oooc
o gaco_
Ultrasonic detector otoo_aco`o gtgcto tq_toco_ ooo5g_ o o to_@
g5ooaco_ ooo5g_oo5@ leak ocaco_ oqg5o5t ooo ooctoc o aco_
c o ogo_ q_tocoocoo5o_t oq oq o qoo5q_t_oco_
oo5 oo5 oo5 oo5
o5tO ooocqt (automobile industry) oc
ot_o_oo5 1000 CFN compressor oco t5t Free
Air Delivery test ac leakage tests _o_o ogq oo
ot_o_oqoo5 equipment 5toto oo @
compressor o oo5cto`o_
Free Air Delivery test o cotooooo compressor
o_ ooooO5too5 Free Air Delivery o _oo
Ooootqccotgo_
Leakage test o go5oo5to5 o5o o`o ct_oco_
Compressor o_ 8 minutes _o5o5c Load o oo_
Compressor o unloaded o ooqo_ +8 minutes _o5o_
Compressor otco_ cotco5 1++ kW _oco_
o5o o`oooo o`
o. Free air delivery or the output of the compressor
_. Specific power consumption
p. leakage in the compressed air system
g. Quantity of compressed air leakage
_. Power lost due to leakage
o_o o_o o_o o_o
o oo o. Free air delivery . Free air delivery . Free air delivery . Free air delivery oooo` oooo` oooo` oooo` oooo oooo oooo oooo Compressor Compressor Compressor Compressor o oo o output output output output oooo` oooo` oooo` oooo`
Free air delivery 90 of rated capacit 0.90 x 1000 cfm 900 cfm
_ __ _. Specific power consumption . Specific power consumption . Specific power consumption . Specific power consumption oooo` oooo` oooo` oooo`
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org)
Spec||c puwer cunxumpt|un =
Actua| Cumprexxed A|r Output (CFM)
Actua| Puwer Cunxumpt|un (kW)
Specific power consumption 900 cfm f 1++ kW 6.25 cfmf kW
p pp p. Compressed air system . Compressed air system . Compressed air system . Compressed air system o leak _oco_ o leak _oco_ o leak _oco_ o leak _oco_ g5oca_qtoooo` g5oca_qtoooo` g5oca_qtoooo` g5oca_qtoooo`
% lcokogc in tbc systcm =
I
(I + t)
x 1uu
% lcokogc in tbc systcm =
u8
(u8 +48)
x 1uu = 14.2%
g gg g. Compressed air leakage . Compressed air leakage . Compressed air leakage . Compressed air leakage oo5oooo` oo5oooo` oo5oooo` oo5oooo`
Icokogc uontity = Pcrccntogc Icokogc x Acutol 0utput
Icokogc uontity = u.142 x 9uu CFH = 127.8 CFH
_ __ _. Leak . Leak . Leak . Leak _oc_octo_o5c _oc_octo_o5c _oc_octo_o5c _oc_octo_o5c otg_tgo_ otg_tgo_ otg_tgo_ otg_tgo_ cotcoo5 cotcoo5 cotcoo5 cotcoo5 oooo` oooo` oooo` oooo`
Powcr lost Juc to lcokogc =
Icokogc quontity
spcciic cncrgy
Powcr lost Juc to lcokogc =
127.8 CFH
6.2S kwpcr CFH
= 2u.4S
oo5 oo5 oo5 oo5
Process industry oc ot_o_oqoo5 compressed air system 5t leakage test _o_o og5 o5o o`
go5oo5to ggo_
Compressor capacity (m3fminute) 35
Cut in pressure kgfcm2(g) 6.8
Cut out pressure kgfcm2(g) 7.5
Load kW drawn 188 kW (Load o ooqc Compressor otco_ cotco5 188 kW _oco_)
Unload kW drawn 5+ kW (Load o ooqc Compressor otco_ cotc o5 5+ kW _oco_)
Average 'Load' time T 1.5 minutes (Compressor o_ 8 minutes _o5o5c Load ooo_)
Average 'Unload' time t 10.5 minutes (Compressor o unloaded o ooqo_ +8 minutes
_o5o_)
ooocoo_oo5 (Leakage quantity) ac cotc o tg_to_ (loss of power due to air leakages
)o oo oo`
o_o
(o) Leakage quantity (m
3
fmin) q =
(1.5)
(1.5)+ (1.5)
x 35
+.375 m3fmin
(o) Leakage quantity per year (m
3
fday) +.375 x 2+ x 60 6300 m3fday
(o) Specific power for compressed air generation =
188 kW
(35 x 60)
m3fhr
(o) Energy lost due to leakage f day 0.0895 x 6300 56+ kWh
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 44
o oo o. Air Quality . Air Quality . Air Quality . Air Quality
Compressed Air o "Quality" o oo p ooo`oco_
(o) oooqco_ o5tot ogotogoc o`oco_ ac Dew point (Naximum (acceptable) Noisture
Content or Pressure Dew Point)
(_) oooqco_ o5totoo5o o`oco_ (Naximum (acceptable) Oil Content)ac
(p) oooqco_ o5totoooqco_ o_qo5t o`oco_ (Naximum (acceptable) Particulate
Concentration)
Compressed air o g_ooto_ _ot plant air o oo5ctot breathing air
o_to_to_o5tqco_ ot_o_oooo_@ Compressed air o g_oot
o_to o@o_o5to_
Air Quality ac ot_o_o Air Quality ac ot_o_o Air Quality ac ot_o_o Air Quality ac ot_o_o o5t o5t o5t o5t (Applications) (Applications) (Applications) (Applications)
Air Quality Air Quality Air Quality Air Quality Applications Applications Applications Applications
Breathing Air Hospital air systems Refill diving tanks Respirators for cleaning
andfor grit blasting and spray painting
Process Air Food and pharmaceutical process air Electronics !nstrument Air
Laboratories Paint spraying Powder coating Climate control
Plant Air Air tools general plant air
ooo_o5o oo o_ (Dryness) ac contaminant level o o_ quality air oo5ctooo5cto
o t_oogqoo oooo5 oo acoo _oco_ Compressed Air o "Quality"
oo5cto5o_aco Oooogq o qo cgoo_to5t o5ooo_
oooo5ctoqo_ g_oot gggq oo _o5too5 o equipment o5to oo_
O o_o5c o equipment o5too o qooo5to_ _oc O oo ocgo . _o__ocO qtooto
ac c otcotco_ o_too5to_
O o_o5c oooocqto o o_o_ g_ootgoo5 Air "Quality" ooo_o
o gqoo_
Air "Quality" qccoo5 ooo_o_ coqc_qto5to !SO Standard 8573 o o5o o`
oo5to coo5_oO5to_
!SO 8573 Air Quality Classifications !SO 8573 Air Quality Classifications !SO 8573 Air Quality Classifications !SO 8573 Air Quality Classifications
Class Class Class Class
Oil Carryover Oil Carryover Oil Carryover Oil Carryover
(mgfm3) (mgfm3) (mgfm3) (mgfm3)
Dust Carryover (mgfm3) Dust Carryover (mgfm3) Dust Carryover (mgfm3) Dust Carryover (mgfm3)
Noisture carryover Noisture carryover Noisture carryover Noisture carryover
(mgfm3) (mgfm3) (mgfm3) (mgfm3)
1 0.01 0.1 0.003
2 0.1 1 0.12
3 1 5 0.88
+ 5 8 6
5 25 10 7.8
6 25 10 7.8
7 - - 9.+
Compressor oco togtoog5o c O Compressor o Oo ootqco_ air quality o
ocoqto O_ctc5tgqo o_
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 4S
oo@ oo5o o`oco_ogo_oo (lubricant-free air) o ooc oo5o o to_o_o_
(lubricant-free) compressoro5to ot_o_qco_ o oo o ubricant-inected compressor o
ot_o_o`o oo5o ooO oo_ (separation ) ogo5 ac oqcco_ o go5 (filtration
equipment) o o t_o_gqoo_
Lubricant-free compressor o_ o@oct_ot_ot _o__ocOqto oto oo5to_
Lubricant-inected compressor o_ octooo5oo5o_t o_o5too5 ooc_to5t oo
o qocgoo5to_
o5o o`oo5toc compressor aco_to o characteristics o5to oo5_oO5to_
Characteristics of Lubricated and Non-lubricated Compressors Characteristics of Lubricated and Non-lubricated Compressors Characteristics of Lubricated and Non-lubricated Compressors Characteristics of Lubricated and Non-lubricated Compressors
Non Lubricated Compressor Non Lubricated Compressor Non Lubricated Compressor Non Lubricated Compressor Lubricated Compressor Lubricated Compressor Lubricated Compressor Lubricated Compressor
Nay require fewer filters and oil changes Considerably lower capital costs
Longer operational life Oil provides a cooling effect
Often preferred when manufacturing sensitive
products such as food or pharmaceutical applications
Lower speeds and temperatures
High capital costs. Routine service costs usually high Filter maintenance and oil changes
required quite often
To reach high pressure need multistage compression. Due to pressure drop air treatment
capital and running costs are higher
!nstrument air service oo non-lubricated compressor o5to o t_o_gq
ooo qocoo 5o_ !nstrument Air o Quality Standards _oco_ ANS!f!SA 7.0.01 o c
ootcooo5_oO5to_
Although not recommended if lubricated compressors are used lubricant removal is required
to avoid damaging effects on air system components and end-use devices.
Air quality oooo o5tac compressor o_tc5to5to q5to_ooo5oo`ogq
o oo__oc ooOoc o`o5o_ contaminant o5to oo5ctoqo_ q_t (efficient
method) o5t_oc g5oo ot_o_oco_
ooO oc o`o5o_ ogotogoc (water vapor) . o_qo_o o5t (dirt) ac atmospheric
pollution o5to_ Compression cycle oct OO_ oocto5to_ o` contamination
level oo5to5o_ (o@oto`to5o_) Air quality ooo5ctocgqoo o_to_too5 filtration
equipment ac drying equipment o5tocto oo c ggqco_ cqcooooo5c5ogtoo_oct_oc
cotcotco_ac oqocgoo o oo o5ocqco_
_ __ _. Code Reference Code Title . Code Reference Code Title . Code Reference Code Title . Code Reference Code Title
ANS!f!SA S7.0.01 Quality Standards for !nstrument Air
AP! 617 Centrifugal Compressors for Petroleum Chemical and Gas !ndustry Services
AP! 618 Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum Chemical and Gas !ndustry Services
AP! 619 Rotary-Type Positive Displacement
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 46
Compressors for Petroleum Chemical and Gas !ndustry Services
AP! 672 Packaged !ntegrally Geared Compressors
for Petroleum Chemical and Gas !ndustry Services
ASNE ASNE Boiler and Pressure vessel Code Section v!!! Div.1
ASNEfANS! B16.5 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASNEfANS! B31.1 Power Piping
ASNEfANS! B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
oo. ootoqt oo. ootoqt oo. ootoqt oo. ootoqt ac ac ac ac o_oo5t o_oo5t o_oo5t o_oo5t
1. Which of the following type does Screw compressor belongs to?
a) Positive displacement compressor b) Dynamic compressors
c) Both a b d) None of the above
2. The compressor capacity of a reciprocating compressor is directly proportional to __ .
a) Speed b) Pressure c) volume d) All
3. vertical type reciprocating compressors are used in the capacity range of _____
a) 50 - 150 cfm b) 200 - 500 cfm c) Above 10ooo cfm d) 10 - 50 cfm
+. The specific power consumption of non lubricated compressor compared to lubricated
type is ____
a) Lesser b) Same c) Higher d) None
5. The discharge temperature of two stage compressor compared to single stage one is
____
a) Lesser b) Same c) Higher d) None
6. The compression ratios for axial flow compressors are ____.
a) Lesser b) Higher c) moderate d) None
7. The volumetric efficiency of the compressor with the increase in altitude of place
a) increases b) decreases c) does not change d) None
8. The ratio of isothermal power to actual measured input power of a compressor is known
as
a) !sothermal efficiency b) volumetric Efficiency
c) Barometric efficiency d) None
9. The basic function of air dryer in a compressor is
a. prevent dust from entering compressor
b. storage and smoothening pulsating air output
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 47
c. reduce the temperature of the air before it enters the next state to increase efficiency
d. to remove remaining traces of moisture after after-cooler
10. For every +C raise in air inlet temperature of an air compressor the power
consumption will increases by_____
a) 2 b) 1 c) 3 d) +
11. The percentage increase in power consumption of a compressor with suction side air
filter and with the pressure drop across the filter of 200 mmWc is ____
a) 1.0 b) 3 c) 2.+ d) 1.6
12. Which of the statement is True for centrifugal compressors?
a) The compressor should not be operated at full load
b) The compressor should be operated at shut off pressure
c) The compressor should not be operated with inlet-guide vane control
d) The compressor should not be operated close to the surge point
13. !dentify the correct statement for air compressors.
a. For every 5.5oC drop in the inlet air temperature the increase in energy consumption is
by 2.
b. For every + oC rise in the inlet air temperature the decrease in energy consumption is
by 1
c. For every + oC rise in the inter air temperature the increase in energy consumption is
by 1
d. The energy consumption remains same irrespective of inlet air temperature
1+. Reduction in the delivery pressure of a Compressor working at 7 bar by 1 bar would
reduce the power consumption by
a) 6 to 10 b) 2 to 3 c) 12 to 1+ d) None of the above
15. The acceptable pressure drop at the farthest point in mains header of an industrial
compressed air network is
a)0.3 bar b) 0.5 bar c) 1.0 bar d) 2 bar
16. The likely estimate on equivalent power wastage for a leakage from 7 bar compressed
air system through 1.6 mm orifice size is ____
a) 0.2 kW b) 3.0 kW c) 0.8 kW d) 12 kW
Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System Compressed Air System
oo5ctOo_q (www.acmv.org) Page 48
17. From the point of lower specific energy consumption which of the following
compressors are suitable for part load operation?
a) Two stage reciprocating compressors b) Centrifugal compressors
c) Two stage screw compressor d) Single stage screw compressor
18. From base load operation and from achieving best specific energy consumption point of
view which of the following compressors are suitable?
a) Single stage reciprocating compressors b) Centrifugal compressors
c) Two stage reciprocating compressor d) Nulti stage reciprocating compressor
19. Which of the following parameters are not required for evaluating volumetric efficiency
of the compressor?
a) Power b) Cylinder bore diameter c) Stroke length d) FAD
20. !f the compressor of 200 cfm loads in 10 seconds and unloads in 20 seconds the air
leakage would be_____
a) 67 cfm b) 100 cfm c) 10 cfm d) 133 cfm
21. Which of the following type does Screw compressor belongs to?
a) Positive displacement compressor b) Dynamic compressors
c) Both a b d) None of the above
Ans a) Positive displacement compressor
22. The compressor capacity of a reciprocating compressor is directly proportional to
____________________________
a) Speed b) Pressure c) volume d) All
Ans a) Speed Ans a) Speed Ans a) Speed Ans a) Speed
. vertical type reciprocating compressors are used in the capacity range of ______________
a) 50 - 150 cfm b) 200 - 500 cfm c) Above 10ooo cfm d) 10 - 50 cfm
Ans a) 50 - 150 cfm Ans a) 50 - 150 cfm Ans a) 50 - 150 cfm Ans a) 50 - 150 cfm
2+. The specific power consumption of non lubricated compressor compared to lubricated type
is ____
a) Lesser b) Same c) Higher d) None
Ans c) Higher Ans c) Higher Ans c) Higher Ans c) Higher
-End-