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A COMPREHENSIVE PROJECT REPORT

ON

THE STUDY OF OPPORTUNITY & CONSTRAINTS FACED BY WOMEN IN INDIAN ECONOMY

SUBMITTED TO

Late Smt.Shardaben Ghanshyambhai Patel Institute of Management Studies DHARMAJ. IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE AWARD FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF BUSINESS ASMINISTRATION

In
Gujarat Technological University UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Miss Priyanka Patel

SUBMITTED BY

Venkat Nildhara Batch: 2010-12, Enrollment No.:107330592043 MBA SEMESTER III/IV


Late Smt.Shardaben Ghanshyambhai Patel Institute of Management Studies DHARMAJ.

MBA PROGRAMME

Affiliated to Gujarat Technological University Ahmadabad Year 2011 - 2012

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DECLARATION

I, VENKAT NILDHARA hereby declare that the project report entitled, THE STUDY OF OPPORTUNITY & CONSTRAINTS FACED BY WOMEN IN INDIAN ECONOMY under the guidance of Miss PRIYANKA PATEL submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Master of Business Administration to Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad is my original work - research study - carried out during semester and not submitted for the award of any IV

other

degree/diploma/fellowship or other similar titles or prizes to any other institution/organization or university by any other person.

Place :- Dharmaj Date :-

signature VENKAT NILDHARA

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INSTITUTES CERTIFICATE
Certified that this Comprehensive Project Report Titled THE STUDY OF OPPORTUNITY & CONSTRAINTS FACED BY WOMEN IN INDIAN ECONOMY is the bonafide work of Ms. VENKAT NILDHARA N. (Enrollment No.-107330592043), who carried out the research under my supervision. I also certify further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.

Signature of the Faculty Guide (Ms PRIYANKA PATEL.)

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PREFACE
As a part of my Management Programmed I got the opportunity to make Comprehensive Project Report on THE STUDY OPPORTUNITY AND CONSTRAINTS FACED BY WOMEN IN INDIAN ECONOMY The Management course itself is a practical course but the real challenge comes at field of work. The practical training at M.B.A level is to develop the students a feel about industrial environment of business practice in order to develop a practical bias in them as supplement to the theoretical studies of the management in general. The theoretical knowledge & concept ideas are the enough background for this career development but the practical training is also having equal contribution for the

Management course is now a day in high demand. Management considers as a critical element in the growth of any country. Indian industry is walking up to the challenges thrown in by the market economy so, to survive in this highly competitive scenario. Practical studies are gaining much more importance as compared to the critical knowledge and management student have wide open space to fulfill their dreams. Students have an opportunity to make their career in this field. The study of management is together with some practical knowledge such as industrial visit makes the training, confident, capable and more component without any under stresses on his mind. So, it helps the student and given the theoretical knowledge to its real situation. As a result of this research, I am trying my best to present an overlook about the organization as well as my understanding management and indeed a matter of esteem honor itself.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

I have taken the opportunity to express the feeling of gratitude towards Gujarat Technological University for keeping training project work as part of M.B.A. program. I am highly indebted to Professor Ms. PRIYNKA PATEL faculty member and internal guide for motivating us and keep Trust on us and also for help in our all problems. Their helpful solutions and comments enriched by their experience for the betterment of the project. We sincerely acknowledge that without her support this project would not have been feasible.

I would like to express my gratitude towards my parents & Professors and the Principal Dr. M. R. Brahmachari of the Late Smt. Shardaben Ghanshyambhai Patel Institute of Management Studies for their kind cooperation and encouragement which help me in completion of this project.

My thanks and appreciations also go to my colleague and friends in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.

Finally I would like to thank everyone who directly or indirectly helped me in the project.

With thanks to all.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Concept of Opportunity and Constraints faced by women in Indian economy. Till the date no study has been made on conducted thorough survey on the women opportunities which is provided by government. Till the date no study has been conducted on the women awareness regarding government gave them opportunities and self development of her. So, I have decided to make inferences through survey on finding out the Opportunity and Constrains Faced by Women in Indian Economy in different areas. So, the total population of the women in khambhat area 5000. From the net based sample size calculator of sampling size was decided as 135 samples to be surveyed of the women. And the survey doing on Gudel , Tamsa, Kansari. The direct contacts were the methods of approaching the samples. Different methods were used in collecting the information based on the questionnaire, general discussions & observation. The survey was done through questionnaire and hence many of the findings, that majority of the women are in aware of the Government Schemes. I have done research about the women opportunities and constrains in a Khambhat Taluka, and nearby rural area. So many women have responded well, and hence my survey has responded positively. As per survey most of the women are agreed that the development of women & its schemes in their day to day life and in the society that have made their life easier.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Ch. No. 1. Particulars Part I - General Information 1.1 Overview of Women Opportunities 1.2 Overview of Indian Women Opportunities 1.3 Overview of Women Opportunities in Gujarat 2. Part II Primary Study Introduction Of The Study 2.1 Literature Review 2.2 Background Of The Study 2.3 Problem Statement 2.4 Objectives Of The Study 2.5 Hypothesis 3. Research Methodology 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Source Of Data 3.3 Data Collection Method 3.4 Population 3.5 Sampling Method 3.6 Sampling Frame 3.7 Sampling Procedure 3.8 Data Collection Instrument 4. 5. 6. 7. Data Analysis And Interpretation Result And Findings Limitations Conclusion 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 to 43 44 45 to 65 66 to 67 68 69 1 to 2 3 to 19 20 to 29 30 to 31 32 to 35 37 to 40 36 37 37 38 to 40 No Of Page

Annexure Bibliography

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PART - I GENERAL Information

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1.1 OVERVIEW OF WOMEN OPPORTUNITIES:


Women the word sounds so powerful. Since eternity, women have played a role more important than men and that is no exaggeration. The world would not have been the same lovely adorable and loveable place without wonderful contribution so selflessly made by women. It has been said that, you teach a female and you build up a nation and truth cant be closer than that. Women have always carried the burden of being a wife, mother, sister all on their own and we need not to explain how magnificently they have carried this position.

In this dynamic world, women entrepreneurs are a significant part of the global expedition for sustained economic development and social progress. Due to the growing industrialization, urbanization, social legislation and along with the spread of higher education and awareness, the emergence of Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countries.

In former days, for Women there were 3 Ks- Kitchen, Kids, Knitting, then came 3 Ps- Powder, Pap pad, Pickles and now at present there are 4 Es- Electricity, Electronics, Energy, Engineering. Indian women had undergone a long way and are becoming increasingly visible and successful in all spheres and have shifted from kitchen to higher level of professional activities. It's been over sixty years since our country gained independence, but Indian women are still not allowed to move independently. Though woman is worshipped here as Goddess here, people can't just restrain from committing atrocities against them. Women here experience many hardships at various places right from home to working places.

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I have heard some time ago that in developed countries like America, the couples do household works together, but it is not the case in India. Here, women have to do the household works alone while the husbands sit in front of the TV or read the newspaper slouching in a couch. After about eight to twelve hours of work, a typical working woman in India has to return home and make food for the rest of the family. There are, of course, husbands who help wives, but majority of husbands fall into the other category.

I have heard some time ago that in developed countries like America, the couples do household works together, but it is not the case in India. Here, women have to do the household works alone while the husbands sit in front of the TV or read the newspaper slouching in a couch. After about eight to twelve hours of work, a typical working woman in India has to return home and make food for the rest of the family. There are, of course, husbands who help wives, but majority of husbands fall into the other category.

Any strategy aimed at economic development will be lop-sided without involving women who constitute half of the world population. Women entrepreneurship has gained momentum in the last three decades with the increase in the number of women enterprises and their substantive contribution to economic growth. The industrial performance of Asia-Pacific region propelled by Foreign Direct Investment, technological innovations and manufactured exports has brought a wide range of economic and social opportunities to women entrepreneurs.

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1.2 INDIA: AN OVERVIEW OF WOMEN OPPORTUNITIES


India, with a population of 989 million, is the world's second most populous country. Of that number, 120 million are women who live in poverty. India has 16 percent of the world's population, but only 2.4 percent of its land, resulting in great pressures on its natural resources. Over 70 percent of India's populations currently derive their livelihood from land resources, which includes 84 percent of the economically-active women. India is one of the few countries where males significantly outnumber females, and this imbalance has increased over time. India's maternal mortality rates in rural areas are among the world's highest. From a global perspective, Indian accounts for 19 percent of all lives births and 27 percent of all maternal deaths. There seems to be a consensus that higher female mortality between ages one and five and high maternal mortality rates result in a deficit of females in the population. Chatterjee (1990) estimates that deaths of young girls in India exceed those of young boys by over 300,000 each year, and every sixth infant death is specifically due to gender discrimination." Of the 15 million baby girls born in India each year, nearly 25 percent will not live to see their 15th birthday. "Although India was the first country to announce an official family planning program in 1952, its population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 844 million in 1991. India's total fertility rate of 3.8 births per woman can be considered moderate by world standards, but the sheer magnitude of population increase has resulted in such a feeling of urgency that containment of population growth is listed as one of the six most important objectives in the Eighth Five-Year Plan." Since 1970, the use of modern contraceptive methods has risen from 10 percent to 40 percent, with great variance between northern and southern India. The most striking aspect of contraceptive use in India is the predominance of sterilization, which accounts for more than 85 percent of total modern contraception use, with female sterilization accounting for 90 percent of all sterilizations.
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The Indian constitution grants women equal rights with men, but strong patriarchal traditions persist, with women's lives shaped by customs that are centuries old. In most Indian families, a daughter is viewed as a liability, and she is conditioned to believe that she is inferior and subordinate to men. Sons are idolized and celebrated. May you be the mother of a hundred sons is a common Hindu wedding blessing. The origin of the Indian idea of appropriate female behavior can be traced to the rules laid down by Manu in 200 B.C.: "by a young girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house". "In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be independent." The Indian economy has been witnessing a drastic change since mid -1991, with new policies of economic liberalization, globalization and privatization initiated by the Indian government. India has great

entrepreneurial potential. At present, women involvement in economic activities is marked by a low work participation rate, excessive concentration in the unorganized sector and employment in less skilled jobs. There is a need for changing the mindset towards women so as to give equal rights as enshrined in the constitution. The progress towards gender equality is slow and is partly due to the failure to attach money to policy commitments. In the words of president APJ Abdul Kalam "empowering women is a prerequisite for creating a good nation, when women are empowered, society with stability is assured. Empowerment of women is essential as their thoughts and their value systems lead to the development of a good family, good society and ultimately a good nation. When a woman is empowered it does not mean that another individual becomes powerless or is having less power. On the contrary, if a women is empowered her competencies towards decision- making will surely influence her family's behavior.

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Pandit Jawaharlal Lal Nehru has remarked When women move forward, the family moves, the village moves and the Nation moves. It's been over sixty years since our country gained independence, but Indian women are still not allowed to move independently. Though woman is worshipped here as Goddess here, people can't just restrain from committing atrocities against them. Women here experience many hardships at various places right from home to working places. Women played an important part in India's independence struggle. Some of the famous freedom fighters include Bhikaji Cama, Dr. Annie Besant, Pritilata Waddedar, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Aruna Asaf Ali, Sucheta Kriplani and Kasturba Gandhi. Other notable names include Muthulakshmi Reddy, Durgabai Deshmukh etc. The Rani of Jhansi Regiment of Subhash Chandra Bose's Indian National Army consisted entirely of women including Captain Lakshmi Sahgal. Sarojini Naidu, a poet and a freedom fighter, was the first Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman to become the governor of a state in India. The womens movement and a wide-spread network of nonGovernment Organizations which have strong grass-roots presence and deep insight into womens concerns have contributed in inspiring initiatives for the empowerment of women. In the words of president APJ Abdul Kalam "empowering women is a prerequisite for creating a good nation, when women are empowered, society with stability is assured.

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MODERN INDIAN WOMEN


In the era of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization along with ongoing IT Revolution, todays world is changing at a surprising pace. Political and Economic Transformations appear to be taking place everywhere. These changes have created economic opportunities for women who want to own and operate businesses. The status of women in modern India is a sort of a paradox. If on one hand she is at the peak of ladder of success, on the other hand she is mutely suffering the violence afflicted on her by her own family members. As compared with past women in modern times have achieved a lot but in reality they have to still travel a long way. Their path is full of roadblocks. The sex ratio of India shows that the Indian society is still prejudiced against female. There are 933 females per thousand males in India according to the census of 2001, which is much below the world average of 990 females. Women in India now participate in all activities such as education, sports, politics, media, art and culture, service sectors, science and technology, etc. Indira Gandhi, who served as Prime Minister of India for an aggregate period of fifteen years is the world's longest serving woman Prime Minister. The feminist activism in India picked up momentum during later 1970s. One of the first national level issues that brought the women's groups together was the Mathura rape case. The acquittal of policemen accused of raping a young girl Mathura in a police station, led to a wide-scale protests in 1979 1980. The protests were widely covered in the national media, and forced the Government to amend the Evidence Act, the Criminal Procedure Code and the Indian Penal Code and introduce the category of custodial rape. Female activists united over issues such as female infanticide, gender bias, women health, and female literacy.

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The Government of India declared 2001 as the Year of Women's Empowerment (Swashakti). The National Policy for the Empowerment of Women came was passed in 2001. In 2010 March 9, one day after International Women's day, Rajyasabha passed Women's Reservation Bill, ensuring 33% reservation to women in Parliament and state legislative bodies. The plight of women in medieval India and at the starting of modern India can be summed up in the words of great poet Rabindranath Tagore:

O Lord Why have you not given women the right to conquer her destiny? Why does she have to wait head bowed, By the roadside, Waiting with tired patience, Hoping for a miracle in the tomorrow"

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The 21 Successful Leading Businesswomen in India


1. Akhila Srinivasan, Managing Director, Shriram Investments Ltd 2. Chanda Kocchar, Executive Director, ICICI Bank 3. Ekta Kapoor ,Creative Director, Balaji Telefilms 4. Jyoit Naik, President, Lijjat Papad 5. Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, Chairman and Managing Director, Biocon 6. Lalita D Gupte, Joint Managing Director, ICICI Bank 7. Naina Lal Kidwai ,Deputy CEO, HSBC 8. Preetha Reddy, Managing Director, Apollo Hospitals 9. Priya Paul, Chairman, Apeejay Park Hotels 10. Rajshree Pathy, Chairman, Rajshree Sugars and Chemicals Ltd 11. Ranjana Kumar ,Chairman, NABARD 12. Ravina Raj Kohli, Media personality and ex-President, STAR News 13. Renuka Ramnath, CEO, ICICI Ventures 14. Ritu Kumar ,Fashion Designer 15. Ritu Nanda, CEO, Escolife 16. Shahnaz Hussain, CEO, Shahnaz Herbals 17. Sharan Apparao, Proprietor, Apparao Galleries 18. Simone Tata, Chairman, Trent Ltd 19. Sulajja Firodia Motwani, Joint MD, Kinetic Engineering 20. Tarjani Vakil, former Chairman and Managing Director, EXIM Bank 21. Zia Mody, Senior Partner, AZB & Partners

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CURRENT SCENARIO Some Bright Spots India has world's largest number of professionally qualified women. India has largest population of working women in the world. Women Achiever: With the help of these social reformers women of India slowly started recognizing her true potential. She started questioning the rules laid down for her by the society. As a result, started breaking barriers and earned a respectable position in the world. Today Indian women have excelled in each and every field from social work to visiting space station. There is no arena, which remained unconquered by Indian women. Whether it is politics, sports, entertainment, literature, technology everywhere we can hear applauses for her.

Politics: Women of India are highly active today in this area. Sarojini Naidu, Vijaylakshami Pandit, Sucheta Kriplani were the torchbearer for the women of India. Mrs.Vijay Lkshami Pandit was the first Indian woman to hold a post in the cabinet. Thus paving the way for other women. The most important name in the category of women politicians of recent times is Mrs Indira Gandhi. She was the one who made world stop and notice the talent and potential of Indian women. She was the first women Prime Minister of independent India. Today her daughter-in law Mrs Sonia Gandhi is following her footsteps and leading the Indian National Congress.

Other women who have made their name in politics of India are Shiela Dixit, Uma Bharti, Jayalalitha, Vasundhra Raje and Mamata Banerjee.

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Sports:

Indian women have achieved great laurels for the nation in every sport. Whether it is cricket or hockey India have national women team for every game. Indian women cricket team has won Asia Cup of 2004 and 2005 and made country proud. Some women sports icons of India are: P.T. Usha (Athletics) Kunjarani Devi (Weight lifting) Diana Edulji (Cricket) Sania Mirza (Tennis) Karnam Malleshwari (Weight lifting)

Art and Entertainment:

This arena is full of Indian women. We have many names to boast of like M.S. Subbulakshmi, Indian Nightingale Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle as famous singers. Madhu Bala, Rekha, Aishwarya Rai as Bollywood queens. Today Indian woman is a painter, an actor, a singer, and a beauty queen.

Literature:

In past women of India used to write, but their work did not get the recognition. Today they are getting their dues. Arundhati Roy, Anita Desai, Kiran Desai, Shobhaa De, Jhumpa Lahiri are famous names in Indian literature. Not just in India now these women are recognized all over the world. Arundhati Roy has been awarded with the Booker Prize of 1997 for her work "God of Small Things". Kiran Desai has been given Booker Prize of 2006 and Jhumpa Lahiri got recognition in the form of Pulitzer Prize.

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Corporate Divas:

Kiran Majumdar Shaw is the undisputed corporate queen of India. She is the richest Indian woman. She is the MD of Biocon India. She is the wealthiest entrepreneur of India. Kiran wanted to become a doctor but could not get admission in medical colleges but even then she did not lose courage and went on to become India's first woman 'Brew Master' and subsequently corporate queen. Another names in this list include Vidya Mohan Chhabaria, Chairperson of Jumbo Group, Naina Lal Kidwai, Vice Chairperson and Managing Director of HSBC Securities and Capital Market, Sullaijja Firodia Motwani and Mallika Srinivasan.

Social saints:

The Indian saint of today's times Mother Teresa is the name which every Indian whether rich or poor is familiar with. She was the person who used to consider the smile of her countrymen as her wealth. She worked for those whom even their own families have deserted. She did not care whether she is in the company of a person suffering from communicable disease or whether it is day or night. Whenever or wherever one needed her she was present. She opened various homes for these people most famous of which is 'Nirmal Hriday". It is open to everyone irrespective of caste, creed or religion.

Another important names working for the cause of people includes Aruna Roy who worked for the save RTI Campaign and Medha Patekar who is associated with Narmada Bachao Andolan.

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Universal

Queens:

Indian women have not just made their mark on earth but they have engraved their name in the whole universe by flying to space. Kalpana Chawla, who was the member of Colombia Space Shuttle, which exploded on its way back, was the first Indian women astronaut who visited space station. And now following on her footsteps and other women of Indian origin Sunita Williams has become the second one to be the member of International Space Station crew.

Indian women have mastered anything and everything which a woman can dream of. But she still has to go a long way to achieve equal status in the minds of Indian men. The desire of Indian women can be best summed up in the following lines of 'Song of an African Women':

I have only one request. I do not ask for money Although I have need of it, I do not ask for meat . . . I have only one request,

And all I ask is That you remove The road block From my path.

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BEST WORK OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIAN WOMEN:


Compared to their male counterparts, Indian women have had to face tougher challenges in landing the perfect job in a male-dominated corporate scenario. However, nothing has stopped them from pursuing and excelling in lucrative professional careers without compromising on their multi-faceted roles on the domestic front. Here is a listing of the best career opportunities for 2010 that women in India can prove their mettle in. Writer / Editor At a time when India is looked upon as the wordsmith for the rest of the world, women with an excellent command over literature / language can write for a living as business/technical/medical writers, web content developers, manuscript translators, magazine editors, copywriters, speech writers and corporate communication professionals. The independence this career guarantees makes it one of the top-notch jobs for women.

Lawyer
Ever since Cornelia Sorabji became the first woman to become a barrister in India, several others have followed suit. Today, there is an All India Federation of Women Lawyers to boast of and Indian courts are witnessing a substantial increase in the number of women lawyers. I T Analyst With computerization having permeated every sphere of life, the demand for software professionals has gone up manifold, making this segment a much sought-after job for women. There is a plethora of opportunities for Indian women to spearhead the segment as IT Analysts, Database Administrators, Project Leaders and Software Programmers and much more.

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Media Journalist An increasing number of Indian women are making an impact in media journalism these days. Though considered a challenging field, this is one job that has the most number of women, making it one of the top 10 job opportunities for women in India. With numerous private news and media channels in the fray, the scope of job opportunities as a media journalist is endless. Women can choose to specialize as a reporter, freelance journalist, columnist or an expert on diverse niches. A Bachelors degree in Mass Media / Journalism after completing 12 years of schooling is what it takes to be a trained journalist. Barkha Dutt one of the most noted and respected Indian journalists Corporate Trainer The job of a corporate trainer is a specialized one, requiring the ability to help hard-core professionals improve their soft skills. Modern Indian women are choosing to become corporate trainers because of the creative satisfaction it gives. With more and more companies requiring employees with above average Emotional/Spiritual Quotient to handle workplace stress, corporate training is high on the agenda of every business. Clinical Research Professional Known in job circles as the career of tomorrow, 50,000 clinical researchers are being sought by multi-national companies in 2010 alone. The job opportunities that await a trained clinical research professional are multitudinous at government departments, pharmaceutical industry, research and investigative institutes and hospitals. This sector is among the top 10 career options for women because the number of job openings in India is plentiful and predicted to double every year. India and its female population can enjoy a lucrative career in clinical research.

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Interior Designer It takes a woman to transform a house into a home. Enchasing on this universal stand, interior designing is a top work opportunity most women find appealing. Though some of the best designers in the world are men, it is a little known fact that they derive inspiration from the women around them.Since most interior designers specialize in a specific area, women are finding to easier to carve a niche for themselves in home interiors while the men take a dig at corporate settings. Interior designers have always been and shall continue to be a womens favorite career path. Event Manager: Considering the ease with which most women can handle day-to-day events such as their little ones birthday party, dinner with friends, and weekend gettogethers, event management is one career path that screams out for a womans touch. The increasing number of corporate meetings, training seminars, product exhibitions, musical concerts, fashion show, launches parties, wedding celebrations and other events makes event management a top work opportunity for women with substance.

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The statistics testifies to the brutalities afflicted on women folk


Social Indicator Infant Mortality Rate, per 1000 live births India 73 World 60 430

Maternal Mortality Rate, per 100,000 live 570 births Female Literacy, % Female School Enrollment Earned Income by females, % Underweight Children, % Total Fertility Rate Women in Government, % Contraception usage, % Low birth weight babies, % 58 47 26 53 3.2 6 44 33

77.6 62 58 30 2.9 7 56 17

Though there are problems in the lives of Indian women but they are always ready to fight all the odds and enjoy their life to the full they have their own talent, hobbies, and they socialize according to Indian customs.

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TOP 10 WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR IN INDIA:

Sonia Gandhi, President, Congress Party Sonia Gandhi was born in Italy, but this woman is part of our country in a way that surpasses all. Coming from the controversial Gandhi family, and despite the dangers involved, she joined Indian politics in 1998, taking charge of the Congress party. In 2004, she gave up the position of Prime Minister to Dr. Manmohan Singh, giving out a strong message to the opponents who wrote her off as a foreigner.

Indra Nooyi, Chief Executive, Pepsi Co PepsiCo's India-born chief Indra Nooyi schooled in Madras but later went on to study at Yale University, USA. This corporate honcho started her career at Boston Consulting Group and then moved on to Motorola and Asea Brown Boveri. When she joined Pepsi Co. in 1994, she fine-tuned the company with her bold risk-taking. Seven years later, her efforts paid of and she became president of the company. Over the years, she has been featured on lists like 'World's 100 Most Powerful Women' and 'America's Best Leaders' as well.

Indu Jain, Chairperson (former), Times Group The multi-faceted Indu Jain was the former chairman of the The Times Group, the biggest and most powerful media house in India. Now, her two sons Samir and Vineet are running the company. Indu, a humanist, addressed the United Nations in 2000 at the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders, stressing the need for oneness among faiths.

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Neelam Dhawan, Managing Director, Microsoft (India) Neelam Dhawan is an iconic figure in the IT industry of India. She was rejected from two jobs as they felt women were not cut out for marketing and sales. Having worked in the field for 20 years in companies like Microsoft, IBM and HCL, she is now the new Managing Director of HP.

Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, Biocon Encouraged by her father, Kiran became a Master Brewer, after studying brewery at Ballarat University. From being a trainee brewer at Carlton & United Beverages in 1974 to setting up her own company, Biocon, working from a garage, Kiran is quite a success story! At a time when biotechnology was not known in India, she worked hard and turned Biocon into the biggest biopharmaceutical firm in India. And here's something you probably didn't know about her: She was Indias richest woman back in 2004.

Priya Paul, Apeejay Surendra Group Straight after finishing her Bachelors in Economics from USA, Priya dove into her family business at the age of 24. This was after her father Surendra Paul was assassinated in 1990. The Apeejay Surendra Group that he founded has several subsidiaries such as tea, hotel, shipping, retail, real estate and financial services. At present, Priya is the Chairperson of Apeejay Park Hotels.

Vidya Manohar Chhabria, Chairman, Jumbo Group Working for her husband's company Jumbo Group, Vidya has come a long way since his death in 2002. She became chairperson of the company which is a $2 billion business conglomerate! Whats more, her three daughters help mommy dearest in running the business. Vidya was been featured a number of times in Fortune magazine's List of Most Powerful Women

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Simone Tata, Managing Director, Lakme Simone Tata was instrumental in changing a small unknown cosmetics company, one of the subsidiaries of Tata Oil Mills, into one of the leading cosmetic companies in India. Her success earned her the title of Cosmetic Czarina of India. She joined Lakme in 1961 and became Chairperson in 1982. The company is now sold to Hindustan Lever, while Simone is head of Trent Limited another subsidiary of the Tata Company.

Anu Aga, Chairperson (former), Thermax Group Anu Aga was thrust into her role as chairperson of Thermax after her husbands death. This left the company in a really bad state financially. But taking stock of the situation, Anu brought in a consultant from abroad which proved to be a blessing, getting the company back on its feet in no time. She stepped down from the post of chairperson in 2004. Anu now gives her time to social activities.

Sulajja Firodia Motwani, Kinetic Motor With good looks and a genius understanding of the market, Sulajja worked in a California-based Investment Company before coming to India to join her grandfather's business. She travels a lot across the country and the key to her success can be attributed to her people skills. She is the Joint Managing Director of Kinetic Motors.

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1.3 AN OVERVIEW OF WOMEN OPPORTUNITY IN GUJARAT

Gujarat Government transforms lives and follows the Gandhian Principles. Gandhiji said, If one boy is educated, a child becomes literate but if a girl is educated, the whole family gets literacy. The Government believes in reforming lives and brings revolutionary change in the mindsets of people for education-socio-economical growth.

The Word Bank has suggested that empowerment of women should be a key aspect of social development programs (World Bank, 2001). India has also ratified various international Conventions committed to securing equal rights to women. The National Policy for The Empowerment of Women (2000) states that The womens movement and a widespread network of NGOs which have strong grassroots presence and deep insight into womens concerns have contributed in inspiring initiatives for the empowerment of women. However, the policy also speaks of a wide gap between the goals enunciated in the Constitution, legislative Policies, plans, programs, and the related mechanisms on the one hand and the situational reality of the status of women in India, on the otherGender equality manifests itself in various forms, the most obvious being the trend of continuously declining female ratio in the population in the last few decades. Social stereotyping and violence at the domestic and societal levels are some of the other manifestations.

In 1990s, grants from foreign donor agencies enabled the formation of new women-oriented NGOs. Self-help groups and NGOs such as Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA) have played a major role in women's rights in India. Many women have emerged as leaders of local movements. For example, Medha Patkar of the Narmada Bachao Andolan.

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The WCD operates under important functionaries:

Gaurav Nari Niti - Womens Pride, Gender Equality Swayamsidh Yojna Self Reliance and empowerment Vidhva Sahay and Talim Yojna Nari Adalat Kunverbai nu Mameru scheme Mahila Vrudh Ashram Sakhi Mandal Yojna

Gaurav Nari Niti Womens Pride ,Gender Equality:


The Government of Gujarat decided to formulate the Nari Gaurav Niti (GEP) in the year 2002. The State has sanctioned and announced the state policy for Gender Equity as Nari Gaurav Niti. Gujarat Government formulated the Nari Gaurav Niti Policy with a view to create awareness in all its Administrative Departments on the socio-economic-educational and

developmental sector of women and benefit them through the policy by active involvement of departments for timely modus operandi. It consists of action plans and monitoring mechanisms and addresses public as well as private sectors. The autonomous Gender Resource Centre provides technical inputs in implementation and monitoring of the policy at State level. Working groups are formed and a series of deliberations take place on all aspects of gender equity and equality.

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Swayamsidh Yojna Self Reliance and Empowerment:

Swayamsidha is an integrated project for the development and empowerment of women. Swayamsiddha (swayam or self and siddha the one who has proven capability or is empowered) project was introduced by GOI during 2001 to 2002 replacing the erstwhile Indira Mahila Yojana. The long term objective of the scheme is to achieve an all round empowerment of women socio-economical-cultural empowerment by ensuring their direct access to, and control over, resources through a sustained process of mobilization and convergence of all ongoing sector programs.

The WCD of Gujarat implements the policy to help rural women be self reliant, gain confidence and learn the art of savings. It also focus on Community oriented innovations, working in groups, building team spirit, mobilization of activities, gaining knowledge and awareness to empower financially. This project is envisaged in 20 regions at 26 spots covering 1760 villages which include 43,200 women and 2700 initiating helpers. This project has brought women into the mainstream of development in the rural areas of Gujarat.

Vidhva Sahay and TalimYojna:

The Department is sensitive towards women 18-40 years, who have lost their husbands and initiates policy for their empowerment and economic living condition. For their economical living, under Manav Garima Yojna, Rs. 3000/- margin money is given to help them stand on their feet on their own and empower living. Women in the age group of 18-60 years are provided monetary help by way of application. The applicant gets Rs.500/- and two children gets Rs.80/- (per child) every month Through post office.

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Nari Adalat:
The concept devised By women for women - the Nari Adalats is operational for legal justice in over 19 regions in Gujarat. Women jurists dispense justice in womens cases of divorce, abandonment, violence, rape and dowry demands. These courts are set up for women empowerment and gender justice. These courts are not recognized by the State as a legal forum. However, the autonomous hybrid institutions are para legal authority that who solve women cases faster than judicial courts. These courts are helping rural women overcome problems encountered in the normal judicial system. Inaccessibility, cost, time, unfamiliarity with legal procedures, inadequate resources, and a traditional disregard of the needs of women all solutions get speedy, efficacy, and cost effective.

Kunverbai nu Mameru scheme:

WCD makes provisions for monetary help to scheduled caste for their daughters marriage under Kunverbai nu mameru scheme. Those who gets an annual income of Rs.11,000/- can avail Rs.5000/- for their one daughters marriage. For this, Rs.2000/- are given to girls parents/guardian and Rs.3000/- is given to the girl in the form of Kisan Vikas Patra.

Mahila Vrudh Ashram:

Old Parents are day by day being neglected by the Youth. As a result, the WCD has made special arrangements for uncared women and foster their needs. State Government has set up Old Age Homes for such destitute. Exclusive Women Old Age homes are structured with an exclusive existing Home at Jamnagar

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Sakhi Mandal Yojna

The Project is to enable the poor women, particularly in rural areas of Gujarat to improve their access to resources and consequently strengthen livelihoods and quality of life. Sakhi Mandals are formation of women self help groups based on thrift and credit principles. It provides financial services to accelerate the process of economic development and ensure welfare of women. They are encouraged to foster decision skills and develop a framework of wider range of participation in micro finance development. In one year, the Gujarat Government aims for one lack Sakhi Mandals across the state.

Project Objectives Enable the poor women, particularly in rural areas of Gujarat to improve their access to resources and consequently strengthen livelihoods and quality of life. Formation of women self help groups based on thrift and credit principles. Facilitating sustained access of poor to financial services and consequently accelerate the process of economic development. Promote human capital development and ensure welfare of women in which they participate in making decisions. Convergence of services and benefit of various government

department-thus develop a framework of a wider range partnership in micro finance development. Project Area Entire State of Gujarat Time Frame Three Year - From 2006-07 to Janauary 2010

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Total Budget Rs.94 crore (inclusive of Rs.50 crore for Revolving Fund Grant @ Rs.5000 per group) for three years. Implementing Strategy The implementing strategy would be broadly divided into two parts. 1. 2. Tracking and Credit linkage of existing SM Groups

Formation, nurturing & linkage of new SM Groups

Formation of new Sakhi Mandal and revive the existing Sakhi Mandal through ICDS (85%) and NGOs. (15%) Goals Envisaged For Formation And Nurturing Of Sakhi Mandal To track existing reported SHGs (1.44 lakh) To credit link additional 25,000 existing SHGs (35,000 already credit linked) To form additional 1.40 lakh SHGs To credit link 1 lakh new SHGs Incentives Incentives: ICDS Anganwadi Workers @ Rs.1500 per group (SB a/c 300, Credit Linkage700, Repayment500)

Supervisors & ACDPOs @ Rs.3000 per 50 groups (SB a/c 500, Credit Linkage1500, Repayment1000)

CDPOs @ Rs.6000 per 300 groups (SB a/c 1000, Credit Linkage3000, Repayment2000)

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Incentives: NGO

Incentives @ Rs.3000 per group to be paid in stages On acceptance of Terms and Conditions Rs.300/- (10%) Opening of SB a/c Rs.600/- (20%) Credit linkage Rs.900/- (30%) Repayment Rs.900/- (30%) Evaluation Rs.300/- (10%) 250 social workers one per block & 1 per district (7500 per month including Salary, TA, DA, Stationary & other office expenses)

Progress at a glance ( February 2010 ending) New Sakhi Mandal Sr. No 1 2 3 4 Particulars No. of Sakhi Mandal Formed Total Members of Sakhi Mandals Sakhi Mandal Saving (Rs. in Lakh) No. of Sakhi Mandal started Inter-Loaning 5 6 7 Amount Inter-loaned (Rs. in Lakh) Groups Linked with Banks Amount of Credit by Bank (Rs. in Lakh) 8 No.of Sakhi Mandal engaged in Income-generation activities 29076 5008.18 95460 15035.78 Status 1,56,201 19,74,890 9927.39 99206

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Existing Groups Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulars No. of SHGs tracked No. of female groups Total Revived Total saving by SHGs(Rs. in Lakh) No. of SHG given Revolving Fund Amount of Revolving Fund (Rs.in Lakhs) Status 66431 564834 5202 832.62 2964 198.05

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Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA), Gujarat, India

Gujarat is an arid and semi-arid state in the northwest of India and has been frequently hit by climatic crises. The primary challenges in Gujarat are to enhance literacy rates, especially among rural women, and to reduce the risks to the rural poor resulting from crises (particularly climatic crises). SEWA is a registered trade union with a remit to organize women workers for full employment. Through its integrated approach to employment and selfreliance, workers can obtain work, income, food and social security. The organization now has 966,139 members across nine states in India, with the majority (519,309) living in Gujarat. It currently runs nine campaigns (homebased workers, vendors, clean Ahmadabad, water, forest workers, health workers, childcare, informal economy and agriculture). womens empowerment. Like all the

interventions studied, SEWA has taken a self-help group (SHG) approach to

Interviews and group discussions were held with groups from the villages of Ganeshpura, Vasna Mota and Visavdi.

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Women at risk: indicators of social vulnerability

These and other indicators of women's life chances, social status, and living conditions reduce the ability of girls and women to prepare for, cope with, and recover from disasters.

A skewed sex ratio (934 women: 1000 men) in Gujarat reflects conditions prevailing across India (927:1000);

An estimated 25 million women are "missing" due to sex-specific abortion, femicide, high rates of violence against women, nutrition and health care preferences disadvantaging girls, and other factors;

65% of all Indian women report having experienced some form of domestic violence, with the highest rates reported among women employed as agricultural laborers;

54% of Gujarati women marry before the age of 18; marriages are often arranged; widows rarely remarry, especially in rural areas;

The average Indian woman is younger than 22 when she bears her first child and lacks control over her own fertility;

45 % of Gujarati women need permission to go to the market and 49% to visit friends and relatives; 29% are not involved in decisions even about their own health and 10 % about what to cook; only one quarter have access to household money;

Fewer women (48.6%) than men (73.13%) over six enjoy functional literacy; literacy rates are lower among adavasi or tribal women (24.20%) and women in the Scheduled Castes (45.5%);

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One in four girls did not attend school in Gujarat even before the earthquake destroyed their schools; many of these "nowhere children" are likely to be working in the informal sector;

The vast majority of the nation's women earn income through informal work, where working conditions are poor and few workers are organized;

Women hold fewer than 8% of parliamentary seats, 6% of cabinet positions, and 3% of administrative and managerial positions in the nation;

Indian women earn an average of 30% less than men;

100,000-120,000 women across India die every year due to pregnancyrelated problems; half of all married women suffer from anemia.

Most Indian women do not own any property in their own names and don't inherit parental property; barely 2% of women claim their family property rights.

Sources: Sen and Kumar, 2001; Government of Gujarat, 2000.

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PART - II PRIMARY STUDY


INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY

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INTRODUCTION
Todays women are taking more and more professional and technical degrees to cope up with market need and are flourishing as de signers, interior decorators, exporters, publishers, garment manufacturers and still exploring new avenues of economic participation. It is perhaps for these reasons that Government Bodies, NGOs, Social Scientists, Researchers and International Agencies have started showing interest in the issues related to entrepreneurship among women in India. Women entrepreneurs explore the prospects of starting a new enterprise; undertake risks, introduction of new innovations, coordinate administration & control of business & providing Effective leadership in all aspects of business and have proved their footage in the male dominated business arena. What is Empowerment?

Empowerment has thus helped women to realize their identity, capability, strengths and power. They also have greater self-confidence and awareness of their rights, are more assertive and more vocal in mixed forums. Empowerment for women also means being able to overcome shyness and to talk and act confidently. Empowering women has become a frequently cited goal of development interventions. However, while there is now a significant body of literature discussing how womens empowerment has been or might be evaluated, there are still major difficulties in so doing. Furthermore many projects and programmers which espouse the empowerment of women show little if any evidence of attempts even to define what this means in their own context let alone to assess whether and to what extent they have succeeded. Instead traditional development goals, such as better health or increased income, are cited as evidence of empowerment.

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In such cases it is not clear what is added by using the word empowerment. Despite its having identified empowerment as a primary development assistance goal neither the World Bank nor any other major development agency has developed a rigorous method for measuring and tracking changes in levels of empowerment Different people use

empowerment to mean different things. However there are four aspects which seem to be generally accepted in the literature on womens empowerment.

Firstly to be empowered one must have been disempowered. It is relevant to speak of empowering women, for example, because, as a group, they are disempowered relative to men.

Secondly empowerment cannot be bestowed by a third party. Rather those who would become empowered must claim it. Development agencies cannot therefore empower womenthe most they can achieve is to facilitate women empowering themselves. They may be able to create conditions favorable to empowerment but they cannot make it happen.

Thirdly, definitions of empowerment usually include a sense of people making decisions on matters which are important in their lives and being able to carry them out. Reflection, analysis and action are involved in this process which may happen on an individual or a collective level. There is some evidence that while womens own struggles for empowerment have tended to be collective efforts, empowerment-orientated development interventions often focus more on the level of the individual.

Finally empowerment is an ongoing process rather than a product. There is no final goal. One does not arrive at a stage of being empowered in some absolute sense. People are empowered, or disempowered, relative to others or, importantly, relative to themselves at a previous time.

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2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW


Hate (1978) in her book stated that there is positive change in the political, economic and social status of middle class working and non-working women living in four cities in Maharashtra with the advent of independence.

Kapur (1979) his shown that the twin roles of women cause tension and conflict due to her social structure which is still more dominant .In her study on working women in Delhi, she has shown that traditional authoritarian set up of Hindu social structure continues to be the same basically and hence. Women face problem of role conflict change in attitudes of men and women according to the situation can help to overcome their problem.

Pattanaik (2003) in her study reveals that SHGs are continuously striving for a better future for tribal women as participants, decision-makers and beneficiaries in the domestic, economic, social and cultural spheres of life. But due to certain constraints like gender inequality, exploitation, women torture for which various Self Help Groups are not organised properly and effectively. M.R Wood (1979) in his study of middle class urban sanitary women un Gujarat showed that some of the women is his sample including one whose marriage was arranged, had established a give and take relationship with their husbands, Women also take part in important decisions.

Sandhu and Singh(1979) reported that motivation factors viz. feeling of achievement, ability utilization, recognition and rewards, creative work freedom of expression and scope for professional growth contributed comparatively more to job satisfaction than factors like behaviour of immediate officers, job security and advancement, adequacy of salary, administrative setup and social status attached to the job.

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Heckman and Mercurdary (2004) women are coming forward to paid employment outside home to supplement the income of husbands or parents and to fill the gap between income and expenditure due to soaring prices of essential goods.

Malhotra (2004) in her book has examined how women entrepreneurs affect the global economy, why women start business, how womens business associations promote entrepreneurs, and to what extent women contribute to international trade. It explores potential of micro-finance programmes for empowering and employing women and also discusses the opportunities and challenges of using micro-finance to tackle the feminisation of poverty. According to her, the micro-finance programmes are aimed to increase womens income levels and control over income leading to greater levels of economic independence. They enable womens access to networks and markets, access to information and possibilities for development of other social and political role. They also enhance perceptions of womens contribution to household income and family welfare, increasing womens participation in household decisions about expenditure and other issues leading to greater expenditure on womens welfare. Rowbotham (1980) in her book stated that movements of women, now in the past provide more than criticism; they can be a basis for valuable knowledge about needs and well being that have been theoretically disregarded. They also enable us to think about society and the economy in new ways and discover a great deal about the process of politics and culture. Amaury de Riencourt (1982) in her book stated that It now becomes easier to see that, even if women alone rarely prove to be intellectually or artistically creative, man cannot create without her; hence, her part in the cultural process, however indirect, is vital. The sexes together are to compare male and female to the two poles of an elliptic field of magnetic forces. The correlation between the two poles provides the creative power; no one pole, male if female, can achieve anything without the contribution of the other.
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Srilekha (2005) based states that developing countries are characterized by low income illiteracy, unemployment and low standard of living. In these countries extra income earned by women ids vital to cross the poverty line , of the initiative in making the intended changes must come from the government itself in the form of incentives to women who are bounded by tradition and constrained by interest bent on preserving the status-quota women in 15 to 59 age group if not in labour force are to be considered as unused resources (except when they are sake or students) A change in the attitude towards life is imperative to ensures that women gain confidence in their own capable and a new value system is accepted.

Dwaraki and B.kumaresan (2005) asks that do women have a nice in the of real of rural development working women have been in the nears in the last 5-10 years like it is the want in the in rather confused world of rural development those in the same by try to cling into anything new novel as if they have found the phenomena what with the slogan of empowering women especially rural women the grace for being associated with scavenger women is spreading like mass hysteria in about last one year. So much as anyone in the realm of rural development, today in any discussion on scavenger women is an ignoramus. This is based on very small scale study conducted exclusively for the purpose needs no justification. The authors in this study have covered just 10 women scavenger from about four contiguous villages in which three office bearers the President, Secretary and Treasurer were personally interviewed on a very small list of question concentrating on the aspect of self-sustenance for us contention of contention of authors that women workers can find nice in the realm of rural development.

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Alva Myrdar et als (1992) work on Womens two roles home and work sought to present that would amid that would enable women for combine their traditional family obligations with paid work in the employment market. Interestingly these authors have gone further to capture multi-facted dimensional role of women in the name of sequencing solutions besides the dual role mentioned continues to hold as a strong base for further research in this area. Jennifer (2005) in his study about sanitary workers that economics status showed a significant difference according to their age, marital status duration of working, life and position at work. The Times of India, Ahmadabad Friday, September 23, 2011 Vodafones Gujarat circle plans to include better women Friendly policies and hire more number of women employees this year. At present, women comprise 16% of the companys total employee strength. Rahesh Dongre , chief executive officer, Vodafone Essar Gujarat, said , Our target is to have an employees base consisting of at least 20% women employees by March. We have an aim to make women friendly organization with better policies and rules for instance, our reach home safe police or flexible leave police for new mothers have been formed keeping in mind the separate needs of our women employees.

Dongre feels that the need for having more women on board is also due to the rising female subscriber base.

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2.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:


The project report is on The study opportunity and constraints faced by women in Indian economy, that women awareness of the Gujarat Government Schemes and Yojna towards available opportunities to develop their self development. The need arises as the topic is concerned that is now a days, women have a many opportunities but they are not taking initiative or not taking any benefit which is provided through government to rural women. In rural areas women have many scope and opportunities of their self development but there are some constraints are faced by them. The data are showing that 50% of women are aware the Gujarat Government Schemes and Yojna. Therefore, I want to conduct research for this topic. So, the project helps the research process, that what are the expectations of the Gujarat Government towards their women development schemes.

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2.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT OF THE STUDY

Research Problems
To identify the problem that women face though they have many opportunities given by state and Central Government.

2.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

To study the various opportunities raised by the Indian govt. for the betterment of women. Examine the awareness about the various opportunities given by government. To find out the level of opportunities taken by women. To find out the factors that hinders women to take the opportunities & be self dependent. To examine the taking the decision power and information level in women.

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2.5 HYPOTHESIS:

A statistical hypothesis is an assumption about a population parameter. This assumption may or may not be true. There are two types of statistical hypotheses. Null hypothesis. The null hypothesis, denoted by H0, is usually the hypothesis that sample observations result purely from chance. Alternative hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis, denoted by H1 or Ha, is the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by some non-random cause. Hypothesis Tests Statisticians follow a formal process to determine whether to reject a null hypothesis, based on sample data. This process, called hypothesis testing, consists of four steps. State the hypotheses. This involves stating the null and alternative hypotheses. The hypotheses are stated in such a way that they are mutually exclusive. That is, if one is true, the other must be false. Formulate an analysis plan. The analysis plan describes how to use sample data to evaluate the null hypothesis. The evaluation often focuses around a single test statistic. Analyze sample data. Find the value of the test statistic (mean score, proportion, t-score, z-score, etc.) described in the analysis plan. Interpret results. Apply the decision rule described in the analysis plan. If the value of the test statistic is unlikely, based on the null hypothesis, reject the null hypothesis.

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Decision Errors: Two types of errors can result from a hypothesis test. Type I error. A Type I error occurs when the researcher rejects a null hypothesis when it is true. The probability of committing a Type I error is called the significance level. This probability is also called alpha, and is often denoted by . Type II error. A Type II error occurs when the researcher fails to reject a null hypothesis that is false. The probability of committing a Type II error is called Beta, and is often denoted by . The probability of not committing a Type II error is called the Power of the test. One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests A test of a statistical hypothesis, where the region of rejection is on only one side of the sampling distribution, is called a one-tailed test. For example, suppose the null hypothesis states that the mean is less than or equal to 10. The alternative hypothesis would be that the mean is greater than 10. The region of rejection would consist of a range of numbers located on the right side of sampling distribution; that is, a set of numbers greater than 10. A test of a statistical hypothesis, where the region of rejection is on both sides of the sampling distribution, is called a two-tailed test. For example, suppose the null hypothesis states that the mean is equal to 10. The alternative hypothesis would be that the mean is less than 10 or greater than 10. The region of rejection would consist of a range of numbers located on both sides of sampling distribution; that is, the region of rejection would consist partly of numbers that were less than 10 and partly of numbers that were greater than 10.

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My sample size is 135 so, I used Z test.

1.) H0: 60% women are aware of Gujarat Government scheme. H1: less than 60% women are aware of Gujarat Government scheme.

2.) H0: 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme which provided by government. H1: Greater than 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme which provided by government.

3.) H0: 50% women are satisfied with the benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna. H1: More than 50% women are satisfied with the benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.

4.) H0: 50% women are agreed that Government provided women opportunity to work from home & earn. H1: Greater than 50% women are agreed that Government provided women opportunity to work from home & earn.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN:

Research design is descriptive in nature. Quantitative research was carried out through questionnaire in order to get the data into figurative terms for analysis of women. 3.2 SOURCES OF DATA:

3.3 DATACOLLECTION METHOD:

There are two types of data: Primary data: The data which collect firstly is called primary data. In my research Primary data have collect through questionnaire and interview for further information.

Secondary data: the data which are already collected for some purpose and exist are called secondary data. In my research I have collect data from newspapers, journals and Internet.

3.4 POPULATION: I have selected the respondents - women from Khambhat and near by rural area for studying the opportunities and constrains.

SAMPLE SIZE: From the population I have selected 135 Women for my Survey.

3.5 SAMPLING METHOD: I have used the Convenience Sampling 3.6 SAMPLING FRAME:
My survey area is Khambhat, and nearby rural area.

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3.7 SAMPLING PROCEDURE: http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html

What margin of error can you accept? 5% is a common choice

10

The margin of error is the amount of error that you can tolerate. If 90% of respondents answer yes,

while 10% answer no, you may be able to tolerate a larger amount of error than if the respondents are split 50-50 or 45-55. Lower margin of error

requires a larger sample size. What confidence level do you need? Typical choices are 90%, 95%, or 99%
95

The confidence level is the amount of uncertainty you can tolerate. Suppose that you have 20 yes-no

questions in your survey. With a confidence level of 95%, you would expect that for one of the questions (1 in 20), the percentage of people who

answer yes would be more than the margin of error away from the true answer. The true answer is the percentage you would get if you
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exhaustively

interviewed everyone. Higher confidence level

requires a larger sample size. What is the population size? If you don't know, use 20000
5000

How many people are there to choose your random

sample from? The sample size doesn't change much for populations larger than 20,000. What is the response distribution? Leave this as 50%
50

For each question, what do you expect the results will be? If the sample is skewed highly one way or the other, the population probably is, too. If you don't know, use 50%,

which gives the largest sample size. See below under More information if

this is confusing.

What

is

the

50

For each question, what do you expect the results will be? If the sample is skewed highly one way or the other, the population probably is,

response distribution? Leave 50% this as

too. If you don't know, use 50%, which gives the largest sample size. See below under More information if this is confusing.

Your

135

This is the minimum recommended size of your


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recommended sample size is

survey. If you create a sample of this many people and get responses from everyone, you're more likely to get a correct answer than you would from a large sample where only a small percentage of the sample responds to your survey.

3.8 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT: Questionnaire: There are main two types of Questionnaires:

Open ended: in which the respondent get the full option to answer the questions.

Close ended: in which the respondent has to answer in pre determined alternatives.

For making the research I used Close ended questionnaire in which I asked the questions to women to know their awareness.

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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Q=1 Fill the following details.

Option Marital Status Unmarried Divorce Widow Separate

Respondents 79 23 7 18 8 135

Percentage 58.52% 17.04% 5.19% 13.33% 5.93 100%

79 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Marital Status Unmarried Divorce Widow Separate 23 7 18 8

Interpreatation:

In above graph there are 79 Women were Marital Status. 23 women were Unmarried. 18 women were Widow.

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Q=2 which Number of the members in the family?

Option 2 3 to 5 Above 5

Frequency 15 71 49 135

Percentage 11.11% 52.59% 36.29% 100%

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2 15

71

49

3 to 5

Above 5

Interpretation Above graph show that, most of the family there are 3 to 5 members in their family.

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Q=3 Are you working women or not?

Option Yes No

Respondent 53 82 135

Percentage 39.26% 60.74% 100

82 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 53

Yes

No

Interpretation:

In above graph 82 Women were i.e. 60.74% not working in any sector like Government, Private, NGO, or self employed.

53 Women were i.e.39.26% working in any sector like Government, Private, NGO or self employed.

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Q=4 If you are working, in which sector are you working?

Sector Government Private NGO Self Employed None of these

Respondent 27 11 12 15 70 135

Percentage 20% 8.15% 8.89% 11.11% 51.86% 100%

70

70
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Government Private NGO Self Employed None of these 11 12 27 15

Interpretation:

In above chart 70 women i.e. 51.86% were not working or not earning. 27 women were working i.e. 20% in government sector. 15 women i.e. 11.11% were self employed.

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Q=5 what is your monthly income?

Income Less than 1000 1001 to 5000 Above 5000 None of these

Respondent 6 25 22 82 135

Percentage 4.44% 18.52% 16.30% 60.74% 100%

82 90 80 70 60 50 40 25 6 22

30
20 10 0

Less than 1000

1001 to 5000

Above 5000

None of these

Interpretation:

In above graph 82 women i.e. 60.74% have not any income because they are not working. 25 women i.e.18.52% have between 1001 to 5000 monthly income. 22 women i.e. 16.30 % that have monthly income above 5000.

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Q=6 Being an employed women are you getting the freedom in the decision making of your family?

Option Yes No Some What

Respondents 55 32 48 135

Percentage 40.74% 23.70% 35.56% 100%

55 60 50 48

40
30 20 10 0

32

Yes

No

Some What

Interpretation:

In above graph 55 women i.e. 40.74% was getting the freedom in decision making in their family. 48 women i.e. 35.56% were sometimes getting freedom in decision making in their family.

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Q=7 Being an employed women are you getting leisure to look after your family & your health?

Option Yes No Some what

Respondent 51 45 39 135

Percentage 37.78% 33.33% 28.89% 100

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

51

45 39

Yes

No

Some what

Interpretation:

In above graph 51 women were getting the leisure to look after her family and her health. 45 women were not doing the leisure to look after her family and her health. 39 women were sometimes doing the leisure to look after her family and her health.

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Q=8 Are you aware Gujarat Government scheme for women?

Option Yes No

Respondents 85 50 135

Percentage 62.96% 37.04% 100%

85 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

50

Yes

No

Interpretation:

In above graph 85 women i.e. 62.96% were aware about Gujarat Government Scheme for women.

50 women i.e. 37.04% were not aware about Gujarat Government Scheme for women.

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Q=9 Are you aware from the following Scheme/Yojna which provided by government for women? (MCQ)

Scheme/Yojna Saat Phera Samuh Yojna Vidya Sahay & Talim Yojna Swayam Sidh Yojna Sakhi Mandal Yojna Nari Adalat Mahila Vrudh Ashram Kunverbai nu Mameru Scheme None of these

Respondents 37 21 28 61 50 31 22 37 135

Saat Phera Samuh Yojna

37 22 31

37 21 28

Vidya Sahay & Talim Yojna Swayam Sidh Yojna Sakhi Mandal Yojna Nari Adalat Mahila Vrudh Ashram

50

61

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Interpretation: In above graph 61 women were aware about SAKHI MANDAL YOJNA provided by Government for women. 51 women were aware about NARI ADALAT provided by Government for women. 37 women were aware about SAAT PHERA SAMUH YOJNA provided by Government for women.

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Q=10 Taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna are you satisfied with these?

Option Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Respondents 29 47 30 12 17 135

Percentage 21.48% 34.81% 22.22% 8.89% 12.59% 100%

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

47

29

30

17 12

Highly Satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly Dissatisfied

Interpretation:

In above graph 47 women i.e.34.81% were satisfied, taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.

30 women i.e.22.22% were neutral, taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.

29 women i.e. 29.48% were highly satisfied, taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.

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Q=11 Are you getting the proper facility of scheme of Govt.?

Option Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Respondents 27 39 36 17 16 135

Percentage 20% 28.89% 26.67% 12.59% 11.86% 100%

39 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Agree 27

36

17

16

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: In above graph 39 women i.e. 28.89% were agreeing that they are getting the proper facility of above scheme of Government. 36 women i.e. 26.67% were neutral that they are getting the proper facility of above scheme of Government. 27 women i.e. 20% were strongly agreeing that they are getting the proper facility of above scheme of Government.

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Q=12 Do you Agree that development of women & its Schemes in day to day life in the society has made your life easier?

Option Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Respondents 36 42 35 17 5 135

Percentage 26.67% 31.11% 25.93% 12.59% 3.70% 100%

45

42 36 35

40
35 30 25

17

20
15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree 5

Interpretation:

In above graph 42 women i.e. 31.11% were agreeing that development of women and its scheme in day to day life in the society has made their life easier.

36 women i.e. 26.67% were strongly agreed that development of women and its scheme in day to day life in the society has made their life easier.

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Q=13 The government is giving sufficient support to education to the women in your area?

Option Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Respondents 29 70 20 9 7 135

Percentage 21.48% 51.85% 14.81% 6.67% 5.19% 100%

70 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

29
20 9 7

0
Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Interpretation:

In above graph 70 women i.e. 51.85%were agreeing that the Government is giving sufficient support to education to the women in their area. 29 women i.e. 21.48% were strongly agreed that the Government is giving sufficient support to education to the women in their area.

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Q=14 Government provided the women opportunity to work from home & earn?

Option Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree

Frequency 20 49 24 28 14 135

Percentage 14.81% 36.29% 17.78% 20.74% 10.37% 100%

49 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

28 20

24
14

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation:

In above graph 49 women i.e. 36.29% were agreed with the Government provided the women opportunity to work from home and earn. 28 women i.e. 20.74% were disagreed with the Government provided the women opportunity to work from home and earn.

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Q=15 working from home have resulted in curbing the leisure hours of the women?

Option Yes No Some What

Frequency 39 30 65 135

Percentage 28.89% 22.22% 48.15% 100%

65 70 60 50 40 39 30

30
20 10 0

Yes

No

Some What

Interpretation:

In above graph 65 women i.e. 48.15% were say that sometimes working from home have resulted in curbing the leisure hours of them. 39 women i.e. 28.89% were say that they are agree for working from home have resulted in curbing the leisure hours.

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Q=16 Are you satisfied with the Governments Schemes/Yojna ?

Option Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

Respondents 26 51 26 23 9 135

Percentage 19.26% 37.78% 19.26% 17.04% 6.67% 100%

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 26

51

26

23 9

Highly Satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly Dissatisfied

Interpretation:

In above graph 51 women i.e. 37.78% were satisfied with the Government Scheme / Yojna . 26 women i.e. 29.26% were highly satisfied with the Government Scheme or Yojna. 26 women i.e. 29.26% were neutral with the Government Scheme / Yojna .

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Hypothesis Testing

1. H0: 60% women are aware of Gujarat Government scheme. H1: less than 60% women are aware of Gujarat Government scheme.

Test of p = 0.6 vs p < 0.6

Sample X

Sample P

95%

Upper Exact P value 0.785

Bound 1 85 135 0.629630 0.699017

Conclusion:

When the p value is more than 0.05 than accept our null hypothesis. Here, p value is more than 0.05 so we accept our null hypothesis that is more than 60% women were aware of Gujarat Government scheme.

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2. H0: 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme which provided by government. H1: Greater than 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme which provided by government.

Test of p = 0.6 vs p > 0.6

Sample X

Sample P

95% Bound

Lower Exact value 1.000

61

135

0.451852

0.379037

Conclusion:

When the p value is more than 0.05 than accept our null hypothesis Here, the p value is more than 0.05 so we accept our null hypothesis this indicate that 60% or less than 60% women are aware from the different different Scheme which provided by government.

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3. H0: 50% women are satisfied with the benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.

H1: More than 50% women are satisfied with the benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna.

Test of p = 0.5 vs p > 0.5

sample

Sample p

95% lower Exact Bound Value 0.084

P-

76

135

0.562963

0.488521

Conclusion:

When the p value is more than 0.05 than accept our null hypothesis Here, the p value is more than 0.05 so we accept our null hypothesis this indicate that 50% or less than 50% women are satisfied with the Sakhi Mandal Yojna.

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4. H0: 50% women are agreed that Government provided women opportunity to work from home & earn.

H1: Greater than 50% women are agreed that Government provided women opportunity to work from home & earn.

Test of p = 0.5 vs p > 0.5

Sample

Sample P

95% Lower Exact Bound value 1.000

20

135

0.148148

0.1000393

Conclusion:

When the p value is more than 0.05 than accept our null hypothesis Here, the p value is more than 0.05 so we accept our null hypothesis so this indicate that 50% or less than 50% women are agreed that Government provided women opportunity to work from home & earn.

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RESULTS & FINDINGS

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Findings:

Majority 59% of the women were married and only low per cent of them were unmarried (17%), widows (13%) and divorces & separated (11%).

Most of the 60% women were not working in any Private, NGO or Government sector. And other 40% women were working in above sector.

Majority 41% of the women were getting the freedom to take the decision in their family, and some of them (36%) women were sometimes taken the decision for their family.

38% women were getting the leisure to look after their family and their health and 33% women were not getting the leisure to look after their family and their health. Most of the women (63%) were aware regarding Gujarat Government schemes because they were initiative and also knowing the advertisement regarding schemes. Most of the women were awareness about SAKHI MANDAL YOJNA which is provided by Government for them because through word of mouth Aaganwadis women staff people were gave them information and knowledge . Only 50% of the women were wholly satisfied, taking the benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna. Because they were gathered the (money) funds from each other and take care of their own self. And become and self dependent. 68% women were agreed that they getting the proper facility of all Government schemes.

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60% women were agreeing that development of women and its schemes in day to day life and in the society that have made their life easier. Because they improve their power and information level and not fear. Majority 70% of the women were agreed that Government is gave them sufficient support to education to the women in their area. Most of the women i.e. 52% were agreed with the Government provided the women opportunity to work from home and earn. 57% women were satisfied with the Government Scheme / Yojna . While, 24% women were not were satisfied with the Government Schemes.

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LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

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Limitation of the study


In survey that women were uneducated so, they are not answering the proper way.

Some of the women have lack of knowledge and awareness about the Government schemes.

The time period of the study was not sufficient to measure the Women response effectively and reach to a more valid conclusion.

The sample size was limited so the results obtained from the study may not be generalized for the whole population.

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CONCLUSION

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CONCLUSION

Most of the Women were known about the Government Scheme/Yojan but some of the Women were not aware because lack of awareness, lack of
orientation in rural development schemes and programs, No proper knowledge and orientation about Government schemes, lack of support from home and their senior colleagues, women feel Fear and Insecurity. They have family

responsibilities. Lack of power and information. So, government gave the advertisement and awareness programs on the several schemes to aware them.

As per survey most of the women are agreed that the development of women & its schemes in their day to day life and in the society that have made their life easier.

The most of the women have the equal opinion that government is provided women opportunity to work from home and earn. So, they Increase in articulation abilities, self confidence and self respect.

So I conclude that in Indian economic the women get many opportunities to develop their self but they are facing some constraints like some women were not aware regarding the scheme and how to utilize the schemes for their development. So, government should try to make more awareness programs for rural women.

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Annexure

THE SURVEY REGARDING OPPORTUNITY & CONSTRAINS FACED BY WOMEN IN INDIAN ECONOMY

Dear sir/madam,

I am Venkat Nildhara, students of Late Smt. S.G. Patel Institute of Management studies pursuing MBA. As per our curriculum, we are conducting survey. You are requested to read following questions carefully and answer them. And we assure you that this information will be held confidential and only used for our project purpose. Please, spend your valuable time in filing questionnaire. Thank you.

(For the questions bellow please tick from the given option)

Q=1 Fill the following details.

1) Marital Status 2) Unmarried 3) Divorce 4) Widow 5) Separate

Q=2 How many Number of the members in the family? 1) 2 2) 3 to 5 3) Above 5

Q=3 Are you working women or not? 1) Yes 2) No


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Q=4 If you are working, In which Sector are you working?

1) Government 2) Private 3) NGO 4) Self Employed 5) None of these

Question =5 What is your monthly income?

1) Less than 1000 2) 1001 to 5000 3) Above 5000 4) None of these

Q=6 Being an employed women are you getting the freedom in the decision making of your family? (Give rank out of 10)

1) Yes 2) No 3) Some what Q=7 Being an employed women are you getting leisure to look after your family & your health?

1) Yes 2) No 3) Some what Q=8 Are you aware Gujarat Government scheme for women?

1) Yes 2) No

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Q=9 Are you aware from the following Scheme/ Yojna which provided by government for women?

1) Saat Phera Samuh Yojna 2) Vidya Sahay & Talim Yojna 3) Swayam Sidh Yojna 4) Sakhi Mandal Yojna 5) Nari Adalat 6) Mahila Vrudh Ashram 7) Kunverbai nu Mameru Scheme 8) None of these

Q=10 Taking benefit of Sakhi Mandal Yojna are you satisfied with these?

1) Highly Satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Neutral 4) Dissatisfied 5) Highly Dissatisfied

Q=11 Are you getting the proper facility of above scheme of Government?

1) Strongly Agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly Disagree

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Q=12 Do you Agree that development of women & its Schemes in day to day life in the society has made your life easier?

1) Strongly Agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly Disagree Q=13 The Government is giving sufficient support to education to the women in your area?

1) Strongly Agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly Disagree Q=14 Government provided the women opportunity to work from home & earn?

1) Strongly Agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly Disagree

Q=15 Working from home have resulted in curbing the leisure hours of the women?

1) Yes 2) No 3) Some what

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Q=16 Are you satisfied with the Government Schemes/Yojna?

1) Highly Satisfied 2) Satisfied 3) Neutral 4) Dissatisfied 5) Highly Dissatisfied

Personal Details of the Respondents:

Name of the women:___________________________________________

Occupation: ___________________________________________

Age: 1) 21 to 30 2) 31 to 40 3) 41 to 50 4) 51 to 60 Location: 1) Urban 2) Rural

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:
http://www.ruraldev.gujarat.gov.in/pdfs.Sakhi MandalSampleData.pdf http://www.gujaratgovt.com http://www.women.com http://www.womensafety.com http://www.historyofwomen.com http://www.Gujaratgovernmentportal.com http://womenrights.com http://www.fao/org/sd/Wpdirect.Wpre0108.htm http://www.iisd.ca/50comm/commd6/desc/do&.htm http://iet.open.ac.uk/reserch/projects.documents/alisreport.pdf Miller, 2000, Women in Knowledge Societies, Global Knowledge Partnership, Malaysia in http://www.womenaction.org/ghil/swasti.html. http://www.worldbank.org.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUT HASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0,contentMDK:20195738~menuPK:295589~p agePK:141137~piPK:217854~theSitePK:295584,00.html www.unfpa.org/gender/docs/studies/india.pdf http://ssa.nic.in/girlseducation/Girls%20Education.pdf http://www.yrshr.org/informationbase_desc.asp?id=65#sens http://commitments.clintonglobalinitiative.org/projects.htm?mode=vie Globalization, poverty and womens empowerment. United Nations Division of the Advancement of Women http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/empower/documents/ Bisnath-EP3.pdf [accessed 1 December 2004].

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Bisnath S, Elson D. Womens empowerment revisited. UNIFEM http://www.undp.org/ unifem/progressww/empower.html [accessed 30 October 2003]. http://money.livemint.com/IID91/F132540/DirectorsReport/Company.as px http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/16/world/asia/16ladies.html

http://www.articlesbase.com/ entrepreneurship -articles/is-the-womenentrepreneur-empowered-in india-3147613.htmlixzz15PmH5WNy http://worldbank.org./wbp/ www.unrisd.org/engindex/publ/list/opb/opb3/opb3.htm http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/ent/papers/women.htm http://www.husdyr.kvl.dk/htm/php/tune99/6-Gibbons.htm Http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/research/env/index.html.

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