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Magazine of Concrete Research, 2008, 60, No. 10, December, 735745 doi: 10.1680/macr.2007.

00115

Compressive behaviour of CFRP-confined rectangular concrete columns


Z. Tao,* Q. Yu and Y.-Z. Zhong*
Fuzhou University; Tsinghua University

While there is abundant research on fibre reinforced polymer (FRP)-confined circular concrete columns, information on FRP-confined rectangular concrete columns is much more limited. This paper thus presents the axial compression test results of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP)-confined concrete short columns with rectangular cross-sections. The parameters considered in this study were (a) the concrete strength; (b) the cross-sectional aspect ratio; (d ) the number of CFRP layers; and (d ) the corner radius. Five existing design-oriented models were used to predict the stressstrain curves of the test specimens with an aim to verify their accuracy. Considerable deviations were found between various model predictions.

Notation
Ac B CFRP Ec Ef FRP fc 9 f cc 9 ff H L nf Rc tf cc c cross-sectional area of concrete: mm2 overall width of square or rectangular section: mm carbon fibre reinforced polymer concrete modulus of elasticity: MPa elastic modulus of CFRP in the hoop direction: MPa fibre reinforced polymer standard cylinder compressive strength: MPa compressive strength of concrete confined by FRP: MPa tensile strength of CFRP: MPa overall depth of rectangular section: mm specimen length: mm number of CFRP layers corner radius: mm nominal thickness of the CFRP jacket: mm strain ultimate axial strain for FRP-confined concrete axial stress: MPa

Introduction
In recent decades, fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) has emerged as a new material to be used in civil engineering, owing to its attractive mechanical properties.14 One of the most common uses of FRP is externally to wrap existing reinforced concrete (RC), steel or even concrete-filled steel tubular columns with flexible layers of FRP sheets.5 This strengthening/retrofitting technique can be used to enhance the strength and/or ductility of deficient columns. It is well known that an FRP jacket is efficient in confining circular RC columns, especially for those that are short with small or no eccentricity.110 For this reason, extensive studies have been carried out in the past on FRP-confined concrete cylinders, leading to many design- and analysis-oriented stressstrain models.11,12 In engineering practice, it should be noted that the majority of RC columns are constructed with either square or rectangular cross-sections. After being confined by FRP, their performance is quite different from that of FRP-confined circular columns because the entire column cross-section is not effectively confined, even under axial compression; this often leads to a strain-softening response.13,14 Although available information for FRP-confined square or rectangular concrete columns has increased over recent years,1525 it is still quite limited considering the substantial number of parameters involved and the larger data scatter compared to the FRP-confined circular columns. In earlier research, only models for compressive strength or ultimate axial strain were dealt 735
www.concrete-research.com 1751-763X (Online) 0024-9831 (Print) # 2008 Thomas Telford Ltd

* College of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou University, Gongye Road 523, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, 350002, Peoples Republic of China Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, Peoples Republic of China (MACR-D-07-00115) Paper received 24 August 2007; revised 3 April 2008; accepted 23 April 2008)

Tao et al. with.19,20 More recently, for design considerations, several empirical or semi-empirical models have been put forward to predict the stressstrain behaviour of FRPconfined square/rectangular columns.13,14, 2628 These models are generally based on the concept of effective confining area, but with different expressions.25 It seems that there is a need to evaluate the performance of these so-called design-oriented models. It should also be noted that there are a few analysis-oriented models in which the stressstrain curve is generated using an iterative procedure.29, 30 Owing to their relative complexity, such models are only suitable for incorporation in numerical analysis. Analysis-oriented models are therefore not compared herein with the test curves. As already mentioned, the behaviour of FRP-confined concrete columns with rectangular sections is different from that of the circular columns, owing to the un-uniform confinement to the concrete core provided by the outer FRP sheets. Han31 presented a series of tests on concrete-filled steel tubular stub columns with rectangular sections. It was found that the composite action between the outer steel tube and its core concrete was influenced by the cross-sectional aspect ratio (i.e. the depth to the width of the rectangular section). It is thus expected that the cross-sectional aspect ratio is a very important parameter as well as concrete strength, the number of CFRP layers and the corner radius of the section in influencing the behaviour of FRP-confined concrete columns with rectangular sections. In the current paper, a more comprehensive experimental programme was thus conducted to study the performance of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP)-confined rectangular concrete columns (shown in Fig. 1) under axial compression. Rounded corners for all specimens were designed to enhance confinement effectiveness. The main variables explored in this study included the concrete strength, the cross-sectional aspect ratio, the number of CFRP layers and the corner radius. The experimental results were then used to verify the prediction accuracy of five existing designoriented models. This may be a reference for possible future revision to these models.
CFRP Rc

Concrete B (a)

CFRP

Rc

Concrete

B (b)

Fig. 1. Cross-sections of CFRP confined columns

Experimental programme
General In order effectively to evaluate the behaviour of CFRP-confined rectangular concrete columns under axial compression, a total of 30 concrete prisms were tested to failure, in which six of them were unconfined and the rest were wrapped with CFRP sheets. CFRP strengthening was achieved by the external wrapping of unidirectional carbon fibre sheets with the fibres oriented in the hoop direction of the columns. Owing to the loading limitation of the testing machine, all 736

specimens were designed to have a cross-sectional width (B) of 150 mm. Previous research has demonstrated that the size effect can be ignored with such a cross-sectional size for FRP-confined cylinders.3 There is, however, still a potential research need to clarify the size effect on FRP-confined prisms. This topic is not dealt with in this paper. The height (L) of the specimens was chosen to be three times the width of the sections. This principle was also adopted by Ilki et al.26 It is, however, worth noting that this height is only 1.5 times the major cross-sectional dimension for those 150 3 300 mm specimens. Thus, a possible enhancement in strength might be induced, which also needs further research in the future. Other specimen details are provided in Table 1, in which H and B are the overall depth and width of a rectangular section, respectively (square columns can be considered as a special case of rectangular columns with B H); Rc is the corner radius; f c is the standard cylinder compres9 sive strength; nf and tf are the number of CFRP layers and nominal thickness of the CFRP jacket, respectively. The parameters considered in this study are (a) (b) (c) (d ) the the the the concrete strength f c (19.5, 22 and 49.5 MPa) 9 cross-sectional aspect ratio H/B (1, 1.5 and 2) number of CFRP layers nf (0, 1 and 2) corner radius Rc (20, 35 and 50 mm).
Magazine of Concrete Research, 2008, 60, No. 10

B H

Compressive behaviour of CFRP-confined rectangular concrete columns


Table 1. Details of specimens and test results
No. Specimen label LS1-0-20 LS1-1-20 LS1-2-20a LS1-2-20b LS1-2-35a LS1-2-35b LS1-2-50a LS1-2-50b LS1.5-0-20 LS1.5-1-20 LS1.5-2-20 LS1.5-2-35 LS1.5-2-50 LS2-0-20 LS2-1-20 LS2-2-20 LS2-2-35 LS2-2-50 NS1-0-20 NS1-1-20 NS1-2-20 NS1-2-35 NS1-2-50 NS1.5-0-20 NS1.5-1-20 NS1.5-2-20 NS2-0-20 NS2-2-20 NS2-2-35 NS2-2-50 B: mm H: mm H/B Rc : mm 20 20 20 20 35 35 50 50 20 20 20 35 50 20 20 20 35 50 20 20 20 35 50 20 20 20 20 20 35 50 Ac : mm2 22 160 22 160 22 160 22 160 21 450 21 450 20 350 20 350 34 160 34 160 34 160 33 450 32 350 44 660 44 660 44 660 43 950 42 850 22 160 22 160 22 160 21 450 20 350 34 160 34 160 34 160 44 660 44 660 43 950 42 850 f c: 9 MPa 22.0 22.0 22.0 19.5 22.0 19.5 22.0 19.5 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 19.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 49.5 nf tf : mm 0.17 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.17 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.17 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.17 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.17 0.34 0.34 0.34 0.34 ff : MPa 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4470 4200 4200 4200 4200 4200 4200 4200 4200 4200 Ef : GPa 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 239 241 241 241 241 v 241 241 241 241 241 f cc : 9 MPa 19.4 33.5 49.6 47.2 64.8 58.7 76.6 63.6 18.4 23.6 33.2 40.7 46.7 18.2 21.8 23.6 30.9 34.8 41.4 54.2 61.4 84.9 86.1 41.3 50.0 50.5 41.0 52.4 51.3 54.1 f cc /f c 9 9 cc : 106

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 230 230 230 230 230 300 300 300 300 300 150 150 150 150 150 230 230 230 300 300 300 300

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2

0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 2 0 1 2 0 2 2 2

0.88 1.52 2.26 2.42 2.95 3.01 3.48 3.26 0.84 1.07 1.51 1.85 2.12 0.93 1.12 1.21 1.59 1.79 0.84 1.10 1.24 1.72 1.74 0.83 1.01 1.02 0.83 1.06 1.04 1.09

25 318 39 490 33 374 36 630 34 764 38 682 34 304 9077 33 130 28 232 29 322 3796 27 092 29 878 31 260 3907 16 575 20 840 16 460 3066 2890 3118 2955 2994

In order to distinguish specimens with different parameters, the specimen names are assigned according to (a) concrete strength (LS for low strength, and NS for normal strength) (b) H/B ratio (1, 1.5 or 2) (c) number of sheet layers (0, 1 or 2) (d) corner radius (20, 35 or 50). As an example, LS1.5-2-20 represents the specimen made of low-strength concrete, which has an H/B ratio of 1.5 and was wrapped by two layers of CFRP. The corner radius of this specimen is 20 mm. It should be noted that, for six specimens listed in Table 1, an additional suffix letter a or b is used to distinguish them with identical parameters, which were designed to verify the reliability of the test results. Material properties Two kinds of concrete mixes were designed and used in the test. These had a water/cement ratio of 0.42 and 0.67 respectively, which resulted in so-called normaland low-strength concrete in this paper respectively. For normal-strength concrete, the mix proportions were as follows: cement: 523 kg/m3 ; water: 220 kg/m3 ; sand: 581 kg/m3 ; and coarse aggregate: 1077 kg/m3 . For lowstrength concrete, the mix proportions were: cement:
Magazine of Concrete Research, 2008, 60, No. 10

359 kg/m3 ; water: 241 kg/m3 ; sand: 866 kg/m3 ; and coarse aggregate: 934 kg/m3 . The maximum size of coarse aggregate was 15 mm. Ordinary Portland cement was used in making the concrete. To determine the compressive strength of concrete, standard cylinders (150 3 300 mm) were cast and cured in conditions similar to the related specimens. The measured average cylinder strength ( f c ) and mod9 ulus of elasticity (Ec ) at the time of tests for normal concrete were 49.5 MPa and 33 300 MPa, respectively. For two different batch low-strength concrete, the values of f c were found to be 19.5 MPa and 22.0 MPa 9 with Ec of 23 100 MPa and 24 500 MPa, respectively. The nominal thickness for a layer of fibre sheet was 0.17 mm, which was used to determine the nominal total thickness of CFRP (tf ) by multiplying the number of CFRP layers (nf ). The tensile properties of the cured CFRP were determined from tensile tests of flat coupons according to ASTM D303932 using the nominal thickness of 0.17 mm. The measured tensile strength (f f ) and elastic modulus (Ef ) of the CFRP were given in Table 1. Specimen preparation All specimens were cast in plywood moulds with a corner radius of 20, 35 or 50 mm. These moulds were 737

Tao et al. custom-made with precisely controlled corner radii. The cast specimens were then naturally cured in the indoor climate of laboratory. Before wrapping the specimens with CFRP jackets, surface preparation was carried out, which included sanding, cleaning, coating a layer of epoxy primer and a layer of epoxy putty. The continuous carbon fibre sheets were then applied over the prepared surfaces with the fibres oriented in the hoop direction. The finishing end of a sheet overlapped the starting end by 150 mm. The wrapped specimens were left to cure in the laboratory environment at room temperature for about one month before testing. As all specimens were cast in vertical position in the formwork, their top surfaces were ground smooth and flat using a grinding wheel with diamond cutters before testing. Instrumentation and loading set-up The axial compression test set-up is shown in Fig. 2. All specimens were axially loaded in a universal testing machine of 5000 kN capacity equipped with a data acquisition system. The acquired data included the axial shortening and the axial and transverse strains of the CFRP jackets. Four longitudinal strain gauges with a gauge length of 30 mm were installed at the midwidth of each face. Two linear variable displacement transducers (LVDT) were used to measure the axial shortening during the tests. In order to evaluate the distributions of transverse strains, 79 strain gauges with a gauge length of 15 mm were installed at midheight of each specimen, as shown in Fig. 3. To assure uniform compression, preliminary tests within approximately 20% of the ultimate load were conducted by carefully adjusting the position of the specimen, based on the measurements of longitudinal strain gauges. The adjustment was terminated until the maximum difference between the readings was less than 10%. Then the specimen was tested with a manual control until failure. The loading rate was approximately 30 kN/min in the elastic loading stage. After that, it was manually controlled to achieve a displacement rate similar to that in the elastic stage of the loading.

Experimental results and discussions


Test observations and failure modes For all unconfined specimens, they were compressed to failure owing to a combination of shear and tensile splitting. Typical specimens LS1-0-20 and NS1-0-20 are shown in Fig. 4. During the tests, a major difference was observed between those fabricated from normalstrength concrete and those from low-strength concrete. For specimens fabricated from normal-strength concrete, a major crack with a width of 1$2 mm developed as the ultimate load was approached and then the specimen suddenly lost its load-carrying capacity. For specimens fabricated from low-strength concrete, however, several micro-cracks with a width of 0.1$0.3 mm were observed at the peak load and then developed diagonally in the unloading stage. The failure was less abrupt. In contrast, all CFRP-wrapped specimens failed by FRP rupture generally near the mid-height (Figs 2 and 4) and the rupture occurred near the corner because of the stress concentration. Owing to the small specimen

Displacement transducer

Fig. 2. Axial compression test set-up

G3

G3

G3

G4

G2 G7 G5 G1 G6

G4

G2 G7 G5 G1 G8 G6

G4

G2 G7 G5 G1 G8 G9 G6

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 3. Transverse strain gauge arrangements: (a) H/B 1; (b) H/B 1.5; (c) H/B 2

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Magazine of Concrete Research, 2008, 60, No. 10

Compressive behaviour of CFRP-confined rectangular concrete columns


80

Axial stress c: MPa

60 G1 G2 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9

40

LS1-0-20

LS1-1-20

LS1-2-20a

LS1-2-35a

LS1-2-50a

LS1-5-2-50

LS2-2-50

(a)

20

0 10 000

7500

5000 Lateral strain : 10 (a)


6

2500

NS1-0-20

NS1-1-20

NS1-2-20

NS1-2-35

NS1-2-50

NS2-2-35

NS2-2-50

80

(b)

Axial stress c: MPa

Fig. 4. Typical specimens after testing: (a) low-strength concrete; (b) normal-strength concrete

60 G1 40 G2 G5 G6 20 G7 G8 0 10 000

size and negligible longitudinal stiffness of the FRP jacket, no debonding of the FRP jacket from the concrete was observed during the testing. Before the occurrence of the CFRP jacket rupture, clicking sounds were heard accompanied by discoloration of the resin. The smaller the cross-sectional aspect ratio, the more abrupt the failure was. Also, the failure was less explosive with the decreasing of concrete strength, corner radius or number of CFRP layers. As can be seen from Fig. 4, the specimen LS1-1-20 showed insignificant concrete damage at failure, while the specimens LS1-2-35a and LS1-2-50a were totally destroyed with extensive damages. Transverse strain distribution Figure 5 compares the average axial stress (c ) plotted against lateral strain () curves of typical specimens, where the lateral strains were measured from different locations shown in Fig. 3. The axial stress was calculated from the measured axial load divided by the concrete cross-sectional area (Ac ), where the contribution from FRP jackets was ignored. It can be seen that the lateral strains at different locations are almost the same before c exceeded the unconfined concrete strength f c . After that, the strains near the middle parts 9 of the side faces developed faster than those at the corners. In general, the strain at the corner was lower than the average strain before the occurrence of FRP rupture (about 1530%). A similar phenomenon has been reported by Wang and Wu.33 From the above observations, it is concluded that the lateral strains at different measuring points caused by the internal tension stress in the FRP jackets were the same. The middle part of a FRP jacket at the side face has, however, a tendency to bend outwards owing to the lateral dilation of the concrete core, thus causing the measured strain to increase at this point. This phenomenon
Magazine of Concrete Research, 2008, 60, No. 10

7500

5000 Lateral strain : 10 (b)

2500
6

Fig. 5. Relations of axial stress plotted against lateral strain at different measuring locations: (a) LS2-2-20; (b) NS1.5-120

became predominant after c of a confined specimen exceeded its unconfined concrete strength f c . 9 Effect of concrete strength Figure 6 shows the effect of concrete strength on the normalised axial stress (c /f c ) plotted against lateral 9 and axial strain () curves, where the lateral strain is an average value measured from the four lateral strain gauges installed at the mid-width of each face. The axial strain is an average value measured from strain gauges or LVDTs. As the strain gauges might not be able to give accurate strain values after the beginning of FRP rupture, the strain values from the strain gauges were only used for plotting the stressstrain curves before the occurrence of FRP rupture. After that, the axial strain was calculated from measured axial shortening divided by the overall length (L). It can be seen from Fig. 6 that the concrete strength has a significant influence on the c /f c curves. Apart from three 9 specimens with the smallest Rc of 20 mm and a comparatively larger H/B ratio of 1.5 or 2 (LS1.5-1-20, LS2-1-20 and LS2-2-20), all other specimens fabricated from low-strength concrete showed strain hardening trend. In contrast, the majority of stressstrain curves for those specimens fabricated from normal-strength 739

Tao et al.
3 6 LS1-1-20 NS1-1-20 2 45 Rc Rc Rc Rc 3 20, nf 20, nf 35, nf 50, nf 1 2 2 2

Normalised stress c /f c

1 15 H/B 0 10 000 0 10 000 20 000


6

f cc /f c

30 000

40 000

Lateral strain : 10 (a) 3

axial strain

45 15 30 Concrete cylinder strength f c: MPa

60

Fig. 7. Effect of concrete strength on ultimate axial strength


LS1-2-35a NS1-2-35 40 000 H/B 30 000 1

Normalised stress c /f c

cc: 10

20 000 Rc Rc 10 000 20, nf 20, nf 35, nf 50, nf 1 2 2 2 60

0 10 000

10 000

20 000
6

30 000

40 000

Lateral strain : 10 (b)

Rc Rc

axial strain 0 0

Fig. 6. Effect of concrete strength on stressstrain curves

45 15 30 Concrete cylinder strength f c: MPa

Fig. 8. Effect of concrete strength on ultimate axial strain

concrete showed sudden strain softening after attaining their peak stress. This is attributed to the fact that lowstrength concrete dilates much quicker under high axial loading than normal-strength concrete, thus the effect of confinement from FRP jackets is more pronounced for the low-strength concrete. The maximum strengths f cc for all specimens and 9 their corresponding strains cc are given in Table 1. It should be noted that all f cc for unconfined specimens 9 are only 8393% of the cylinder compressive strengths f c . This is mainly attributed to the influence of size 9 effect. All confined specimens have, however, achieved their ultimate strengths, which are larger than their corresponding cylinder strengths. Figure 7 depicts the effect of concrete strength on the ultimate axial strength f cc . It can be clearly seen 9 that, f cc /f c reduces as f c increases, which demonstrates 9 9 9 the decrease of confinement effectiveness. The values of f cc /f c range from 1.07 to 3.48 for low-strength con9 9 crete with an average value of 2.08, while those for normal-strength concrete range from 1.01 to 1.74 with an average value of 1.22. The effect of concrete strength on the ultimate axial strain (cc ) is shown in Fig. 8. It is evident that this effect is similar to that of concrete strength on f cc /f c , 9 9 that is cc decreases with the increasing of f c . The 9 influence is more significant, however, as most confined specimens fabricated from normal-strength con740

crete shown a strain-softening behaviour. The ultimate axial strains for those specimens in the NS series are just a little larger than that of unconfined concrete cylinders (often assumed as 0.02). Effect of cross-sectional aspect ratio Figure 9 presents the effect of cross-sectional aspect ratio on the c curves. As expected, the confinement from CFRP jackets on square columns is most efficient. Almost all square specimens with CFRP wraps show a strain hardening trend, even for those fabricated from normal-strength concrete. With the increasing of H/B ratio, the slope of the second potion (an approximate straight line) of c curves tends to decrease. Figures 10 and 11 show the effect of cross-sectional aspect ratio on f cc and cc, respectively. As seen in these 9 figures, the values of f cc and cc decrease with the 9 increase of H/B ratio. This can be explained by the well-accepted theory of effective confinement:3 the concrete in a rectangular section is confined by the transverse FRP through arching actions, and only concrete in the core and at the corners is effectively confined while the confinement to the rest is negligible. The larger the H/B ratio, the less the ratio of effectively confined cross-sectional area to total cross-sectional area Ac is. It
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Compressive behaviour of CFRP-confined rectangular concrete columns


80 LS1-1-20 6 Rc 45 Rc Rc 20 35 50

Axial stress c: MPa

60

LS15-1-20 LS2-1-20

f cc /f c

40

20 15 nf 0 10 000 0 10 000 20 000


6

30 000

40 000 0 0 05 1 H/B (a) 6 Rc 45 Rc Rc 20 35 50 15 2 25

Lateral strain : 10 (a) 80

axial strain

LS1-2-20a

Axial stress c: MPa

60

LS152-20 LS2-2-20

40

f cc /f c

20

0 10 000

15 0 10 000 20 000
6

30 000

40 000 0

nf

Lateral strain : 10 (b)

axial strain 0 05 1 H/B (b) 15 2 25

Fig. 9. Effect of cross-sectional aspect ratio on stressstrain curves

can also be seen from Fig. 10 and Table 1 that, only limited strength enhancement from FRP confinement can be expected for normal-strength concrete with a H/B ratio of 1.5 or 2. If compared with those unconfined specimens, however, an average increase of 21.4% is still a notable strength enhancement. Effect of number of CFRP layers Figure 12 shows the effect of number of CFRP layers nf on the c curves. As observed by many other researchers, the increase of nf can increase the confinement effect on concrete. This effect is more pronounced for low-strength concrete. Compared to the confined specimens, all unconfined specimens show abrupt post-peak behaviour, as can be seen from Fig. 12. In contrast with this, ductility to some extent is achieved with FRP confinement, even for those weakly confined specimens, such as NS1.5-1-20 and NS22-20. Figures 13 and 14 show the effect of nf on f cc and 9 cc , respectively. It can be seen from these figures that, f cc and cc increase generally as nf increases. However, 9 nf has only moderate influence on the confined normal-strength specimens with a H/B ratio of 1.5 or 2. Effect of corner radius Figure 15 illustrates the effect of corner radius (Rc ) on the c curves. Generally, the confinement from
Magazine of Concrete Research, 2008, 60, No. 10

Fig. 10. Effects of cross-sectional aspect ratio and corner radius on ultimate axial strength: (a) low-strength concrete; (b) normal-strength concrete

FRP jackets increases with the increase in the corner radius. This can also be explained by the effective confinement theory. The change of the corner radius has, however, little influence on the normal-strength concrete specimens with a H/B of 2 owing to the limited lateral expansion of such concrete and the comparatively small Rc /H ratios (0.0670.167). Thus particular attention should be paid when such kind of members are to be used in engineering practice. Figures 10 and 11 also show the effect of Rc on f cc 9 and cc, respectively. As can be clearly seen, f cc in9 creases with the increasing of Rc . Compared with the specimens with a Rc of 20 mm, a higher strength increase (with an increase of about 35%) is expected for those with a Rc of 50 mm. At the same time, it seems the change of Rc has only a moderate influence on cc .

Comparison with existing design-oriented models


Summary of models Several design-oriented stressstrain models have been put forward in recent years.13,14, 2628 A brief introduction to those models is given as follows. 741

Tao et al.
40 000 80 LS1-0-20 30 000
6

Axial stress c: MPa

60

LS1-1-20 LS1-2-20a

cc: 10

20 000 Rc 10 000 nf 0 0 2 05 1 H/B (a) Rc Rc 15 20 35 50 2 25

40

20

0 10 000

10 000 20 000 30 000 Lateral strain : 10 6 axial strain (a)

40 000

80 40 000

30 000
6

Rc Rc

35 50

Axial stress c: MPa

Rc

20

60

40

NS1-0-20 NS1-1-20 NS1-2-20

cc: 10

20 000

20

10 000 nf 0 0 2 05 1 H/B (b) 15 2 25 0 10 000 0 10 000 20 000 30 000 Lateral strain : 10 6 axial strain (b) 40 000

Fig. 11. Effects of cross-sectional aspect ratio and corner radius on ultimate axial strain: (a) low-strength concrete; (b) normal-strength concrete

Fig. 12. Effect of number of CFRP layers on stressstrain curves

(a) Lam and Tengs model.13 This model is an extension of Lam and Teng stressstrain model proposed formally for FRP-confined concrete in circular columns, which consists of a parabolic first portion and a straight-line second portion.3 New expressions for the compressive strength and the ultimate axial strain were introduced by the introduction of two shape factors ks1 and ks2 . It should be noted that Lam and Tengs model was not proposed to predict curves with a strainsoftening response. (b) Ilki et al.s model.26 A bilinear relationship is used in Ilki et al.s model to predict the axial stressstrain curves of low-strength concrete members confined by CFRP jackets. There is a curved transition from the first straight line asymptote with slope E0 to the second line asymptote with slope E1 . This model was, however, only verified by the authors own test results ( f c < 9.8 MPa) owing to 9 the scarce of tests on low-strength concrete members. Just like Lam and Tengs model, this model cannot be used to predict curves with a strain-softening response. (c) Harajlis model.27 This model is also a two-stage relationship that can take transverse steel tie con742

finement into account. The first part of the model was described using a well-established second degree parabola, while the second part was given as a function of the aspect ratio, the corner radius, the area and modulus of elasticity of the FRP material and so on. No attempt was made in this model to predict those strain-softening type curves. (d ) Wu et al.s model.14 In fact, three different models based on other researchers results were put forward by Wu et al.14 The third model is, however, more applicable according to Wu et al.14 Only this model therefore is introduced and compared in the current paper. Similar to Lam and Tengs model, Wu et al.s model is also represented by a parabolic line and then followed by a straight line. Wu et al.s model can, however, be used to predict both types of stressstrain curves with a strain-softening and strain-hardening response. (e) Youssef et al.s model.28 This model consists two portions, that is a polynomial curve and a straight line. An equation used by Hoshikuma et al.34 was adopted for the first portion. The slope for the following straight line can be positive or negative, which reflects an ascending stressstrain curve or a descending one. The model parameters were evaluated and determined using regression analysis of experimental data. A same model was used for
Magazine of Concrete Research, 2008, 60, No. 10

Compressive behaviour of CFRP-confined rectangular concrete columns


4 H/B H/B 3 H/B
f cc /f c

40 000 1 15 30 000 2
6

cc: 10

20 000 H/B 1 15 2 3

1 Rc 0 20

10 000 Rc 0 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 Number of CFRP layers nf (a) 40 000 20

H/B H/B

Number of CFRP layers nf (a)

4 H/B 3 H/B 15 1
6

30 000

H/B H/B

1 15

cc: 10

f cc /f c

20 000

10 000 1 Rc 0 20 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Number of CFRP layers nf (b) Rc 20

Number of CFRP layers nf (b)

Fig. 13. Effect of number of CFRP layers on ultimate axial strength: (a) low-strength concrete; (b) normal-strength concrete

Fig. 14. Effect of number of CFRP layers on ultimate axial strain: (a) low-strength concrete; (b) normal-strength concrete

both circular and rectangular columns but with different model parameters.

published models over a wider range of geometric and material parameters, and to improve their accuracy.

Model comparison Figure 16 compares the predicted curves using the above published models with the test curves in this paper. It should be noted that all models are used ignoring possible parameter limitations with the aim of justifying the applicability of these models. Owing to page limit, only part test curves are presented herein. The full comparison results can be found in Zhong.35 It can be seen from Fig. 16 that all five models give reasonable predictions in the initial stage of curves, but notable differences can be found after that. As expected, models proposed by Wu et al.14 and Youssef et al.28 can capture the strain-softening behaviour of those less effectively confined specimens. In general, considerable deviations can be found among various model predictions. It seems there is still a need for better prediction of stressstrain curves. As FRP-confined rectangular concrete columns often demonstrate a strain-softening behaviour, those models that reflect this behaviour are more preferable. Further work may be needed to verify the applicability of the
Magazine of Concrete Research, 2008, 60, No. 10

Conclusions
A series of tests were carried out to study the performance of CFRP-confined rectangular concrete columns under axial compression. The following conclusions can be drawn within the limitation of the study in this paper. (a) Without CFRP confinement, all unconfined specimens were compressed to failure due to a combination of shear and tensile splitting, while all CFRPwrapped specimens failed by FRP rupture generally near the mid height. (b) The lateral strains at different cross-sectional locations were almost the same before the average axial stress exceeded the unconfined concrete strength. After that, the strains near the middle parts of the side faces developed faster than those at the corners. (c) The CFRP jackets were more effective in confining low-strength concrete. The confinement effectiveness reduced with the increase of cross-sectional 743

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Axial stress c: MPa

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LS15 2-35 LS15 2-50

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aspect ratio or the decrease of corner radius. The increase of number of CFRP layers can improve the confinement on concrete. (d ) Considerable deviations were found between various model predictions of stressstrain curves. It seems further work may be needed to improve prediction accuracy.

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0 10 000

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40 000

Acknowledgements
The research reported in this paper is part of Project 50608019 supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China, a key Grant of Chinese Ministry of Education (No. 205083) and New Century Outstanding Talents Supporting Project of Universities in Fujian Province. Their financial support is highly appreciated. The authors also express their appreciation to Zhi-Bin Wang for his assistance in the model comparisons.

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References
0 10 000 0 10 000 20 000 30 000 Lateral strain : 10 6 axial strain (b) 40 000

Fig. 15. Effect of corner radius on stressstrain curves

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Test Lam and Teng13 Ilki et al.26 Harajli27 Wu et al.14 Youssef et al.28

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Test Lam and Teng13 Ilki et al.26 Harajli27 Wu et al.14 Youssef et al.28

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Fig. 16. Comparisons of model predictions with current test results: (a) LS1-2-20a; (b) LS2-2-20; (c) NS1.5-1-20; (d) NS2-2-20

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