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Differences between titans and gods Summary: The Titans were the direct children of the Earth (Gaia), whereas the Gods were the children of the Titans. The Titans are depicted as volatile giants whereas the gods look more like humans. The difference between the two originates from the Creation Story. Originally, only Uranus and his wife Gaia inhabited Earth. Uranus forced Gaia to store all of his children in her stomach for fear of being usurped by them--these children were the Titans. However, his youngest son Cronus defeated his father and released the Titans, crowning himself as king of the Titans. He swallowed his children in the same fear, but his wife Rhea protected Zeus (the youngest son) by giving her husband a rock wrapped in a blanket to swallow, allowing Zeus to release his siblings and fight his father and the Titans, whom he locked in a pit named Tartarus. Characters Uranus- father sky, son and husband of Gaia Crius: Titan, known as the ram Gaia- mother earth, wife of Uranus Iapetus- Titan, known as ancestor of human race Oceanus-Titan of Ocean Zeus- God of the sky and thunder Tethys- Titan, wife of Oceanus Hera- Goddess of marriage and motherhood Hyperion-Titan of Light Poseidon- God of the seas, earthquakes and horses Theia-Titan, wife of Hyperion Demeter- Goddess of fertility, agriculture, nature, and seasons Coeus- Titan of intelligence Athena- Goddess of wisdom and warfare Phoebe- Titan, sister of Coeus Dionysus- God of wine, celebration, and ecstasy Cronus- Titan, leader of the first generation of Titan Apollo- God of light, music, and archery Rhea- Titan, sister of Cronus Artemis- Goddess of the hunt and virginity Mnemosyne- Titan, personification of memory Ares- God of war and violence Themis- Titan, law of nature Aphrodite- Goddess of love, beauty and desire Hephaestus- God of fire and the forge Hermes- god of commerce and thieves Allusion n/a

Daedalus and Icarus Summary Daedalus was a great architect who came to work for King Minos and Queen Pasiphae on the island of Crete. When Queen Pasiphae gave birth to the Minotaur, Daedalus built a labyrinth to imprison the beast. Each year, King Minos fed Athenian children to the beast until Theseus came to kill it. Ariadne, the King and Queens daughter, fell in love with Theseus and asked Daedalus to help Theseus survive the labyrinth. Theseus was able to kill the Minotaur and fled Crete with Ariadne. King Minos punished Daedalus by imprisoning him and his son, Icarus, in the labyrinth. Daedalus then fashioned two pairs of wings out of wax and feathers in order to escape by air. Daedalus warned his son not to fly too close to the sun or the ocean, as they would impair his flight. Icarus, however, was thrilled with flying and flew too close to the sun. His wings melted, and he plunged to his death. Characters Daedalus: Athenian architect King Minos: King of Crete, hired Daedalus to build a labyrinth Icarus: Daedalus son Allusion: Finding Nemo Daedalus: Marlin, Icarus: Nemo

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In Finding Nemo, Marlin is a clownfish who constanly warns his son, Nemo, to stay within the confines of the sea anemone in which they live. Like Daedalus, Marlin wishes to protect his son. When Nemo spots a ship, his curiosity gets the best of him and swims eagerly toward it, just as Icarus flew toward the sun. A scuba diver appears and Nemo attempts to swim away; however, like Icarus wings, Nemos fins are not strong enough to evade the danger. This allusion enhances the movie because it makes Marlins pain all the more powerful, and portrays Marlins sense of helplessness and despair.

Persephone and Demeter Summary Demeter, goddess of corn, and her daughter Persephone, maiden of the spring, both contributes to the growth of crops. One day, Hades, god of the underworld, saw Persephone and fell in love with her, wishing to bring hr to the Underworld to make her his queen. So, Hades kidnapped Persephone and fed her a pomegranate seed. When Demeter discovered that her daughter was missing, she searched for her, neglecting the growth of crops as she searched. Crops began to die and men began to starve, calling on the attention of Zeus, who demanded that Hades return Persephone. Hades, however, said that because Persephone had eaten a pomegranate seed, she was bound to return to the Underworld. A covenant was established, allowing Persephone to be with Demeter for two-thirds of a year and to be with Hades for the remaining one-third. So, when Persephone is apart from Demeter, no crops grow, thus, establishing the four seasons. Demeter: goddess of corn// Persephone: Demeters daughter; maiden of the spring// Hades: god of the Underworld Characters Demeter: goddess of corn Persephone: Demeters daughter; maiden of the spring Hades: god of the Underworld Allusion Season 3, Episode 2 of Lincoln Heights. Kevin Lund is a reputable police officer in a neighborhood pulsing with gang violence. The only person he truly loves is his daughter, Sage. When Sage falls into a coma after a car accident, Kevins work performance steadily declines. He neglects his work to stay by Sages side in the hospital. Kevin picks up the habit of drinking to drown his sorrows. When Sage wakes, he vows to remain sober. Kevin is comparable to Demeter in that he neglects his duties when he is separated from his daughter, and when

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they are together, he resumes his work. This allusion enhances the episode because his action of pulling away from everyone when his daughter is gone illustrates his deep love for his daughter, and the return of the daughter is marked by a period of joy, or through this allusion, spring.

Prometheus Summary: Prometheus was a Titan, son of Iapetus and Themis, brother to Atlas, Epimetheus, and Menoetius. One of the few titans who foresaw the Olympians inevitable victory in battle and he helped Zeus. Prometheus name means fore thought. And represents his wily intelligence. Often seen as the champion of mankind, despite the opposition from other Gods. He is credited with stealing fire and giving it to man. Earning Zeus anger (Zeus conveniently forgot about Prometheus previous help). Prometheus was chained to a rock and has his liver torn out by a great eagle every single day; during the night, his liver would grow back and he would suffer the torture again. Only after many years did Prometheus escape; Hercules killed the great eagle and freed Prometheus. In gratitude to Hercules, Prometheus went on to predict many of Hercules great deeds. Prometheus also champions the cause of maankind when he tricks Zeus into accepting meager offerings from mankind as tribute. He slew a great ox and hid the good meat within the skin of the ox and piled entrails upon it to make it seem unappetizing. He then proceeded to dress up the bones with white lard, tricking Zeus into selecting the most useless parts of the ox as tribute. Man was then able to obtain strength from the meat and survive. Characters Prometheus: Titan who allied himself with the Olympians; considered champion of mankind, famous for his wit and intellect, and often tricked the Gods in mans favor Iapetus: Another Titan, significant only because he is the father of Prometheus Themis: Titan, name is often translated to justice, mother of Prometheus Atlas: A Titan who lost the war against Olympians; brother of Prometheus; forced to carry Earth as punishment for defying the Olympians Menoetius: A titan who lost the war against Olympians; thrown by Zeus into Cerberus, lowest level of hell, as punishment Epimetheus: Titan renowned for his dimwittedness; brother of Prometheus; responsible for not watching carefully over Pandora

Zeus: King of all Olympians; involved in infidelity leading to feuds with his wife (Hera) that harms mortals; fights with thunderbolts and storms Hercules: Half-mortal, Half-immortal son of Zeus and Alcestis (mortal queen whom Zeus came to under the guise of her husband, who was at war); considered the greatest Greek hero; famous for his strength, but not his intelligence; often performed punishments atone for his blunders Allusion: Frankenstein, The Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley Prometheus: Dr. Frankenstein Promethean Fire: Monster Greek Gods (Zeus): Nature Hercules: Captain Walton In the story, Dr. Victor Frankenstein (main character) seeks perfection and attempts to create a new kind of lifesomething wonderful to bring to mankind. He goes against the laws of nature and investigates cadavers, eventually using body parts, chemicals, and electricity to morbidly animate his creature, which has no name. Frankensteins hope to create a perfect man goes awry and he is then punished by his own creation, losing his wife in the process. The doctor is then forced to chase his monster further and further North, finally ending up in the Arctic. He then gives up the chase, and meeting Captain Walton and saved from death. Dr. Frankenstein seeks to improve mankind, like Prometheus did, and eventually is punished by the greater power of natural order (stand-in for Greek Gods). The long time spent chasing his monster in the cold of the Arctic is parallel to Prometheus eternal punishment in the equally cold Caucasus. When the Herculean Captain Walton finally frees Dr. Frankensetin, he divulges his secrets and provides future advice and warning, like Prometheus. With knowledge of the allusion, the reader can predict the obvious failure and painful ending of Dr. Frankensteins deed. The reader may continue to question if Shelley will stay true to the allusion or forge her own storyline.

Eurydice and Orpheus Summary Considered the greatest musician that ever lived, Orpheus lived life simply and carefully. One day he met a woman named Eurydice, and they fell in love However, the rustic god Aristaeus saw Eurydice's beauty and chased after her, even though she is in love with Orpheus. Eurydice ran away from Aristaeus and

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steps on a poisonous snake, biting and then killing her. When her spirit went to the underworld, Orpheus was in great grief, and decides to go to Hades to get her back. As he traversed through the underworld, Orpheus overcame all the obstacles with the beauty of his music. When he reached Hades and his wife Persephone, he played his lyre for them, deeply touching their hearts. So Hades allows Eurydice to go back to Earth with Orpheus, she will follow him up as a shade. Once they reached the sunlight, she will become human again, but if he doubts Hades then she will be lost forever. Thus, Orpheus agreed, however, on the way up he started doubting Hades and he looked back. A foot away from sunlight, Orpheus looks back and sees that Eurydice's shadow disappear. She returns back to the underworld with the other dead souls. Mourning her death, Orpheus ultimately kills himself as a result of his sorrows. Characters Orpheus: A lyre player who was considered the best musician to ever live. Fell in love with Eurydice and went to the underworld to get her back. Eurydice: Orpheus' lover. Chased after by Aristaeus and then bit by a snake. Sent back to underworld because Orpheus looked back Hades: God of the underworld. Allowed Eurydice to return to Earth with Orpheus Aristaeus: The god of bee-keeping, cheese-making, herding, olive-growing, and hunting. Fell in love with Eurydice, although she was in love with Orpheus, but he still chased after her. Allusion The Mummy Orpheus: Imhotep Eurydice: Anck-su-Namun In the movie, The Mummy, Imhotep represents the character Orpheus, while Anck-su-Namun represents Eurydice. Anck-su-Namun commits suicide after killing

the monarchy in Egypt, similar to Eurydice dying in the myth. After her death, Imhotep tries to rescue her from the underworld by controlling dead skeletons and dark magic, which parallels Orpheus' music playing that moves Hades and Persephone. When he is close to saving his lover, Imhotep ultimately fails. Similarly, Orpheus fails to save Eurydice from the underworld. The allusion improves the story because the viewer can better understand the tragedy. Imhotep and Ancksu-Namun become more than dead lovers, they become a tragic pair that can only be destined to failure as Orpheus and Eurydice fell apart.

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Agamemnon Summary Agamemnon, son of Atreus, fled with Menelaus to Sparta after the death of their father. King Tyndareus of Sparta gave his two daughters, Clytemnestra and Helen, to Agamemnon and Menelaus, respectively. When Paris carried off Helen, Agamemnon called for a war against the Trojans as revenge. Before setting off for Troy, Agamemnon sacrifices his daughter to the gods to ensure a Greek victory. After a successful campaign, Agamemnon captured Troy and began his voyage home. When he arrived, he was murdered by his wife, who was bitter over the loss of her daughter. Agamemnon was avenged by his son, Orestes. Characters Agamemnon: King of Mycenae or Argos, commanded the Trojan War Helen: Menelaus wife, eloped with Paris, starting the Trojan War Paris: son of King Priam (King of Troy), killed Achilles Allusion In The Mists of Avalon, by Marion Zimmer Bradley, Igraine is married to Duke Gorlois. The duke and Igraine travel to Londinium, where Uther Pendragon is elected High King. Because Duke Gorlois notices the attraction between his wife and the High King, he and Igraine quickly return home. The Duke instructs his servants to keep Igraine within the castle, while he sets out to battle Uther. At home, Igraine receives a vision that shows Gorlois advancing against Uther, when Uther and his men are unprepared. Igraine sends

her spirit to Uther, warning him of them impending attack. Uther prepares his men for battle and Gorlois loses his life in the battle. Gorlois is an allusion to Agamemnon because he leaves home and wife for the war. Igraine is an allusion to Agamemnons wife, who is unfaithful to her husband. Together, Igraine and Uther are responsible for the death of Gorlois, just as the wife and her lover murder Agamemnon. This allusion heightens the positions of Gorlois as the victim and Igraine as the cheating wife, making the story more lamentable.

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Achilles Summary Achillies was the son of Peleus and Thetis, who later became the hero of the Trojan War. Achilles guardian, Centaur Chiron, wanted Achilles to be immortal so she dipped him in the river of Styx, but his heel stayed dry, therefore making everything on his body immortal except for his heel. Calchas prophesied that Achilles would be the hero in the war with Troy, but Thetis did not want Achilles to go to war and disguised Achilles as a girl. Once Odysseus unraveled Achilles' disguise, Achilles willingly went to the battle of Troy, and fought bravely for the Greeks. The war was going successfully in favor of the Greek because of Apollo, but Apollo quit fighting for the Greeks when Briseis was taken away from him. Without Achilles the Greeks had no chance against the Trojans, and started losing without him. Achilles rejoined the war when he found out that his friend Patroclus was killed in battle. Achilles ultimately kills Hector and embarrassed Hector in front of the Trojan country. A few days after Hector's death, Paris sought help from Apollo, and Paris was able to kill Achilles by shooting an arrow at Achilles' heel. Characters Achilles: Son of Peleus and Thetis Peleus and Thetis: Parents of Achilles Apollo: All knowing prophet Hector: King of Troy Patroclus: Achilles' friend whose death changed the war Paris: One who killed Achilles by shooting an arrow at Achilles' heel. Allusion Superman (The original comic).

Superman: Achilles Kryptonite: Achilles Heel Before the planet Krypton was about to experience its inevitable ending, Jor-El and Lara, rocketed their child Kal-El, to escape the exploding planet. Later, Kal-El landed on the planet Earth, and were adopted by his parents that found him on the farm. During Kal-El's life time he keeps his super powers a secret to protect his loved ones. Kal-El then creates his alter ego named, Superman, to protect his city and his loved ones. Unfortunately, Superman does have an Achilles Heel, which is kryptonite, a radioactive substance that hinders Superman's powers and memory. One who possess kryptonite will be able to defeat Superman easily because kryptonite completely hinders all of Superman's powers and Superman is changed as if he were a regular person. In the story of Superman, the character Superman is an allusion to Achilles because Superman has one life altering fault. The radioactive substance, kryptonite is the only substance in the universe that can bring down superman, just like Achilles' heel. This allusion makes the story of Achilles easier to comprehend because the story of Superman blatantly states that the only flaw to Superman is kryptonite.

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Hector Summary Hector, eldest son of King Priam of Troy, was a commander of the Trojan forces. He played a vital part in defending Troy against the Greek warriors for nine years, eventually succeeding in driving the Greeks back to their ships. When Hector killed Patrocius, however, Achilles was enraged. Achilles erected a funeral pyre for Patrocius and then murdered Hector, dragging his dead body throughout the city. When King Priam approaches Achilles and begs for the return of his sons body, Achilles takes pity and grants his request. Characters Hector: eldest son of King Priam, commander of Trojan forces Patrocius: Achilles best friend, killed by Hector Achilles: son of a sea nymph and King Peleus, impervious to fatal wounds, except at his ankle, killed by Paris Allusion Belinda: Achilles Jamie: Hector In A Walk to Remember, Belinda is the Achilles character because she seeks revenge on Jamie, the parallel of Hector, after Jamie

commands all of Landons attention. To Belinda, Landon (Patrocius) is as good as dead because he no longer showers her with attention and instead spends all of his time with Jamie. Belinda then wants to kill Jamie for murdering her best friend. To do so, Belinda prints hundreds of copies of a computer-generated image that shows Jamie striking a meretricious pose. This disgraces Jamie, just as Hector is disgraced when his body is dragged along the ground, nailed to Achilles chariot. This allusion puts Jamie in a position where the audience feels compassion towards her and horror towards Achilles actions.

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Tantalus Summary Tantalus, king of Lydia and son of Zeus, was invited to dine with the gods. However, he deceived them in an effort to prove the gods unable to differentiate between animal and human meat by serving his own son Pelops as the meal. All the gods but Demeter realized Tantalus' trick, and they restored Pelops to life. The shoulder which Demeter ate was replaced with an ivory one. To punish Tantalus, they caused him to be banished from his kingdom. When he died, he was sentenced to be forever thirsty and forever hungry. In Hades, he stands knee-deep in water but when he reaches down to drink, the water recedes. Fruit hangs above his head, but when he reaches up to take one, they vanish. Characters Tantalus: man who incurs the wrath of the gods Pelops: Tantalus' son and the meal Tantalus serves to the gods Demeter: god of agriculture who does not recognize human meat and eats Pelops' soldier Allusion Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince- J.K. Rowling Tantalus: Dumbledore Hades: the cave where Harry and Dumbledore find the Horcrux

When Dumbledore is in the cave and drinks the potion that surrounds the Horcrux in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, he is stricken by thirst. Though Harry fills up a goblet of water and holds it to Dumbledore's lips, the water vanishes when Dumbledore tries to drink. Dumbledore represents Tantalus in this scene, with the dark, damp cave a symbol for Hades. Just as Tantalus is unable to satiate his thirst in Hades, so Dumbledore is driven mad with thirst when he is unable to drink the water. The story is enhanced because Rowling, the author, reveals that Dumbledore, like Tantalus, is being punished for his wrongs. This is foreshadowing, as it is later revealed that Dumbledore actually did had a shady past. Through this allusion, the author draws comparisons between Dumbledore and Tantalus that is strengthened later in the series.

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Perseus Summary The son Zeus and Danae, Perseus, was born with the prophecy that he will one day murder Danae's Father--thus, Perseus and Danae were put in a wooden boat with no sails or oars and sent out to sea. The king of Seriphus, Polydectes, wanted to remove Perseus from the island, so he announced a large banquet in which everyone had to bring a gift and told Perseus to bring him Medusa's head. Hermes and Athena gave help to Perseus-- Hermes gave him winged sandals for flying; Athena gave him a shield; Zeus gave him Hade's helm of invisibility. With their help, Perseus successfully decapitates Medusa and brings her back to find the king seducing Danae. In anger, Perseus turns him to stone. Then he repays Athena, Hermes, and Zeus with Medusa's head. Later, he accidentally kills Danae's father in a quoits game. Characters Perseus: Main character who sets out to kill Medusa Zeus: Perseus' father, King of Gods Hermes, Athena: Olympian gods who provide Perseus with divine aid Polydectes: King of Seriphus, he hates Perseus and wants him killed Allusion Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets by J.K. Rowling

Perseus: Harry Potter Medusa: The basilisk Hermes/Athena: Dumbledore Fawkes, Sorting hat, Gryffindor Sword: Shield, Sandals, and Invisibility cloak (3 gifts) The basilisk, like Medusa, can kill by simply looking someone in the eyes. Even an indirect glance results in petrification. Similar to Perseus, Harry Potter receives help and three gifts to defeat the basilisk. Harry Potter sets out to defeat the basilisk and save Ginny, just as Perseus did to save his mother. The allusion serves to emphasize Harry's triumph over evil and the difficult tasks he had to overcome. The basilisk, when placed in the context of a Medusa-like creature, also adds a certain authenticity to the Harry Potter saga, which may transcend to childhood fantasy into accepted, sophisticated literature.

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Theseus Summary Before Theseus was born, King Aegus of Athens left a pair of sandals and a sword under a great boulder for Theseus. The King told Aethra, Theseus mother, to send Theseus to Athens to claim his birthright when he was old enough to lift the boulder. Theseus leaves for Athens at age 16. After a long, dangerous trip, he arrives and is reunited with his father after Medeas futile attempt to murder him. King Minos then takes Theseus as a sacrifice to the Minotaur. Before he leaves to battle the Minotaur, Theseus tells his father that if he dies, the sails on his ship will be black. Ariadne, King Minos daughter, falls in love with Theseus and helps him defeat the Minotaur. The two return to Athens, but Thesues forgets to change the sails to white, and King Aegues commits suicide when he sees the black sails. Characters Sisyphus: Son of Aeolus and Enarete, famous for deceitfulness Thanatos: God of Death Zeus: God of all gods Ares: God of War Hades: God of the underworld Hermes: God of Commerce and Thieves Allusion: House of the Scorpion

Theseus: Matt King Aegus: Matteo Alacran In House of the Scorpion, by Nancy Farmer, Matt lives in a small, dingy shack with a mother figure. Their home is on the property of a large estate at which Matts mother works. One day, Matt discovers that his father is Matteo Alcaran, the master of the entire estate. Matts discovery is like Theseus in that neither knew their fathers held positions of power. Matt, like Theseus, moves into his fathers home and soon sets out on a journey to defeat an evil creature. Thesus destroys the Minotaur, who eats children while Matt defeats a corporation that clones children and uses them for organs. The allusion is heightened when Matt is able to defeat a terrible antagonist, linking him even more to Theseus.

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River Lethe Summary River Lethe, also known as the river of oblivion, is one of several rivers of Hades, god of the Underworld. Lethe literally means forgetfulness or concealment. Mythology states that those who died, but have good souls, will be allowed to drink from the river and completely forget what they had done and suffered when they were alive, whereas those with mediocre souls would drink from the River of Lethe as a punishment so that they would not know who they were when they are forced to work for Hades. Also, drinking from the River was a necessary process before one could be reincarnated, so that the memories of a person would be erased. Characters Hades: God of the Underworld Allusion From the Harry Potter series, by J.K. Rowling River by Hogwarts: River Lethe In the Harry Potter series, the students of Hogwarts cross the river to actually get to the school. Thus, the body of water serves as a link to the human world, as well as a point of no return, away from the normal world. After crossing the river, students put all miseries from the human world behind and live as wizards in Hogwarts. One specific example is Harry Potter, who leaves behind memories of his terrible experiences with his unpleasant housemates and their cruelty toward him after arriving at Hogwarts by

journeying across the river, temporarily forgetting the summers he suffered through at his previous home life. This allusion enhances the story as it defines Harry as a character of strong moral fiber, for his "good" soul fulfills the requirement to forget his previous struggles.

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Sisyphus Summary Sisyphus, the king and founder of Corinth, was best known for his trickery and skill during his life and his punishment he suffered after death. His deceitfulness earned him the hatred of many gods due to his ability to escape death. Many times, Sisyphus can be seen narrowly escaping death such as the story of when he sees Zeus kidnap a river nymph. He promises not to reveal the location to anyone but betrays him in return fro a spring of pure water from her father. Zeus sends Thanatos after Sisyphus. When Thanatos is about to tie Sisyphus up to return to Hades, Sisyphus instead tricks him by promising to show him how the locks work. Sisyphus ends up tying up Thanatos for days, so no one was able to die. Ares then went to free Thanatos and take Sisyphus to the underworld. Before he goes, he tells his wife not to give him a proper burial in order to convince Hades, The ruler of the underworld, to let him go back to earth to arrange a proper burial. After arriving back in Corinth, he stays there until his second death instead of giving himself a proper burial, not holding his end of the bargain. The punishment he receives is the ideal punishment of the Gods. They believed in harsh labor so they ordered him to roll a heavy boulder up a mountainside. Each time he would reach the top of the hill, it would roll back down and he would have to roll it back up, creating endless punishment and futile labor for him. In the end, Hermes ends up taking him back to Hades. Characters Sisyphus: Son of Aeolus and Enarete, famous for deceitfulness Thanatos: God of Death Zeus: God of all gods Ares: God of War Hades: God of the underworld Hermes: God of Commerce and Thieves

Allusion Spongebob Squarepants Sisyphus: Plankton Rolling the boulder up the hill: Plankton's attempts to steal the Krabby Patty formula Rolling the boulder down the hill: Spongebob and Patrick foiling Plankton's plans The series portrays Plankton as an unsuccessful restaurant owner who strives to steal the secret formula from the Krusty Krab. But in every attempt, he is foiled. His futile attempts allude to Sisyphus' task and how he pushes the boulder up the hill but to no avail. By comparing Plankton to Sisyphus, the producers of the show paint him as the clear enemy, making things clear-cut enough for the audience of children. The repeated attempts to life the metaphorical boulder and access the secret recipe provides fodder for multiple episodes. The allusion to Sisyphus heightens the humor in the show because the audience knows that Plankton will never be able to get the formula no matter what plan he comes up with.

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Bacchus Summary Bacchus was the son of Zeus and Semele and was raised by Nysaean nymphs. He discovered how to make wine, and traveled through Asia teaching people how to cultivate the grapevines. Once, he was abducted by pirates and held captive. When he realized their trickery, Bacchus turned them into the world's first dolphins. Bacchus returned to Greece, where he attracted a wild following because his worship consisted of drinking lots of wine and achieving wild abandon. He is the God of wine, and is powerful because he was power to control nature and curse people with insanity. He is known as Dionysus in Greek mythology, Bacchus is his Roman name. He is the youngest of the 12 Olympians, and the only one who has a mortal mother. Symbols for Bacchus are the grapevine, the cup, and the maenads. Greek drama plays were dedicated to this god. Characters Bacchus: God of wine Semele: Bacchus' human mother who was killed after Zeus was tricked into showing her his true god form, a holiness that Semele's human body could not withstand Zeus: father of Bacchus and king of the gods Allusion A Midsummer's Night Dream

Bacchus= Puck In Shakespeare's comedy A Midsummer's Night Dream, Puck plays pranks on many of the play's characters. Puck has the power to control who loves who in this play just like how Bacchus exerts influence over his followers in their drunken rituals. Not only are Puck and Bacchus similar in their ability to control others, but they have similar standings among the other fairies and other gods, respectively. Puck is the fairy king Oberon's jester, and takes order from him. Bacchus is the last Olympian admitted to the Twelve Olympians, and is the youngest. They are both magical and powerful, but are lower in status in comparison to others. Puck is submissive to Oberon, while Bacchus is the lesser of all the Olympians. This enhances the story as Puck is given mystical standing, and his power is foreshadowed with the allusion to the might Bacchus.

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Creation Story Summary In the beginning, Nyx sat in the darkness and with the wind she laid a golden egg and at on it for ages, until Eros rose out of it. Eros gave birth to Gaia (Mother Earth) and Uranus (sky). Uranus became Gaia's mate and they had 12 children. However, Uranus was afraid that his children would usurp his power so he forced Gaia to imprison them inside of her womb. Angered, Gaia urged her chlidren to fight back against Uranus but the only one who had the confidence to do so was her youngest, Cronus. Cronus castrated Uranus and became the next ruler. He married his sister Rhea and together they had several children. However, Gaia and Uranus prophesied that he too would be overthrown by a son. To avoid this, Cronus swallowed each child as they were born. Rhea did not support this and when she gave birth to her youngest son Zeus, she sent him off to be raised by nymphs. To hide her act from Cronus, she wrapped a rock around in cloth and allowed Cronus to swallow it. Metis gave Cronus a potion that caused Cronus to vomit out the rest of Zeus' siblings. Zeus rallied his siblings and together, they called for war against the Titans. Characters Nyx: primordial goddess of the night Eros: primordial god of sexual love and beauty Gaia: Mother Earth Uranus: Father Sky/Heaven Cronus: leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans Rhea: Titaness daughter of Uranus, mother of gods

Zeus: Father of Gods and men, ruler of the Olympians Metis: Titaness, first wife of Zeus Allusion Brave New World by Aldous Huxley Director of Hatcheries=Eros "Brave New World" by Aldous Huxley opens at the central London Hatchery where the human beings that are produced have predestined roles in the world state. The men and women's sexual organs are taken and thousands of clones are made, then programmed to perform certain tasks, thus creating a balanced society. This is like the Creation Story because just as Eros creates Uranus and Gaia, the Director of Hatcheries is in charge of producing people to form roles in society. There is also the obvious connection between the egg hatching in the myth and the location being named the Hatchery. The author made his allusion to signify the beginning of a brave new world in which everything that is created is new and original.

Helen of Troy Summary Helen of Troy was said to be the daughter of Zeus and the goddess Nemesis, and because of her beauty many kings and princes from around the world came to seek her hand. She eventually married Menelaus, the king of Sparta, and grew to be the most beautiful lady in the world. Some years later, however, a Trojan prince by the name of Paris came to marry Helen, for he was promised by Aphrodite the most beautiful woman as a bride. Either willingly or by force, Helen left with Paris, resulting in Menelaus calling upon his forces to get Helen back. This was the beginning of the Trojan War. Menelaus eventually wins the war and takes Helen back to his side. Helen of Sparta: most beautiful woman in the world, she inadvertently causes the Trojan War when she is taken away by Paris Characters Menelaus: Helens husband, gathers up all his allies and starts the Trojan War upon his arrival at Troy

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Paris: promised by Aphrodite to have Helen as his wife, he steals Helen away and causes the Trojan War Odysseus: Leads Spartan army to build the hollow horse and finally penetrate Torys walls Allusion Star Trek: The Original Series Episode Elaan of Troyius Helen of Troy: Elaan Sparta: Elas Troy: Troylus Paris: Krypton The starship USS Enterprise goes to planet of Elas to pick up Elaan, a beautiful but demanding young woman and member of the royal family, representing Helen. The planets of Troyius and Elas are at war with each other and it is hoped that the marriage between the Troyian and Elasian leaders will bring peace to the system. Krypton, an Elasian bodyguard who is secretly working for the Klingons hoped to disrupt the alliance so that he could marry Elaan because he was from a noble family and had loved her, alluding to Pariss love for Helen and her abduction. The allusion to Helen of Tory is used as a storyline for the episode. By recognizing the allusion, the audience can realize earlier the significance of her beauty and her inevitable role in the conflict between the already tense Troylus and Elas.

Three Fates Summary The three fates are the daughters of the almighty Zeus, consisting of, Clotho, lachesis, and Aptropos, who were the deciders of human fate. All living things submit to these three fates as, Clotho spins the thread of life, Lachesis chooses the length of the thread, and Atropos cuts the string when death is appropriate. The fates controlled the destiny of all living things, even Zeus was controlled by their power. Three days after a child was born, the Fates would visit the child to determine how their life would go, and when to end one's life. Characters Clotho: Started the strand of life Lachesis: Determined what happen in one's life Atropos: Decided when to end one's life Zeus: Most powerful god, father of the three fates Allusion Sleeping Beauty (Disney, 1959) Three Fates: Fairy godmothers Meleager: Princess Aurora The fairy godmothers who are present at the christening of Princess Aurora foresee her future, and also raise and influence her throughout

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the movie. They predict that Princess Aurora will die soon after her symbolic action of picking her finger on the needle of the thread spinner. Unfortunately, Princess Aurora pricks her finger on the needle again when she is older, and the fairy godmothers force her to sleep to protect her from her inevitable death. The fairy godmother's allusion to the Three Fates, and the story's overall relation to the story of Meleager helps introduce a conflict to the plot of Sleeping Beauty. The magical aspect of the story helps one to accept that the fairy godmothers have the ability to have control over Princess Aurora's life. The audience is constantly left wondering if Sleeping Beauty will ever wake up from her controlled life.

Oedipus Summary Oedipus was born to the royal couple, Laius and Jocasta. Laius was warned that his son will kill him and court with his mother. In order to thwart fate, Laius and Jocasta abandon Oedipus on the mountainside, with his feet bound. Oedipus is then rescued by a shepherd who was supposed to leave the baby to starve, Oedipus was then delivered to the royal palace at Corinth by a messenger. Oedipus is raised in the care of Polybus and Merope. Oedipus learns of his destiny to murder his father and marry his mother. Determined to outwit fate, and considering Polybus and Merope as his biological parents, Oedipus flees Corinth. Soon, while wandering, Oedipus kills a man on a chariot--unaware that the murdered stranger is Laius, his actual father. As he nears Thebes, he encounters a Sphinx that jeopardizes the city of Thebes. The Sphinx gives Oedipus a riddle, which he answers correctly, so Oedipus frees the city of Thebes. The people of Thebes were happy, so they gave him the recently widowed Jocasta's hand in marriage. But, Jocasta does not recognize Oedipus as her son. The plague strikes Thebes. The gods are demanding vengeance for the death of Laius as the price of lifting the city's punishment. The murderer of King Laius is the cause of the problem, because he is among the people of Thebes. In search of the anonymous killer, Oedipus learns that the infant of Laius and Jocasta was raised as an adopted son of Polybus and Merope. Thus, Oedipus realizes that he did in fact kill his own father, Laius, and court his mother, Jocasta. Jocasta then kills herself, while Oedipus gouges his eyes out after the secret is revealed. Characters Oedipus: Tragic hero, son of Jocasta and Laius, adopted son of Polybus and Merope. Laius: Former king of Thebes, father of Oedipus Jocasta: Oedipus' wife and mother, Creon's sister, Queen of Thebes Polybus: foster father of Oedipus, king of Corinth Merope: foster mother of Oedipus, queen of Corinth Creon: Oedipus' uncle and brother-in-law Sphinx: sent by the gods to plague town of Thebes as punishment for some ancient crime, ate anyone who did not get his riddle from crossing. Allusion: Hamlet Oedipus: Hamlet

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Jocasta: Ophelia Oracle: The ghost of the former king Laius: former king Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, is devastated by his father's death. He is currently in a relationship with Ophelia, but they cannot marry because she is not of royal blood. Hamlet sees the ghost of his father, who tells him that his uncle, Claudius killed him with poison. Hamlet is enraged and seeks revenge on Claudius, who married Gertrude, his mother, in order to get the crown. While he is talking to his father he realizes that someone is spying on them, so he stabs the person, later realizing that it was Ophelia's father. Ophelia goes mad and when she finds out that her true love killed her father she drowns herself. Meanwhile, Hamlet is plotting revenge against Claudius, but in the end the Queen drinks the poison wine, Laertes slices Hamlet's arm giving him enough time to slap Claudius. This alludes back to Oedipus because both Hamlet and Oedipus wish to find the killer of their fathers. They unknowingly kill the father of their beloveds. The protagonists are both tragic heroes, their ranks were high and they took action for good causes. The parallel story line allows the reader to predict some kind of gory end. The allusion adds to the suspense of the classic play and Shakespeare's own twist on the ending makes the tragedy even more complete.

Oracle Summary Oracles were branches of divinity where common folk and royalty alike could seek predictions or answers from gods. The priest and priestess of the oracle would interpret the words according to which god the oracle centered around. Oracles were believed to be portals where gods could speak directly to man, serving as a large influence to the actions and lifestyles of ancient Greeks. Characters Oracle those who could interpret the words of the gods and seek predictions

Allusion The Lion King (Disney) Oracle: Mufasa's spirit/stars One in search of supernatural strength/insight: Simba In doubt of his identity, Simba wanders the plains in desperation. Rafiki finds him and leads him to his father, although Mufasa has already passed away. Mufasa's spirit appears in the sky, where Simba shouts his fears and insecurities, and the spirt then provides Simba with reassurance and answers to fulfill his destiny. The presence of an oracle adds a supernatural aspect to the movie, enhancing the theme of familial protection even in death thoughout the story. With the weight of the oracle's prediction behind him, Simba has enough confidence to overthrow his usurper of an uncle. This allusion illustrates that Simba is the true king of Pride Rock and casts Mufasa almost in a god-like position to create a sense of awe in the audience.

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Narcissus Summary Narcissus was a young man so handsome that every nymph he met fell in love with him but because he was so vain, he didn't like anybody but himself. Narcissus rejected Echo, a nymph who pursued Narcissus, and so Narcissus was punished by Nemesis. One day, he stopped to get a drink from a pool and saw his own reflection only to fall in love with it. He stared at his reflection until his death. A flower named narcissus grew where he died. Characters Narcissus: young man who fell in love with his reflection and died because he was so vain Echo: nymph with a beautiful voice, pursued Narcissus Nemesis: spirit of divine retribution against those who succumb to hubris Allusion Paradise Lost Eve=Narcissus In the fourth book of John Milton's, Paradise Lost, the allusion of Narcissus appears. Eve wakes and sees her reflection in the water and is instantly captured by it and is unable to turn away because she is so vain, just like Narcissus. This allusion enhances the story

because the audience knows what is to happen later, that this vanity would eventually lead to his death.

Pandora Summary Pandora was the first woman created, by Hephaestus. All the Olympian gods gave her a special gift (beauty, crafts, etc), she is named Pandora because it means "all-gifted." She was give a jar (the box came from later variations) that she was told not to open, and Epimetheus, Prometheus' brother, takes her as a wife. Despite warnings, she opens the box anyway (out of curiosity) and from it came countless variations of evil, despair, disease, and tragedy to torment mankind. Pandora shut the jar quickly, just in time to preserve one thing inside-- hope. Characters Pandora: First woman, created as an instrument of suffering for mankind Epimetheus: Brother to Prometheus, Pandora's husband, takes her despite warnings not to Zeus: Ruler of all gods, seeking to punish mankind for getting fire. Allusion

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Lost: The Final Season Pandora's jar/box: The island Pandora: Jack Evil inside the box: Man in Black Jacob, the protector of the island, explains that it is essentially a cork that holds in ultimate evil and keeps it from leaving into the rest of the world. He is talking about the Man in Black, an ageless and immortal shape-shifting entity whose cynicism destroys lives and who makes it his goal to leave the island. When Jack is made protector of the island, he sends someone to unplug a hole in the earth that effectively begins to destroy the island and allows the Man in Black the chance to escape. In Lost, however he never leaves because he is killed by the protagonists, and Jack closes up the hole before the island disintegrates ( just as Pandora closes the jar, leaving hope intact). Despite the fact that in the series evil never actually escapes, this allusion contributes to the show by enhancing the ancient, mystical qualities of the island and emphasizing the gran scale of the battle the characters fight. Alluding to ancient Greek mythology heightens the grandeur of the story by evoking the epic nature of a world of gods and magic. In addition, the allusion reminds viewers of the presence of hope, furthering the show's theme of surviving through devastation and suffering.

Teiresias Summary Teiresias is the son of Everes, a shepherd, and Chariclo, a nymph, who grew to be the blind prophet of Greece. There are two main explanations of how he became blind. According to one source, Teiresias saw two serpents copulating and after he struck one of them, he turned into a woman. Seven years later, he found and struck the same serpents copulating and turned into a man again. One day Zeus and Hera have an argument about which gender finds more pleasure in sex and when Teiresias sides with Zeus, Hera strikes him blind. In return for this tragedy, Zeus grants him the gift of prophecy. In another story, Teiresias sees Athena, the goddess of war and wisdom, naked and so Athena covers his eyes and ends up blinding him permanently. Though Teiresias mother begs Athena for his sight back, the only compensation that Athena gives is the power of prophecy. Throughout his lifetime, Teiresias is the most influential prophet in Greece and predicts the future (deaths and warnings) for several people such as Narcissus, Oedipus, and Odysseus. After dying from drinking from the spring Tilphussa, Teiresias is still a prophet shade in his afterlife. Characters Teiresias: son of Everes and Chariclo, famous blind prophet Hera: Queen of all gods; supposedly strikes Teiresias blind Zeus: King of all gods; gives Teiresias gift of prophecy Athena: Goddess of wisdom and war, makes Teiresias blind but also gives him gift of prophecy Narciussus, Oedipus, Odysseus: people who Teiresias served as seers too Allusion The Matrix Revolutions Teiresias: Neo

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Hera, Athena (depending on the story): Smith In one of the scenes of the movie, Neo and Trinity (Neos love interest) are ambushed by the stowaway Smith, who ends up blinding Neo. This blinding is similar to the way Teiresias is blinded in a mad rampage by either Hera or Athena in both stories. Additionally, Neo gains a visionary ability, which in this case is the ability to see programs and machines despite his blindness. This power to see parallels Teiresias power to see into the future. Just like how Teiresias guides many people such as Narcissus, Oedipus, and Odysseus, Neo leads Logos (a hovercraft) through a dangerous mission through Machine City. Both Neo and Teiresias serve as guides to their people but in the end the individuals end up in their own tragic endings; Logos ends up crash-landing and the three individuals that Teiresias guides all fall to their own dooms because they do not heed the warnings that he had given. Overall, because Neo was blinded just as Teiresias was blinded, Neos later visionary powers that are similar to Teiresias prophetic talents become all the more admirable and amazing in the movie; even though Neo and Teiresias both suffer a loss of eyesight, their deep foresight make up for their loss of physical vision. This allusion enhances the movie because it gives the character an almost mystical role.

Hercules Summary Hercules was the son of Zeus and Alcmene. Unfortunately, due to Zeus' unfaithfulness, Zeus got Alcmene pregnant which drastically angered Hera. Hera swore from the day that Hercules was born to make his life as miserable as possible. Fortunately, Hercules survived his first assult from Hera. As Hercules gradually grew up to adulthood he fell in love with a woman named Megara, and later had kids. Hera then took another opprotunity to make Hercule's life as miserable as possible by drugging him, which forced him to perform immature deeds. He ultimately ended up killing his own family, and went to Apollo to seek help. Apollo gave him ten important tasks in order to reverse all the damage that he has done. After Hercules' deeds were completed he was granted immortality that Apollo promised him, if he completed his tasks. Characters Hercules: Son of Zeus and Alcmene Zues: Father of Hecules Alcmene: Mother of Hercules Hera: Jealous woman who wants to take revenge on Hercules Allusion The Incredible Hulk

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Hercules-Hulk In the movie The Incredible Hulk, David Banner is also granted super powers by a higher power, just like how Hercules obtained his super strength. The Hulk also endures many obstacles throughout his journey because of his abnormality in society. Ultimately. his is given the choice of either living a quiet life as a normal human being or become the Incredible Hulk, just as Hercules reached a godly status but yet chose to wander in Hell. This allusion enhances the movie because it emphasizes the loneliness Hulk feels, but also illustrates his invincibility, making the audience feel awe.

Jason and the Quest Summary Jason is the son of King Iolcus but was banished to the cave of Chiron the Centaur when his uncle Pelias stole the throne from his father. Being raised by Chiron, Jason eventually grows up and goes back to Greece to reclaim his throne from Pelias. However there is a prophecy that Pelias would lose his throne to a stranger with only one sandal, so when Jason loses his sandal in a storm and arrives in Greece, Pelias sees him as an immediate danger. Inviting him to a banquet, Pelias challenges Jason to go find the Golden Fleece, which was something seemingly unattainable, to protect his throne from being stolen. Hera, queen of all gods, has a grudge against Pelias and decides to help Jason on his quest. Jason gathers a crew of man called the Argonauts and they set out on their journey on a boat called the Argus. He and his men encounter many obstacles including the Harpies, Clashing Rocks, and finally King Aeetes, who hid the Golden Fleece himself. With the help of Aphrodite and Hera, Medea, the daughter of Aeetes, falls in love with Jason and uses her witchcraft to help Jason defeat Fire-Breathing Bulls, vicious Seed Men, and the dragon that guarded the tree on which the Golden Fleece hung upon. When Jason finally returns the fleece to Greece, he finds out that Pelias had killed Jasons family; in revenge, Jason and Medea trick Pelias daughters to kill their own father. Jason is restored as king and marries Medea. However, he banishes Medea so he can marry the princess of Corinth instead and Medea, in turn, murders their two sons and Jasons new wife. Characters Jason: son of King Iolcus, rightful heir to the throne, husband to Medea, nephew of Pelias King Iolcus: father of Jason, brother to Pelias Pelias: Jasons uncle who steals King Iolcus throne and killed Jasons parents Hera: Queen of all Gods who helps Jason Argonauts: Jasons crewmates Aphrodite: Goddess of love who makes Medea fall in love with Jason King Aeetes: father of Medea who forces Jason to fight the Fire-Breathing Bulls to prevent him from winning the Fleece Medea: witch, wife of Jason, murderer of Jasons sons and new wife Allusion: Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the .Crystal Skull Jason: Indiana Jones

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Golden Fleece: Crystal Skull Argonauts: Oxley and Mutt Obstacles: Soviets Medea: Marion Ravenwood In the beginning of the movie, Indiana Jones is framed by Mac, his long-time partner, who is in secret alliance with the Soviets. Jones is being investigated by the FBI when he runs into his old friend Mutt who seeks Jones help in finding Mutts kidnapped colleague Harold Oxley and his mother Marion Ravenwood. By decoding a message sent by Oxley, Jones and Mutt go to the Temple of Akator to save the two and also to find the crystal skull. Though the Soviets and Mac pose as problems they must get overcome, the four heroes use the crystal skull to send their enemies into a portal and also make the temple fall down. When Jones returns home, he marries Marion and his name is cleared from all blame. Indiana Jones quest and Jasons quest are similar in that they both attempt to recover a valuable item, the crystal skull and the Golden Fleece respectively. Both are betrayed in the very beginning and it is because of this betrayal that the protagonist must go on the quest. The two heroes are able to overcome the obstacles that come their way with the help of their loyal companions, in this case the Agronauts for Jason and Oxley and Mutt for Jones. They also both have love interests they meet through their adventure: Medea for Jason and Marion for Jones. The first letter of their names also match up, thus aligning with the allusion even more. Similarly in the end, both protagonists end up in their rightful places. Similarly in the end, both protagonists end up in their rightful places. The similar beginnings in both stories of betrayal foreshadow the future journey that both protagonists must embark on to clear his name or to regain his throne. The allusion adds in anticipation to the story line.

Medea Summary Medea was a skilled sorceress who fell in love with Jason and helped him against his father's will to obtain the Golden Fleece. She fled and married him and bore his children. But, Jason fell in love with Creusa, daughter of King Creon of Corinth. Medea, filled with spite and vengeance, sent Creusa a wedding gown that burned Creusa's skin off and killed both Creusa and Creon, who tried to save his daughter. Medea completed her revenge by murdering her own children. She, later, fled to Athens on a dragon and married king Aegus. Characters Medea: Vengeful Sorceress Jason: Hero, obtained the Golden Fleece Creusa: Creon's daughter that marries Jason Creon: Father of Creusa, King of Corinth Allusion Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince by J.K. Rowling Medea: Hermione Jason: Ron

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Creusa: Lavender Brown In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Hermione reveals that she plans to ask Ron to a Christmas party. Like Medea and Jason, they are in a relationship. Hermione is an exceptional witch similar to Medea. One night, Ron "betrays" Hermione by kissing Lavender. In revenge, Hermione conjures birds to attack and injure Ron. The allusion emphasizes her deep love for Ron as well as the sadness and anger she felt when she saw Ron kissing Lavender. This also serves to make Ron seem less admirable by comparing him to the unfaithful Jason, suggesting that he will only be properly heroic when he admits his feelings for Hermione. This allusion enhances the movie because it adds a new twist onto the relationship between Hermione and Ron, and the audience is forced to take sides, leading to their involvement in the movie.

River Styx Summary The river Styx is a river that seperates the world of the living from the world of the dead. This river wraps around Hades nine times, people who are sent to Hell ride a steamboat down Styx to Hell. Styx is used in many Greek stories and is mainly used as something gods swear on because if they do not carry out their promise, Zeus will send them to perish in Hell. It is said that Achilles was dipped in this river and was granted immortality, with the exception of his heel. Only touching the river will grant one with immortality, but the river has such a pungent taste that one loses their voice for nine years if they drink from the river. Characters Achilles: One who was dipped in the river Zeus: Who sends people to ride down the river to Hell Allusion: Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows River Styx-Dimension where Harry and Dumbledore meet Dumbledore-Ferryman Harry-Person crossing the river In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Harry Potter is struck by a spell from Voldemort and Harry becomes suspended in a phase

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which allows him to talk to Dumbledore, even while Dumbledore is dead. Dumbledore gives harry the choice of returning to the real world, or spend the rest of his life in the afterlife. This is an allusion to the River Styx because Harry has a choice of whither to choose to live or die, and this path is separated by the River Styx. Dumbledore is the ferryman because he is carrying Harry to the afterlife if Harry does choose to go to the afterlife. The river also fuels Harry's hate as Harry's hate for Voldemort is one of the main factors of Harry's desire to return to life. He is also like Achilles because he becomes immortal because he survived the death spell, Avada Kedavra, and defeated Voldemort. This allusion enhances the movie because it casts Harry as a character who is unstoppable, further reiterating on his role as the boy who lived.

Cerberus Summary In Greek mythology, Cerberus has three heads and the tail of a serpent. He is the watchdog of Hades, keeping living souls and out and refusing to allow dead souls to escape. He is the child of the giant Typhon and the monster Echidna. Cerberus is featured in several Greek myths, for example the myth of Orpheus. Pacified by Orpheus' lyre, Cerberus allows Orpheus to pass into the Underworld. Cerberus is most prominent in the 12th and last labor of Hercules, where Hercules had to forcefully kidnap Cerberus and take him to the land of the living. Characters Cerberus: watchdog of Hades with three heads Typhon: fire-breathing serpent Echidna: half woman half serpent Orpheus: a mortal who almost gets away with taking is wife out of the Underworld due to his beautiful music Allusion: Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone Fluffy: Cerberus Trapdoor: entrance to Hades

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Harry, Ron, Hermione: Orpheus Fluffy, the three-headed dog in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, guarded the entrance that led to the Sorcerer's Stone. Fluffy is an allusion to Cerberus due to his appearance, as they both at three heads. Fluffy guards the entrance to the Sorcerer's Stone just Cerberus guards the entrance to Hades. Also, the two share the same weakness for music. Entranced by Orpheus' music, Cerberus neglects his post and allows Orpheus to pass. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Fluffy is lulled to sleep with Harry's music, allowing Harry, Ron, and Hermione to pass. This allusion enhances the movie by implying that whatever Fluffy is guarding is as dangerous and as bad as the Underworld, casting a sense of danger and forbidding towards the trap door.

Midas Summary Farmhands brought a captured satyr to their king, Midas of Phrygia, a half-human and half-goat being, who Midas recognized to be Silenus, a satyr assistant to Dionysus, and orders him to be set free. For his kind action of releasing his right-hand satyr, Dionysus decides to grant the king any wish he wants. In order to create a prosperous kingdom and out of what he believed to be common sense, Midas wished for the Midas Touch, where anything he touched would turn to gold. Dionysus, hesitant to grant his desire, asked for Midas confirmation to which he eagerly replied with certainty. The king tried his new gift on everything, and became giddy with excitement as everything turned into pure gold right before his eyes. However, as he took his daughter by the hand to show her his power in the garden, she turned into a life-size golden statue of a young girl. Soon he realized that literally, everything including food and water, turned into gold. Dionysus, merciful and understanding, allowed Midas to wash of his terrible gift in the river Pactolus, which is now renowned to contain shimmering hints of gold. Characters Midas: The greedy king of Phrygia, present-day Turkey Silenus: Dionysus right-hand satyr (another version of the story of Midas tells how he tricked the Satyr by pouring wine into a well); once he caught Silenus, he asked the satyr to share some of his wisdom with him Dionysus: The God of Wine demonstrates compassion when he grants Midas a wish, asks him if he is sure of it, and removes the wise once he sees that it proves to be fatal Allusion From The Chocolate Touch, by Patrick Skene Catling John Midas = Midas Chocolate touch = Golden touch

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Candy Shop Owner = Dionysus Jons Mother = Midass Daughter The Chocolate Touch is a childrens book that follows the general theme and storyline of King Midas. A gluttonous chocolate lover, John Midas, stumbles upon an unusual coin and is lead into a strange candy store where he buys a box of chocolates. After eating a piece, he wakes up the next morning with the glorious power to turn anything he touches into chocolate. He quickly realizes that his newfound power makes him sick and returns to the shop. The store owner, who tells him that the coin can only be seen by greedy people, reveals that if he is truly repentant of his greed, his chocolate powers will disappear. John, after overcoming his curse, returns to the store to thank the owner, but he has magically disappeared as well. Both stories focus on the major theme of greed, but The Chocolate Touch includes gluttony as well. King Midas and John Midas both begin as self-centered people who learn their lessons of having too much of a good thing after a terrible experiences with their gifts. This allusion contributes to the story as it magnifies the severity of John's wish, for just as Midas's wish alters his life in such a terrible way, so too does John's wish about chocolate.

Arthur Summary Arthur was conceived when Igraine was approached by Uther, who Merlin made to resemble Igraine's husband. After Uther died, there was no king of England, and Merlin placed a sword in a stone, stating whoever could take it out would the rightful king of England. Arthur did, and was crowned king. He had a magnificent reign, and England was prosperous. He married Guinevere, a princess from a small kingdom. A series of tragedies begin to strike England. First, Guinevere does not love Arthur wholeheartedly and cannot conceive a child. Arthur's friend and knight Launcelot begins to love Guinevere, eventually stealing her and taking her to his kingdom. Arthur leads a battle against Launcelot, leaving Mordred in charge of his kingdom. However, Mordred rebelled and the two fight at Salisbury Plain. Mordred dies, and Arthur is mortally wounded. He is put on a barge headed for Avalon, and many say that he never died. Characters Arthur: King of England Guinevere: Arthur's Queen, but loves Launcelot Launcelot: Arthur's closest companion and noble knight who loves Guinevere Uther: Arthur's father and King of England before Arthur Igraine: Arthur's mother Mordred: Arthur's son and leader of a rebellion to overthrow Arthur Allusion Wizards of Waverly Place

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Arthur= Felix Arthur's Sword= the wand in the crystal ball When Alex and Justin are trapped behind a glass wall in a museum exhibit by Gorog, Felix is the only one who can save them. He comes in, but realizes that he has forgotten his wand at home. He spots the 10,000 year old wand that is trapped in a crystal ball and decides to try to pull it out even though thousands of wizards have tried and failed in the past. To his surprise, the wand slides out, and lightening flashes in the sky. The wand marks Felix to be the descendant of who was the most powerful wizard in the world, and Felix uses the wand's power to defeat Gorog and save Alex and Justin. Felix is Arthur because he is the descendant of a powerful wizard, just as Arthur is the descendant of a powerful king: Uther. Also, Felix is wields incredible power just as Arthur does after Felix takes control of the wand. The episode of Wizards of Waverly Place is enhanced because Felix is given the same power possessed by King Arthur. It gives the audience a familiar story to link with Felix, making the episode more understandable.

Lancelot Summary Launcelot is the son of King Ban and Queen Elaine of Benwick. He is the first knight of the Round Table, and Arthur's closest companion. He exemplifies all characteristics of a knight, and is said to be the best swordsman out of all the knights. Launcelot fathered Galahad with Elaine of Astolat. However, he is not a very loving husband, and Elaine dies of a broken heart. He is famous for his love affair with Queen Guinevere, and rescues her once from a king who kidnaps her. He steals her away from Arthur, but after she becomes a nun, he spends the rest of his life in penitence. In the quest for the Holy Grail, Launcelot is kept from achieving the prize as he is unpure from his sins-- his adultery with Guinevere. Characters Launcelot: knight of Arthur King Ban & Queen Elaine: parents of Launcelot Galahad: Launcelot's son Elaine of Astolat: Launcelot's wife Guinevere: Launcelot's real love Allusion Pearl Harbor Arthur= Rafe

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Danny= Launcelot Evelyn= Gwen Arthur and Danny grew up together, and they are as close as brothers. Together, they make the decision to join the army as pilots, and work their way there. When they meet Evelyn, a nurse, Rafe falls in love. Later, Rafe is shot down in an air raid and Danny is devastated. Danny returns to Evelyn and together they mourn Rafe. The relationship between Evelyn and Danny grows, and they are soon in love. However, it turns out that Rafe did not die when he was shot down. He comes back and finds Evelyn and Danny together. This tears Rafe apart just as how Arthur is torn apart by the love between Launcelot and Arthur. Rafe and Danny go their seperate ways. Yet, when Danny is fatally wounded in battle, Rafe vows to take care of Evelyn for him. The love triangle and consistent feelings of brotherhood between Danny and Rafe are similar to the love triangle of Guinevere, Arthur, and Launcelot, and mirrors the bond between Arthur and Launcelot. The allusion to Launcelot highlights the bonds between the three, but also foreshadows the devastation that will occur because of the friendship.

Elaine Summary Elaine of Corbenic is also known Amite, Heliaebel, Helaine, Perevida, or Helizabel. She is often identified as The Grail Maiden or Grail Bearer. Her significance in the Arthurian Legend is that she presents Sir Lancelot with the Holy Grail. Elaines father, King Pelles, knows that Sir Lancelot and Elaines baby, Sir Galahad, will be very successful (how he got the information is unknown). Sir Galahad leads a foreign country out of danger and achieves the Holy Grail. Elaine and Sir Lancelots first meeting is when he saves Elaine from a boiling bath, whereby Elaine then falls in love with him. Sir Lancelot is, however, in love with Queen Guinevere and will not sleep with anyone other than her. Thus, Elaine goes to the Queens serving woman, Dame Brusen. Dame Brusen gives Sir Lancelot wine and Elaine of Queen Guineveres rings to trick him into thinking that she is Queen Guinevere. The morning after Elaine sleeps with Sir Lancelot, she is pregnant with his child. Thus, Sir Lancelot is unable to kill her out of anger, so he kisses her instead. She stays at her fathers castle and gives birth to Galahad. She later attends King Arthurs court feast, where she meets Lancelot for the second time but is ignored by him. She seeks help from Dame Brusen again, so Dame Brusen tells Lancelot that Queen Guinevere is summoning him. Thinking that it really is Queen Guinevere who is asking for him, he goes. It is really Elaine, however, who is there. But because of the wine, Sir Lancelot looks at the rings and automatically assumes that it is Queen Guinevere. Coincidentally, Queen Guinevere summons him that night too, but Lancelot does not go. She then hears Lancelots voice and finds him in bed with Elaine. Furious, Queen Guinevere says that she never wants to see him again. Sir Lancelot, who is now filled with anger and sorrow, jumps out of the window and runs away. After a while, Elaine finds Lancelot insane in her garden, so she brings him to the Holy Grail to cure him. When Lancelot regains his sanity, he decides to live with Elaine as man and wife. Characters Elaine: daughter of King Pelles and mother of Galahad and wife of Sir Lancelot Sir Lancelot: greatest knight, known as Lancelot du Lac (Lancelot of the Lake) because he was raised by the Lady of the Lake King Pelles: Father of Elaine and owner of the Castle of Corbin

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Queen Guinevere: Wife of King Arthur and Queen of Britain Dame Brusen: Serving maid for Queen Guinevere Galahad: son of Sir Lancelot and Elaine Allusion: n/a

Galahad Summary Galahad was the son of Launcelot and Elaine. He was often regarded as the perfect knight; the purest and noblest knight ever to live. He, like his father, searched for the Holy Grail and, in the process, obtains Evelakes shield and Davids sword. At the Round Table, he sat at the seat named the Siege Perilous. It was said that only the knight destined to find the Holy Grail could sit here safely, as all other knights perished immediately after sitting down. When he set off to find the Holy Grail, Galahad, along with Percival and Bors, were captured and imprisoned by the King of Sarras. When the king died, the people of Sarras chose Galahad as their next king. After he mends Davids Sword at Carbonek, he is able to see the Holy Grail. He dies after his request for death is granted by Joseph of Arimathea. Characters Elaine: daughter of King Pelles and mother of Galahad and wife of Sir Lancelot //

Galahad: son of Launcelot and Elaine, pursues the Holy Grail Allusion n/a

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Gawain Summary A knight of King Arthurs Round Table, Sir Gawain is the son of King Arthurs sister, Morgause. He is often portrayed as a fierce and headstrong warrior. In some legends, his strength triples at noon and diminishes at sunset. He is well known for his courteousness and is often referred to as the Maidens Knight, exemplifying Arthurian Chivalry. His best-known quest is a challenge between him and The Green Knight. The Green Knight comes during one of King Arthurs feasts and challenges anyone in the court to decapitate him, promising that the blow will be returned one year and one day later. Gawain accepts the challenge and, in one swoop, chops the Knights head off. Instead of dying, the Knight picks his head up and reminds Gawain to go to the Green Chapel in one year so the decapitation can be returned. Less than five days away from his appointed time on his way to the Green Chapel, he encounters a castle owned by Lord Bertilak, who offers him lodging until he has to go to the Green Chapel. Lord Bertilak feeds Gawain with food he catches under the condition that Gawain gives whatever he gains that day in return. As Lord Bertilak leaves, Lady Bertilak attempts to seduce Gawain but only manages to get a single kiss. When Lord Bertilak returns with a deer for Gawain, Gawain returns Lady Bertilaks kiss to Lord Bertilak without naming the source. The next day the same occurs and Lady Bertilak manages to achieve two kisses. On the third day, Lady Bertilak gives Gawain 3 kisses and a green silk girdle, which she claims will protect him from any harm. Gawain returns the kisses to Lord Bertilak but keeps the girdle as a way to defend himself against the Green Knight. At the Green Chapel, the Green Knight mocks Gawain for flinching as he swings his axe. The Knight continually holds back his axe until the third blow, which he leaves a small scar on Gawain. The Green Knight then reveals to Gawain that he is Lord Bertilak and that Morgan Le Fay, King Arthurs sister, had created the trial. Gawain returns to Camelot wearing the green silk girdle around his neck and feels ashamed in failing to fulfill the conditions given to him. Afterwards, all of the Knights of the Round Table wore green sashes to remind themselves of Gawains quest. Characters Sir Gawain: son of Morgause Morgause: King Arthur's sister King Arthur: high king of Britain The Green Knight: a knight armed with an axe who is really Lord Bertilak in disguise

Lord Bertilak: Lord of a Castle near the Green Chapel Lady Bertilak: wife of Lord Bertilak who attempts to seduce Gawain Morgan le Fay: King Arthur's half sister Allusion n/a

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Percival Summary Though he was one of the knights who went on the search for the Holy Grail, Percival was not raised to become a knight. In fact, his mother, who had lost her husband and two sons, sheltered him from the world of chivalry. One day, Percival came upon a group of knights, and awed by their presence, decided to become a knight. His mother, thoroughly distraught by this, advised him to aid any maiden along his journey. Percival arrived at Arthurs court and almost immediately asked to be knighted. However, he was mocked by Kay, an evil-tongued knight, and promptly rode away. After leaving Arthurs court, Percival came upon many maidens, whom he helped, and many enemy knights, whom he defeated. The most important event of his journey was his encounter with the Fisher King. During this meeting, he experienced his first encounter with the Holy Grail, of which he hadnt been aware of. Due to his lack of its knowledge, he failed to question about it and grew to regret this negligence. Eventually, he met a group of knights on the road, all of whom were led by Arthur. After learning of Percivals triumph over sixty knights, Arthur regretted not having knighted Percival when he had first come to his court. Arthur set out to meet Percival once more and befriended him. As his story unfolded, Percival resolved to never give up until he found the true meaning of the Grail. The quest for the Holy Grail was not finished in the original Percival story, but was continued in several continuations by later authors. Characters Percival: Incredibly skilled knight who was even acknowledged by Arthur; he committed himself to finding the Holy Grail Fisher King: A kind king who was hospitable to Percival; it was in his house the Percival first encountered the Grail

Kay: The antagonized knight of the story who bad-mouthed Percival, and is ultimately defeated by him Allusion n/a

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Merlin Summary In the Arthurian Legends, Merlin is known for being a powerful magician that possesses the ability to see into the future. Merlin is full of wisdom and uses that wisdom to advise both Uther Pendragon and his son Arthur throughout their lives. From the very beginning, Merlin foresees the death of King Aurelius, Uthers brother, and Uther Pendragons succeeding the throne. When Uther falls in love with Igraine, Merlin aids Uther by magically disguising him as Gorlois, Igraines husband. After this one romantic encounter, Arthur is conceived and shortly after Arthur is born. When Uther Pendragon dies, Merlin uses his magic once again to place a sword in a stone that only Arthur can pull out because he is the rightful heir to the throne. When Arthur is king, Merlin becomes his advisor for a while. However, when Lancelot runs away from Gwenhwyfar, Merlin mysteriously disappears and is never seen again. Characters Merlin: wise magician, Arthurs mentor Uther Pendragon: takes throne after Aurelius death, Arthurs father Igraine: Uthers love interest, Arthurs mother King Aurelius: Uthers brother, ruled for only a short time Arthur: head of the round table, son of Uther Pendragon Gwenhwyfar: wife of Arthur Allusion

Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back Yoda: Merlin Luke Skywalker: Arthur In this movie, Darth Vader leads the Rebel Alliance to chase down Luke Skywalker. During this whole procession, Obi-Wan Kenobis spirit instructs Luke to go to Dagobah to find the wise master Yoda. The wise Jedi starts training young Luke in the ways of the Force and the requirements of being a powerful Jedi. Yoda fits the role of Merlin because he is known for his wisdom and experience when teaching his subject in the same way Merlin is looked up to as well; in this case, Yoda to Luke and Merlin to Arthur. They both have a supernatural force within them that has made them wise over time and helps them predict the future. Both Yoda and Merlin fit the old, wise men archetype as well and this correlation between the two makes Yoda all the more powerful as Merlin is known to be. In the movie, Luke seeks Yoda for advice about the Force because of his experience, in the same way that Arthur seeks Merlin for guidance to rule Camelot because of his wisdom. Both Merlin and Yoda serve as the main mentor through the lives of their younger subjects, Arthur and Luke. This allusion enhances the movie because it casts Yoda in a wise mentor role, leading to the audience respecting and loving him as a character.

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Lady of the Lake Summary The Lady of the Lake is a mysterious woman who aids several characters in the Arthurian legend. She intervenes when Morgaine tries to give the Excalibur to Accolon in an attempt to kill King Arthur. She also adopts Lancelot and cures him when he becomes crazy. More importantly, she is known for giving King Arthur his sword, the Excalibur, along with its magical scabbard and then taking it back when Sir Bedivere throws it into the lake after the death of King Arthur. Not much is known about the Lady of the Lake; however, some associate her with Nimue, the woman who seduces Merlin and imprisons him. Characters Lady of the Lake: gave King Arthur Excalibur and magical scabbard, possibly named Nimu Sir Bedivere: trusted knight of King Arthur; threw Excalibur back into the lack as commanded by King Arthur Merlin: a wise magician and Arthur's mentor King Arthur: the High King of Logres (Britain) Allusion Ellie Harrison: Lady of the Lake Arthur: King Arthur Jennifer: Guinevere

Lance: Lancelot Marco: Mordred In "Avalon High" by Meg Cabot, Ellie Harrison is the protagonist and parallels the Lady of the Lake with her affinity for water and her desire to help out Arthur. Mr. Morton, a teacher at Ellie's high school, is a member of the "Order of the Bear," an organization that believes that the legend of King Arthur repeats every generation. He believes that Arthur is the reincarnation of King Arthur and tries to guide him to avoid the inevitable downfall in his destiny. The downfall of Arthur begins when Marco reveals that Arthur's girlfriend, Jennifer, has been cheating on Arthur with Arthur's best friend, Lance. In the midst of a dark storm that coincides with the discovery of the origin of Marco's birth, Marco is led closer to his "inevitable end." Arthur follows Marco to help him cope with the discovery, unaware of a gun Marco brought along. Ellie fulfills her purpose when she helps out Arthur by grabbing the medieval sword hanging in her father's study (Excalibur) and tossing the sword to Arthur just as Marco shoots at him. Inadvertently, Ellie saves Arthur as he bends down to pick up the sword, thus missing the bullet. The story does not follow the traditional legend, but has a happily ever twist: Ellie and Arthur end up being together. Meg Cabot's "Avalon High" is basically the high school version of the King Arthur legend; however, it focuses on Ellie as the main protagonist, exemplifying the Lady of the Lake as a more prominent and crucial role to King Arthur's victory in the novel.

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Sword in the Stone Summary King Uther dies without naming an heir. In the struggle for power, nobles begin to tear the country apart as they search for a new king. The proper king will unite Britain and lead them to victory over Germany. As a test to find the true king, Merlin calls for people to try to draw the sword from the stone he placed it in. Arthur, the only one able to draw the sword, is revealed to be the rightful heir and thus becomes king. Characters Galahad: son of Sir Lancelot and Elaine King Arthur: the one who pulls the sword out of the stone Merlin: wizard who comes up with the sword in stone idea Allusion Spongebob Squarepants Merlin=King Neptune Arthur=SpongeBob Squarepants

Sword=Golden Spatula Stone=Grease In the episode of the television cartoon SpongeBob SquarePants called Neptune's Spatula, SpongeBob, the parallel of King Arthur, draws a golden spatula, which alludes to the Sword in the Stone, from a vat of grease, the "rock", which means SpongeBob is a frycook worthy of King Neptune, just as it shows Britain that Arthur is a king destined to unite all of Britain. This reference to King Arthur emphasizes the honor bestowed upon Spongebob as he is the only one who could achieve such a thing, as well as highlights Spongebob's capabilities as a frycook for King Neptune.

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Logres Summary Logres is the name for Britain during the Arthurian times and it is the name of Arthur's Kingdom. Logres means God's Kingdom on Earth. The word Logres derives itself from the Welsh word "Lloegr" which means "England". Logres is a mythical realm where Arthur ruled and all the events during the Arthurian times took place in Logres. Characters n/a Allusion n/a

Holy Grail Summary The Holy Grail is said to be the vessel Christ used at the Last Supper to hold wine, and also the cup used to collect Christ's blood during the crucifixion. Afterward, the Grail disappeared. During King Arthur's reign, a brief image of the Grail magically appeared when Sir Galahad sat in the Siege Perilous, setting a quest to find the Holy Grail in motion. Galahad completed the quest, and when he set eyes on the Grail, his life was fulfilled and he ascended in to heaven. Launcelot actually came close to finding the Grail, but was unable to because he was too unpure to set eyes upon such a holy object. His soul was tainted by his adultery with Guinevere. The Grail has always been the source of curiosity and has been long sought after. Characters Arthur: King of England who sets a quest to find the Holy Grail Galahad: the knight who achieves this quest Launcelet: Galahad's father who is forbidden from finding the Grail because he is too unpure Allusion Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone- J.K. Rowling Holy Grail= Sorcerer's Stone Galahad= Harry Potter Launcelot= Professor Quirrell

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When Professor Quirrell reaches the final step to finding the Grail, he is unable to actually get his hands on the stone. The Mirror of Erised, which was the final barrier that protected the stone, would only give the stone to someone who wanted the stone, but not use its rejuvenating powers. In short, Quirrell's aims were not pure enough for him to obtain the prize. However, the mirror willing gives the stone to Harry when he looks into it because Harry's motivation is pure-- he did not want to use the stone. The stone is the Holy Grail because it is the object of a quest. Professor Quirrell is Lancelot because he is stopped from completing his quest because he is not pure. Harry is Galahad because the mirror recognizes his intentions to be good, allowing him the complete the quest. The allusion makes Harry's quest so much more noble, as he is compared to the holiest of all knights Galahad, as well as emphasizes his goodness.

Joseph of Arimethea Summary Joseph of Arimathea was a wealthy Israelite owner of tin mines in Cornwall and was viewed as an old man carrying a pot of ointment. Being a disciple of Jesus, Joseph asked Pontius Pilate for permission to take Jesus corpse for burial. After the resurrection of Jesus, Joseph was thrown into a dungeon and thanked by Jesus. The reason for being thanked was because Joseph was the one who volunteered to carry Jesuss corpse. Although Joseph went into exile, he achieved great wealth. Being the uncle to the Virgin Mary, Joseph was sent to establish Christianity in the corner of the Roman Empire with twelve other disciples. Since Joseph is the uncle of the Virgin Mary, he is the uncle of Jesus. Traveling to the Glastonbury Marshes, Joseph put growth from Jesuss crown into a nearby hill. The growth then began. Joseph met the ruler of the land and was granted twelve hides of land. With the twelve hides of land Joseph made the first monastery in Britain. Joseph also brought the Holy Grail to Britain and became the countrys evangelist and is celebrated every year on March 17th. Characters Joseph: Disciple of Jesus who buried Jesus, Uncle of Jesus Jesus: Central Figure of Christianity, Son of God Pontius Pilate: Judge of Jesuss trail and Crucifixion Allusion n/a

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Round Table Summary The origin of the Round Table to Arthur's court is very controversial. Some stories say that the Round Table was created by Merlin for Arthur, while others say that the table was a wedding present to Arthur from his father-in-law. However, all stories agree that the Table played a big role in Arthur's court. It's circular shape represented equality among Arthur's companions, an important feature of King Arthur's legacy. The circular table represents how no knight is superior to another, and even King Arthur is equal. The table demonstrates the goal of Arthur's knights to achieve peace and lasting prosperity for their kingdom. The Table also has its own legends, such as the empty seat that was said to only hold a knight worthy to find the Grail. This spot was taken by Sir Galahad, and true to legend, Galahad finds the Holy Grail. Characters Arthur: King of England Galahad: a knight who sits in the Siege Perilous at the Round Table Allusion: The Lord of the Rings King Arthur= Aragorn Merlin= Gandalf

Knights= Frodo, Sam, Merry, Pippin, Gimli, Legolas, Boromir The Round Table= The Fellowship of the Ring In The Lord of the Rings, a fellowship is formed in order to achieve a common goal: destroying the infamous ring at Mordor. Although there is no official leader, like the Round Table, Gandalf (Merlin) stands as the magical authority who guides the fellowship. Aragorn, an unknown heir to the thrown of Gondor, just as how Arthur is initially the unknown heir to the throne of England, does not take the role of leader in the fellowship. Aragorn instead helps guide the fellowship in ways that will help their cause. The fellowship, like the Round Table, is a joint effort to achieve good for the whole. The allusion emphasizes the teamwork in the Fellowship, making their cause more noble.

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Last Battle Summary The last battle of King Arthur was also known as the battle of Camlann. The battle was influenced by many factors. Even though Arthur had united Britain, Mordred became disloyal to Arthur and vowed to kill him. In addition, Lancelot, who was in a relationship with Guinevere, declared war on Arthur. Finally, the emperor of Rome also wanted Britain to join with the Roman Empire or else he would declare war on them. While Arthur was busy fighting Lancelot and the Emperor, Mordred betrayed Arthur and attempted to kill him. In this battle, both Arthur and his enemy, Mordred, dealt a mortal blow to one another. The battle was believed to have been started by a knight drawing a sword to kill a snake. The other side, believing his actions to be aggressive, started the fight. As a result, Arthurs forces won, Mordred died, Excalibur was returned to the lake, and Arthur was carried away on a boat with three queens. Characters King Arthur: King of Britain who is currently fighting Lancelot, the Emperor, and Mordred Lancelot- Knight who is in an affair with Guinevere, Arthurs best friend Mordred- Knight who betrays Arthur Emperor: Rule of Rome that wants to conquer Britain Allusion The Lord of the Rings

Sauron: Mordred Frodo: Arthur In the novel The Lord of the Rings, the last battle at the Black Gates is an allusion to Arthurs last battle. Both armies clash as for the forces of Men buy time for Frodo to throw the ring into Mount Doom. The forces of Good win the battle. Sauron is destroyed, paralleling the death of Mordred. In addition, Frodo is left with an untreatable wound, echoing Arthurs own fatal blow. He further mirrors Arthur when he gets on the Elven Ship to cross the Elven homeland, paralleling Arthurs trip across the lake. This allusion contributes to the story as it emphasizes the sacrifice and bravery of Frodo because Frodo risked his life and was permanently wounded like Arthur.

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Mordred Summary Mordred is the son of Arthur and Morgaine, result of their incest. On Mordreds birthday, Merlin prophesizes that a boy born on the first of May would lead to the downfall of King Arthur. This results in Arthur sending all the children born on that day, including his own son Mordred, out to see to die. However, Mordred is the sole survivor. Growing up, he becomes part of Arthurs court and also Lancelots close companion. However, he slowly becomes hated and Mordred, himself, hates Arthur for this. Mordred eventually outs Lancelot and Guineveres affair causing Lancelot to slaughter twelve knights and run away. Arthur goes after him, leaving Camelot in Mordreds care. However, Mordred tells that Arthur has been slain and takes over Camelot by marrying Guinevere. Camelot slowly crumbles and falls apart. When Arthur comes back to regain his kingdom, the two fight to their death and both end up dying. Characters Morgaine: Arthurs half-sister, mother of Mordred King Arthur: Ruler of Camelot, father of Mordred Merlin: King Arthurs seer Lancelot: Arthurs best knight who has an affair with Guinevere Guinevere: Arthurs wife who has an affair with Lancelot Allusion

The Dark Tower by Stephen King Mordred: Mordred Arthur: Roland Morgaine: Mia In this book, the character Mia gives birth to a baby boy who she named Mordred. He turns into a spider and eats his mother. Though Morgaine is not killed by Mordred, in this book, he still does kill his father. When the Crimson King finds out that Mordred had killed his mother, he sends him to assassinate Mordreds father, Roland as well. The Mordred in the original Arthurian legend and the Mordred from this book both kill their fathers. Similar to Mordred, son of Arthur, Mordred, son of Roland, is also hated and is considered an outcast by everyone else in town. By using the same name from the original Arthurian legend, this foreshadows the evilness that eventually takes place.

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Morgaine (a.k.a. Morgana La Fey) Summary Morgan Le Fay, a powerful sorceress, is the half sister of Arthur. Early works of King Arthur do not elaborate her character beyond that of a magician, but later works described her as King Arthur and Queen Guineveres antagonist. The youngest of Gorlois and Igraines dauther, she is sent to a convent to study magic when Uther Pendragon kills her father and marries her mother. Uther then betroths her to his ally Urien, a marriage that leads to Morgans unhappiness. She takes on many lovers until she is caught by Guinevere, who expels her from court. Morgan Le Fay is known for harboring feelings for Lancelot as well as trying to expose him as Guineveres lover. Morgan Le Fays most common image is one of a villainess who tries to seduce Arthur and bring about his downfall. Characters Guinevere: the wife of King Arthur and the Queen Lancelot: Arthurs good friend, Guineveres lover Igraine: Arthur and Morgans mother Uther: Arthurs father Gorlois: Morgans father

Allusion n/a

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Guinevere Summary Guinevere was the daughter of King Leodegrance of Cameliarde. Arthur had been established on the throne and Merlin continued to warn him that Guinevere would one day betray him, but he ignores Merlin. Guinevere brings the round table, which seats one hundred and fifty knights, as a dowry. When she sees Lancelot, however, she falls in love with him and the two start an affair, which Arthur does not realize until later. Their relationship contributes to the fall of Camelot as it impacts Arthur deeply. Arthurs illegitimate son, Mordred, captures Guinevere and Lancelot in Guineveres room, and Lancelot attempts to escape but kills Gawains brothers Gareth and Gaheris along the way. Mordred attempted to make Guinevere his queen, thus Arthur fought against Mordred and received a mortal wound that lead to his death. After Arthurs death, Guinevere entered a nunnery at Amesbury. Characters Arther: a legendary British king who ruled Camelot and brought unity and peace to the land King Leodegrance: father of Guinevere and king of Cameliard Maleagant: King of the Summer Country who kidnaps Guinevere Lancelot: one of the most loyal knights of Arthur's round table Mordred: Arthur's illegitimate son by one of his sisters

Allusion n/a

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Excalibur Summary After Arthur loses his sword, Merlin leads him to the Lake of the Fairy Palace, where the Lady of the Lake presents him with Excalibur, a magical sword with power that none may stand against. When Arthur reaches the lake, the Lady of the Lake rises from the waters, tells Arthur to get into a boat, and guides the boat toward an arm that is holding the sword and the scabbard in the middle of the lake. Arthur takes the sword and the scabbard, the arm disappears, and the barge moves back toward shore, where the Lady has already disappeared. Arthur ties the barge to a nearby tree and attaches the sword at his waist. Characters Arthur: King of Camelot // Merlin: a well-known and venerated prophecy // Lady of the Lake: gives Arthur Excalibur, possible named Nimue // Excalibur: magical sword bestowed upon Arthur when he loses his sword. Allusion Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

Anduril: Excalibur Aragom: King Arthur In Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, Elrond presents Aragorn with the sword Anduril to give Aragorn the power to enlist dead souls to fight against Sauron. Since the dead souls only obey the orders given by King Gondor, when Aragorn gets the dead souls to fight for him, he is recognized as the true king of Gondor. This is an allusion to Excalibur because both swords symbolize power and leadership, and both Anduril and Excalibur are given to the true kings. Aragorn resembles King Arthur because neither was recognized as king until he received his sword. This allusion enhances the movie by giving the sword almost mystical powers, and allows recognition that Aragom is the true king.

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Camelot Summary Camelot is the castle famously associated with King Arthur and his time period. Before ruling at Camelot, Arthur is said to have ruled Caerlon. Camelot first appears in the 12th and 13th century in the form of poems. It was made famous by Sir Thomas Malorys Le Morte dArthur. Also in Lord Alfred Tennysons The Lady of Shalott, Camelot is described as many towerd. Generally seen as idealistically beautiful, Camelot is where Arthur and Guinevere lived and where the Knights of the Round Table began their quests. Eventually the castle was overtaken by the Saxons, but it still remains a symbol of the grandness of Arthurs reign. Many scholars have tried to find the exact place where Camelot lay but no evidence has supported that it ever existed. Characters King Arthur: king of Camelot and ruler of the country Guinevere: Arthurs wife living with him at Camelot Knights of the Round Table: Arthurs closest companions and best knights Sir Thomas Malory: early poet of Arthurian legends Lord Alfred Tennyson: early poet who wrote The Lady of Shalott Allusion: The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams

Camelot: Magrathea In The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, the fictional Magrathea is a legendary planet whose people manufacture other planets for the pleasure of wealthy galactic citizens. Like Camelot, it is associated with a time of luxury and riches. This planet is considered magnificent because of its ability to create other planets while Camelot is considered magnificent for its time of peace. However, like how Camelot falls to the Saxons, Magrathea falls into an economic depression and is never found again. It becomes impossible to find and is considered almost a myth, similar to present day regards to Camelots existence. The relationship between these two seemingly fictional places adds a mystical element to the story lines.

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Tristan and Isolde (Iseult) Summary Tristan goes out to Ireland to find Isolde and bring her back to King Mark, so that he could marry her. During the journey back, the two accidentally drink a love potion that binds them together. The two continue to see each other, even after Isolde is forced into marriage with King Mark. The Kings advisers continue to put the two of them in jail and threaten to kill them for committing adultery. In some versions of the legend, the potions power lasts forever, and in others, it wears off. The two are never caught for their adultery, but in some versions, they go their separate ways after a few years. Characters Tristan: King Marks nephew, worked for King Mark, went to Ireland to bring Isolde back for the King to marry Isolde: forced to marry King Mark King Mark: king of Cornwall Allusion: Shrek I Shrek: Tristan Fiona: Isolde

Farguad: King Mark In the movie Shrek I, Shrek is sent out to find Fiona for Farguad, so that Farguad could marry her. Shrek, much like Tristan, falls in love with Fiona, thus binding them and forming a love triangle between the three characters. This is very similar to the legend of Tristan and Isolde because the love triangle also forms between Tristan, Isolde, and King Mark. This allusion enhances the story by dramatizing the love triangle and making it more amusing.

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Summary At first, the earth was a formless, dark place with no life or boundaries. God created light on the first day and proclaimed the light to be "day" and dark to be "night." On the second day, God divided the waters and the expanse above it, naming it "sky."On the third day, God divided water and dry ground, naming the dry ground "land" and water "seas". On the fourth day, God created lights in the sky to separate day from night and to signify seasons, days, and years. On the fourth day, He created stars, along with "two lights," one to govern such half- most likely the sun and the moon. On the fifty day, God created sea creatures and birds to dominate the sky and seas. On the sixth day, God created creatures to live on land, along with man in His own image. God, satisfied with His work from the week, rested on the last (seventh) day. Characters God: Creates light, sky, sea, earth, animals, and man in six days Man: created on the sixth day in God's own image Allusion The Truman Show God: Christof

Man: Truman Christof creates and completely controls the world that Truman lives in for the sake of filming a reality show entirely centered on Truman's life. To keep Truman from catching onto the lie that he lives, Christof builds a giant dome for Truman to live in and controls every aspect of his life- the people, Truman's family, his ability to travel, and even the weather- to keep Truman from finding out the truth. The plot centers around Truman's eventual discovery that something is wrong and attempts to escape. Truman's powerlessness, relative to Christof, is reflective of his place as man. Christof's quick temper with Truman and his creation of Truman's entire world are demonstrative of his role as God. The allusion serves to heighten Christof's status as the overruling character and emphasize his dominance over Truman, thus making Truman's escape a much more momentous accomplishment. Adam and Eve Summary After God made his first man, he took one of Adam's ribs and created the first woman, Eve, to be his wife. A serpent lures Eve into eating the forbidden fruit, who also persuades Adam to take a bite. When God discovers that they have been instilled with knowledge, he curses the serpent, forced women under men's rule, and belabors Adam to make his own living by tilling the ground, and drives them out of Eden. This is their Original Sin. Characters God: creator of all mankind Adam: first man created by God

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Eve: first woman, second person created by God Allusion East of Eden by John Steinbeck John Steinbeck says in East of Eden, "There is no other story. Was it good or was it evil? Have I done well--or ill?" As he traces through the extremes of humanity, he concludes that they originate from good and evil, alluding to the original sin committed by Adam and Eve, and John Steinbeck explores the definition of good and evil in his novel. This allusion to Adam Eve enhances the book because it is the foundation for their search of what being a good person means and what being a bad person means.

Noah and the Ark Summary In God's perspective he thought that the world was corrupt, and decided to create a flood, big enough to wipe out all living things. Fortunately, God saw pure greatness in Noah, and told Noah to build an ark to save himself, his family, and a male and a female of every clean animal. After everyone boarded the ark, the Earth rained for forty consecutive days, which flooded the Earth and killed everything in its path. Once the flood was over Noah's ark landed on the mountains of Ararat, and Noah waited eight more months for the flood to dry up. After almost a year of waiting inside the ark, everyone left the ark and replenished the Earth. Noah made an animal sacrificing to God, and God was proud of Noah for all of his hard work. Characters God: Commanded Noah to build the ark Noah: One who built the ark Allusion Deep Impact Noah: The Government God: The comet collision

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Animals that were saved: 1,000,000 citizens In Deep Impact, a 1998 sci-fi disaster film, Earth is predicted to be faced with a comet collision and a possible mass extinction of the human race. Technology which is aided by the government, allows one million citizens refuge underground while the rest perish out and above the "ark." In the end, a large spaceship, Messiah, retraces Noah's mission and splits the comet to pieces. These pieces become meteors that light the dark sky, bringing the humans hope. This allusion enhances the movie because it emphasizes the bravery of those in the Messiah, and the ending promises a better future for humans.

The Rainbow Summary After Noah found out that the waters were receding, he waited until God told him to come out of the ark. Noah thanked God and God continued to be pleased with Noah and the work he had done. God then promised Noah that he would never destroy man with a flood again. To symbolize this covenant with Noah, God made the storm clouds disperse and put a rainbow in the sky. Characters Noah: built the ark, under Gods request God: almighty ruler of the world, commanded Noah to build the ark Allusion Pleasantville Rainbow: Gods disappointment Pleasantville: the world that became corrupted Mary-Sue: mankind The movie Pleasantville uses the rainbow to show Gods disappointment in mankind. Throughout the movie, the perfect world of a

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town called Pleasantville is corrupted by two real people, Mary Sue and her brother. Right before the rainbow appears in the movie, there is a massive rainstorm that washes all impurities from the town. When the rainbow does appear, it signifies God telling man that he will not purify them again. This parallels the biblical story, because God purifies the world once but promises he will not try to do it again.

War in Heaven Summary Lucifer was one of God's most respected angels. However, this all went to his head and Lucifer soon thought of himself as Superior to God. He decided to gather more angels who would help him fight God so that Lucifer could take over. Once God discovered this, God gathered the rest of his angels to banish Lucifer ad the bad angels out of heaven. They earned the title "fallen angels". God ended up winning the battle in heaven. However, Satan got revenge by tricking Adam and Eve into eating God's forbidden fruit. This forced God to throw Adam and Eve out and allowed the humans to be vulnerable to sin. Characters God: fought Satan and cast Satan out of heaven. Satan: wanted God's position but lost to God so he was banished. Jesus: ends up helping mankind and also the Son of God who was sent down into Earth by God Allusion The Lion King Simba=Jesus Scar=Satan

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Mufasa=God Mufasa is the king of Pride Rock. Jealous of his brother, Scar plots out a devious plan in which he murders Mufasa. Scar takes over as king but then Simba, Mufasa's son, returns to defeat his uncle and redeem the kingdom for his father. Similar to God, Mufasa loses control over mankind. Similar to Satan, Scar attempted to take over Mufasa's position. Just like Jesus, Simba is a savior and avenges his father. The plot of the entire movie is based on this allusion. This allusion helps the move by emphasizing the power struggle between the two brothers and making Simba appear more glorious as the savior.

Lucifer/Satan Summary Lucifer, also known as Satan, was one of God's angels, but had too much free will and sought to overthrow God. He gathered a following and waged war in Heaven, but failed. As a result, Lucifer and his angels fell from Heaven to Hell. His ultimate goal is to lead people away from the love of God. He is also known for being extremely prideful, a reason which led him to rebel against God and to pursue ruling over Heaven. Figuratively, Satan represents sin and temptation. Characters God: creator of all mankind Lucifer: fallen dark angel Allusion Cinderella Stepmothers cat=Lucifer In the movie Cinderella, the evil stepmothers cat is named Lucifer and is therefore associated with evil. Lucifer devotes his life to hunting mice, who as friends of Cinderella, are on the good side. An allusion to Satan is not only made through the name but also through the establishment of the cat as an adversary of the mice. Through this allusion, the Disney movie underscores the conflict between good and evil and emphasizes the presence of opposition in the world.

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Jonah and the Whale Summary As a prophet of Galilee, Jonah was called upon by the Lord to preach to the individuals of Nineveh, the capital of Assyria. The lord asked Jonah to warn the individuals to repent or be punished for their wrongdoings. At this time, Assyria was a dreaded enemy of Israel (in which Galilee is located), and Jonah was reluctant to carry out the task. Frightened, Jonah instead fled on a ship into the opposite direction, in hopes to hide away from God. During the voyage, the ship encountered a great storm; Jonah knew that this was God's act upon him. He then realized that his sin would cause the death of all the sailors on the ship, so he instructed the sailors to throw him overboard. After the sailors threw him over, the storm ceased and everyone on the ship was saved. Jonah, on the other hand, believed this to be the end of his life, but God had mercy upon him and sent a large whale to swallow him. While inside the belly of the fish, Jonah began to realize all of his wrongdoings and prayed to God constantly. After these days passed, the whale spitted Jonah out onto the shore, and Jonah began his journey to Nineveh, as God initially asked him to do so. Although he was terrified of the Ninevites, Jonah still preached to them. To his surprise, however, they all began to repent and worship God. Characters Jonah- a prophet of Galilee who was instructed by God to preach to the individuals of Nineveh Whale- sent by God to swallow Jonah to prevent him from dying God- asked Jonah to preach for repentance to the Ninevites Allusion Pinocchio Pinocchio: Jonah Whale: Monstro

Geppetto: God In Pinocchio, a craftsman named Geppetto creates a wooden doll named Pinocchio, who wishes to become a real life boy. The Blue Fairy grants him this wish, although she only transforms into a puppet, claiming that in order for Pinocchio to become a real boy, he must demonstrate braveness, truthfulness, and selfishness. Naive and oblivious to any menacing surroundings, Pinocchio agrees to a series of propositions that reflect his untruthful manner and selfishness. This alludes to Jonah's feeling of God's task, as Jonah disobeys orders and makes his own decisions. One day, Pinocchio comes home to find his father, Geppetto missing from home, later finding out that Geppetto has been swallowed by a whale. Pinocchio jumps into the water, entering the whale in order to save his father. This is an allusion to when Jonah is swallowed by the whale, as this is his ultimate revelation--he changes who he is, and this symbolizes the "final initiation" of his journey. Similar to Jonah, Pinocchio leaves the whale's tomb a changed person, he learns the values of bravery, trust, and selflessness, and obtains his goal of convincing the Ninevites to repent. This allusion serves to emphasize the power of selflessness and repentance, accentuating Pinocchio's ultimate revelation with the ocean setting and the large, intimidating Monstro. The allusion heightens "Pinocchio" by illustrating the lasting effects of obedience and bravery, ultimately portraying the need for truth.

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Solomon Summary Solomon was the third and last king of Israel, and the first to be born to a reigning king. His father chose him to be king over all of his older brothers, and Israel enjoyed years of prosperity and peace under his rule. Solomon was also chosen by God to be the Builder. Solomon is famous for building the beautiful temple of God in Jerusalem. Solomon was also extremely wealthy, and strengthened his kingdom and his own power through marital alliances. Solomon is also known for his wisdom and vast knowledge, which allowed him to be a very fair judge. On on occasion, when two women approached him to decide over who would be the caretaker of a baby, Solomon proposed that the baby be cut in two. One of the women was horrified, but the other willingly agreed to the compromise. This revealed the real mother of the baby, and also Solomon's wisdom. He also composed many songs and poems. Characters Solomon: Third and last king of Israel Allusion The Kill Zone Molly Blane= Solomon The Baby= Custody of Melody and Amber Gill and Child Support for them Real Mother= Annette Terry

Lying Mother= Dan and Lee Rohmer , the grandparents of Melody and Amber In The Kill Zone, Annette Terry takes custody of the two sisters when their father dies. As Annette does not properly fill out custody forms, the grandparents, Dan and Lee, demand custody of the children. Annette Blane begs Molly Blane, who takes negotiations between the two parties, to let her keep her children. Molly offers the grandparents a deal in order to help Annette keep her children: the grandparents keep child support money by Annette gets the children. The grandparents immediately accept the deal, just like how the lying mother agrees to cut the baby in two. It is then apparent that the grandparents only want the money, and Annette gets to keep the children and the money. The allusion to Solomon heightens the disgust the reader feels for the grandparents, and sympathizes with Annette Terry, the real mother.

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Ruth Summary During the severe famine in Israel, Elimelech leaves his home and takes his wife Naomi and two sons to live in the country of Moab. When Elimelech dies, Naomi is left with her two sons, Mahlon and Kilion, who were both married to Moabite women, Orpah and Ruth. Ten year later, both Mahlon and Kilion die. Naomi then decides to move to the land of Judah and brings her two daughter-in-laws. However, on the journey, Naomi tells them to go back home and marry to have a better life than with her. Orpah takes up this offer and leaves while Ruth remains loyal and stays to support her mother-in-law. Arriving in Bethlehem, Ruth meets a wealthy man by the name of Boaz, who is a relative of Naomis husband. Ruth works in his grain fields and in a short amount time, they start to get to know each other better. One day, Naomi tells Ruth that she will find a permanent home for her, so she gives her instructions to dress in her finest clothes and sleep at the feet of Boaz on the threshing floor. During Ruths encounter with Boaz, he tells her that he is one of the family redeemers, but that there is another man closely related to her. If the other relative is not willing to redeem her, then Boaz will marry Ruth. However, that relative only came to buy the land off her so instead Boaz marries Ruth and the land is kept. This marriage carries on the family name. Characters Ruth: wife of Naomis son; stays with Naomi, marries Boaz in the end Naomi: mother-in-law to Ruth and Orpah, wife of Elimelech Elimelech: Naomis husband Orpah: wife to one of Naomis sons, leaves Naomi and stays in Moab Boaz: relative of Elimelech, marries Ruth Mahlon, Kilion: Naomis sons, marries Orpah and Ruth

Allusion Mulan Ruth: Mulan Naomi: Fa Zhou (Mulans father) Boaz: Shang In Mulan, main character Mulan sacrifices herself to fight in the war in place of her father. Because each family had to send one male to war and her father was ill, Mulan bravely takes the place because of her loyalty to her family. Though she didnt have to put herself into the war, she chooses to risk her life by fighting anyway and is rewarded in the end for her virtue. Similar to Mulan is Ruth who also sacrifices her life for Naomi, moving to a land with complete strangers and starting anew. Ruth gives up her chance of staying in Moab to find a new husband in order to support Naomi like how Mulan gives up her safety to save her father. For both women, in the end, they find a happy life with Mulan finding Shang and Ruth with Boaz. The connection between Ruth and Mulan enhances Mulans heroism and virtue.

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Joseph and the Coat Summary Joseph was one of twelve brothers, and his father, Jacob, often showed more love to Joseph than the other brothers, inciting feelings of jealousy and hostility among the brothers. One day, Jacob gives Joseph a beautiful coat of many colors as a gift, enraging the brothers, who come to hate Joseph out of envy. One night, Joseph has a dream in which he and his brothers were all sheaves of wheat and his stood tall while all his brothers sheaves bowed toward his sheaf. His brothers scoff at this, and Joseph goes on to say that he had another dream, in which the moon, the sun, and the eleven stars were all bowing before him. This further enrages the brothers who interpret this to mean that their father, mother, and the brothers would all bow down to Joseph. One day, Joseph was sent to check up on all his brothers; when he did, they all had already conspired to throw him into a well, but instead, they came across Egyptian traders and sold Joseph to them instead. The eleven brothers fake his death, showing their father the bloodied robe that owned Joseph had been given. Once in Egypt, Joseph was sold to the captain of the Pharaohs guard, and from there he quickly ascended into a position of trust. However, when Joseph refused the advances of the captains wife, she had him thrown in prison. There in jail, he quickly rose to a powerful position and oversaw the prison. In jail, he interpreted two more dreams correctly for two inmates, catching the Pharaohs attention. The pharaoh then asked Joseph to interpret his dreams. Joseph replied by saying that Egypt would have seven years of food surpluses and seven years of famine. The pharaoh then put Joseph in charge of food preparations for when the famine would come. Joseph became the Pharaohs right-hand man during the years of feminine. As starvation spreads throughout the land and his Canaan, Jacob sends his sons over to Egypt to get food. However, the brothers dont recognize Joseph, but Joseph reveals himself to them and tells them not to be sorry for that they did. They all bow down to him and Josephs original dreams come true. Characters Joseph: He interprets dreams and makes the best of his dire situation His eleven brothers: They plot to kill Joseph, but ultimately sell him to a slave trader; in the end, they finally bow down to Joseph and his dreams come true Jacob: Jacob shows favoritism towards Joseph, giving him the amazing wonderful coat that plants the seeds of jealousy and animosity Pharaoh: The Pharaoh had faith in Josephs abilities and this resulted in success for him and his country

Allusion From The Count of Monte Cristo, by Alexander Dumas Edmund Dantes = Joseph Edmund Dantes is accused of treason by men who despise him. He is sent to jail, but his story doesnt end there, just like Josephs doesnt end after he is sold into slavery. Dante escapes from prison and quickly gains power when he rises to a successful position. This is an allusion to Josephs situation as both of them are forced into their hardships by other men who despise them or are jealous of them. However, both characters take advantage of what is given to them in their unfortunate situations and thus, as a result, become prosperous. They make do with what fate hands them and their success is a direct result of their hard efforts. This allusion enhances the story as it highlights the integrity of Edmund's character and foreshadows his success, as he follows a similar path to that of Joseph.

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Elijah Summary Elijah was a prophet in Israel that God appointed. His purpose in sending Elijah was to bring repentance to the people, prevent the land from being cursed by God, and prepare for the Messiah's coming. Elijah was sent to deal with Ahab, a king who angered God by following pagan gods. Elijah prayed for a drought and three years later, a drought occurred and brought starvation, including to Elijah himself. God sent him to meet a woman who would provide him with food, but when Elijah found her, she had barely enough to feed herself and her son.Elijah promised that God would provide the woman with flour and oil if she provided him with bread. When the son became sick, Elijah prayed to God that he would head. When people in Israel worshippised Basal, Elijah convinced the people of Israel that Basal had no power and was not a real god. Elijah was also the only prophet that was not killed. When a chariot from Heaven appeared to take Elijah to heaven, he was replaced by Elisha. Characters Elijah: a prophet in Israel who is one of the few who have not physically died to go to Heaven. He brought a drought upon Israel to punish the people for believing in Basal. Ahab: Israel king who angered God by believing in the pagan god, Basal. He sent people to find and capture Elijah. Woman: Provided Elijah with shelter, nourishment, and protection from people who were trying to kill him. Allusion: Harry Potter and the Sorcerers Stone Dumbledore= God Hagrid=Elijah

Harry Potter=woman. In Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, Hagrid serves as Elijah. He is a man with supernature powers, like Elijah of the Old Testament. Dumbledore sends Hagrid to Harry's house and Hagrid uses his magical abilities to help Harry. God sends Elijah to the Widow's House and Elijah then proceeds to use his powers and provides the Widow with supplies in exchange for bread. Like Elijah, Hagrid follows the orders of someone of a higher rank. Hagrid also provides Harry with supplies to help him out, similar to Elijah providing the Widow with supplies for food. Elijah was also known to have gone up into the Heavens in a flaming chariot, like Hagrid and his flying motorcycle. Hagrid is represented as the savior who brought an acceptable life for Harry and helps Harry transition into a better world. Similarly, the Widow was shunned by society but was given the best life after Elijah asked God to give her His blessing. Through the allusion, Harry is blessed by God and protected by a prophet, he then becomes a diving and saintly character, causing readers to have faith in Harry and portrays him as the hero of the novel.

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Lot Summary Lot was the nephew of Abraham, fathered by Abraham's brother, Haran. When God called Abraham and his family out of the land of Ur to the Promise Land of Egypt and beyond (the Israelites would eventually reach Canaan), Lot left with Abraham. Upon reaching the area of Bethel and Ai, Lot separated from Abraham because the land could not support both of them, as they both had large flocks and their shepherds sometimes quarreled. Abraham let Lot choose whether he wanted to stay in the area or move on, and because the land around the Jordan River, near the cities of Sodom and Gomorra looked fertile and pleasant, Lot chose to stay and Abraham moved on. When the city of Sodom was attacked by confederate kings and Lot was captured, Abraham pursued the attackers and overtook them, winning back all stolen passions and captives, including Lot. When God planned to destroy the five cities of the plain, including the notorious cities of Sodom and Gomorra, angels were sent to warn Lot and his family and urge them to flee the city. Lot insisted that the angels spend the night in his house, but the night brought many men who wanted to have sex with Lot's guests, and Lot even offered his virgin daughters as replacements. The angles commanded Lot and his family to flee the city immediately without looking back, but while running away, Lot's wife looked back upon the city and was turned into a pillar of salt. Lot and his daughters seek refuge in a cave, and his daughters tricked their father into having sexual intercourse with them, eventually producing the patriarchs of the nations of Moab and Ammon. Characters Lot= nephew of Abraham, father of Moab and Ammon nations Abraham= Lots uncle, father of the Israelites Sodom and Gomorra= two corrupted cities eventually chosen by God to be destroyed Allusion Lot and Lots Daughter by Ward Moor Jimmons Father=Lot

Erika=Lots daughter Pittsburgh and Los Angeles=Sodom and Gomorra Ward Moore's Lot, written in 1953, and Lot's Daughters, written in 1954, depict the aftermath of Lot and his daughters' survival after the destruction of Sodom and Gomorra. The survival of this unconventional family is juxtaposed with the survival of an American family after a nuclear war. Both science fiction stories describe the effect of a nuclear holocaust and its consequences, and a doomed Los Angeles and Pittsburgh are presented as the Sodom and Gomorra that the Jimmons family flees from. When the father of the family, along with his daughter, realizes that they are doomed unless they flee, they leave their doubting family behind. They attempt to start a new life together, with the father taking his daughter as his wife, a direct biblical parallelism to Lot's union with his daughters. The decisions that the Jimmons family makes in the face of destruction are similar to that of Lot and his family, revealing just how direct the biblical parallelism between the Jimmons family and Lot's family is. This allusion enhances the books because both daughters' pressing need to procreate with their fathers indicates the importance of preserving a family line (even if it means defying God's ideal marital partnership), and ultimately the importance of preserving humanity.

Ten Commandments Summary After God saved the people of Israel, all of camped out in front of Mount Sinai. On top of Mount Sinai, God would meet with Moses to discuss the new system that God had created to rule his people with. God had created the Ten Commandments in order to express his way of ruling, and these rules would bring ultimate peace. God summoned Moses up to Mount Sinai for forty days and forty nights, and instructed Moses on his rules so that he could return home to inform all the people of Israel of the rules. God then carved the Ten Commandments into two stone tablets, and Moses was to deliver back to the people. Unfortunately, the people of Israel became impatient and sought guidance from Aaron. Once Moses returned, he was angered by the display of disloyalty of the people of Israel because they easily turned against God. Both God and Moses scolded the people of Israel of their sins, and Moses taught them the ways of the Ten commandments. Characters

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God: One who created everything. Moses: The messenger between God and the people of Israel Israelite: The people of Israel Allusion: Pirates of the Caribbean The Pirate Codex: The Ten Commandments Captain Teague: Moses In Pirates of the Caribbean, the Pirate Lords convene to pick a pirate king, so Captain Teague brings out the Pirate Codex, which is an allusion to the Ten Commandments. Later, one of the pirates derides the code, and is angrily shot by Captain Teague, just like Moses' demonstration of anger at the disobedience of the Ten Commandments. With the help of the movie Pirates of the Caribbean, one can learn about the Ten Commandments through a more modern approach that ultimately may be more appealing to some people. This allusion enhances the story by putting a greater and holier emphasize on The Pirate Codex.

Garden of Eden Summary In the Garden of Eden, God creates the very first beings: Adam and Eve. In the garden, Adam is to tend to the trees and he and Eve are forbidden to eat from the Tree of Knowledge. However, a serpent persuades Eve to eat the fruit, who in turn persuades Adam to do so too. When God discovers this, he expels them from the garden. Eden represents a peaceful realm where all is pure; Adam and Even who gain knowledge are banished because knowledge taints purity. Characters God: creator of all mankind Adam: first man created by God Eve: first woman, second person created by God Allusion: East of Eden Salinas Valley=Garden of Eden Adam=Adam Large Tree=Tree of Knowledge In East of Eden, John Steinbeck alludes to the Garden of Eden by depicting Salinas Valley, the setting of the novel, similar to the Garden of Eden by using rivers and mountains. Adam, a character from the novel, fits the Adam figure of the Bible because he is the father of the Cain and Abel figures of the book. The Salinas Valley represents the Garden of Eden because it has the beauty of the valley just as it was in Eden. The large tree in Adams farm also represents the Tree of Knowledge in the Garden of Eden. This allusion enhances the book by casting the setting of the book at a pleasant place that allows happiness to grow.

113 Promised Land Summary The Promised Land was the land of Canaan that was promised by Abraham's descendants by God. People believed that they would gain complete satisfaction and happiness. It was promised to be land that was rich with resources, which the Israelites did not gain until after Exodus, where they defeated all the people that were originally living there. Characters Israelites: The people who was promised the land Allusion The Grapes of Wrath Grandpa Joad-Israelites California-Promised Land

In John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, Grandpa Joad has a dream about California and the prosperity that can be gained from there. Grandpa Joad then describes of what his life would be like if he owned his own farm in California, a land of abundance and pleasure for him. This description alludes to how the Promised Land was seen for the Israelites, which heightens the importance of migrating to California for Grandpa Joad.

Burning Bush Summary After Moses departs from Egypt, he wanders for forty years until he reaches the mountain of Ho'reb. On the mountain, he spots a burning bush, but strangely it is not completely consumed by the fire. As Moses attempts to get a closer look, a voice suddenly comes from the bush directing him not to come any closer. It also commands him to take off his shoes because he is standing on holy ground. Revealing to Moses that he is God, He instructs Moses to free the Israelites form Egypts harsh rule. Moses, however, doubts his own ability to do the job and states that nobody will believe that God has chosen him to free the Israelites. As a result, God decides to scare Moses to convince him to carry out his task. Telling Moses to drop his shepherds staff, God transforms it into a snake. Despite this demonstration of Gods power, Moses claims he is not a good public speaker and will not do the job well. In response, God permits Moses to bring his brother, Aaron, with him to speak for Moses. Finally, God instructs Moses to return to Egypt and show the miracles to the Israelites so they will believe Moses and allow Moses to free them. Characters Moses- An exile from Egypt, he was chosen by God to free the Israelites from enslavement by the Egyptians. Burning bush God, the almighty power and savior Allusion

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The Matrix (1999), directed by Andy Wachowski and Lana Wachowski Moses=Neo Burning bush/God=Morpheus In this movie, Thomas A. Anderson lives two lives: by day he is an average computer programmer and by night a malevolent hacker known as Neo. Neo has always questioned his reality but the truth is far beyond his imagination. When he is contacted by Morpheus, a legendary computer hacker branded a terrorist by the government, Neo finds himself targeted by the police. Morpheus awakens Neo to the real world, a savaged wasteland where most of humanity has been captured by a race of machines that imprison their minds within an artificial reality known as the Matrix. As a rebel against the machines, Neo must return to the Matrix and conform the agents, super powerful computer programs devoted to snuffing out Neo and the entire human rebellion. In the course of Neos awakening to reality, Morpheus challenges Neo to a kung fu duel during which he tells Neo that he will be able to do the impossible. Neo doesnt believe him so Morpheus proceeds to teach Neo what powers are available to him. When Morpheus is captured by the agents, Neo is forced to go after him. After saving Morpheus, becoming the first man to defeat agents and stop bullets, Neo finally begins to believe he is capable of saving mankind. In this way, Neo exhibits the same curiosity and doubts that Moses had, questioning Morpheus, his God, for the first part of the Matrix until Morhpeus proves to him, using miracles, that he will be the savior of the human race. Through this allusion, the Wachowski brothers associate the rebels to Gods capability of performing miracles, backed by divine force, and elevate the character roles of the rebels from being ordinary law breakers to extraordinary righteous liberators. In turn, the audiences anticipation of Neos ultimate victory over the machines is augmented. Just as Moses leads his people to freedom, Neo must also succeed in the deliverance of humanity from the clutches of the Matrix.

King David Summary Following Saul as the second king of Israel, David is the youngest of eight sons. After the defeat of Goliath, the almighty warrior of the Philistines, David becomes very popular early in his life. He is then recruited into Sauls army and becomes a renowned warrior. When David surpasses Saul in popularity, Saul is led to the attempt to dispose of him. David then runs to the wilderness but only returns to Hebron after Sauls death and is anointed King of Judah. However, he is opposed by Sauls brother who rules over neighboring Israel. David then assumes full authority over Judah and Israel after the death of Sauls brother. Despite all of his incredible achievements, David also has some flaws. He commits adultery with Bethsheba who is the wife of Uriah and in attempts to hide the identity of the new childs father, David sends Uriah to the front lines so that he would be killed in war. Then David is denounced by God and cursed to have a challenging and problematic reign and life. Davids son, whose mother is Bathsheba, dies from an illness inflicted by God while selecting his other son Solomon to succeed him because of his loyalty and also rejecting the eldest son Adonijah because of his irresponsibility. Characters David: the king of Israel and 8th youngest son of Jesse from the tribe of Judah Saul: first king of Israel anointed by the prophet Samuel Bathsheba: the wife of Uriah who David commits adultery with Solomon: son of David who is chosen to succeed David upon his death Allusion Training Day David: Alonzo

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In Training day, Alonzo is a highly recognized LA narcotics officer who lives a gangster lifestyle. As time passes, he becomes the respected top dog in both the Latino and Black neighborhoods. He is well-known and just as popular as David was popular for what he was able to achieve. Alonzo also has a gang mistress, like how David commits adultery with Bathsheba, and frequently uses money from large drug busts. When Alonzo is flooded with power, he proceeds to misuse it like David does in his kingdom. Alonzo then begins to have another affair and steal money from other drug dealers. Because of this, he is cursed, similar to how David was cursed to have a problematic life, by gaining enemies who want revenge on Alonzo because of his disregard for what their interests are. Paralleling Davids actions, Alonzo has a son with his gang mistress who is then raised I the shadow of his affair and gang life. This allusion enhances the story because Alonzo mirrors Davids misuse of power and his methods of law enforcement are corrupted. Consequentially, the story line of David already points out the future for Alonzos character in the movie.

David and Goliath Summary Goliath is a Philistine and a very strong man (demonstrate by the heavy clothes he wears and large weapon he carries). He sends a challenge to the people of Israel: If the Israelites send a person to do battle with him and they kill Goliath, then the Philistines will serve Israel; but if Goliath kills the Israels man, then the Israelites must be the Philistines subjects. This frightens the Israelites and King Saul, who then offers a reward of money, his daughter for a wife, and exemption from taxes to any man that can defeat Goliath. David, the youngest son in his family, overhears this while on an errand to bring food to his brothers, who are soldiers in Israels army. The young David convinces the king to let him battle Goliath by relating a tale of how he rescued a sheep from a lions mouth, and then killed the lion. David goes into battle with Goliath, armed only with a slingshot and five stones. He wears no armor because it is too cumbersome for his little body. The large goliath, wearing armor and in possession of a shield-bearer, does not think that the boy David will beat him in a fight. David affirms that he will triumph because his reason for fighting (liberating Israel) is just (righteous) in the eyes of God. David uses his slingshot to shoot a stone at Goliath, which promptly sinks into his opponents forehead and kills him. Characters: David: Israelite, youngest boy out of 8 brothers, and challenger of the famed warrior Goliath. He proves that intellect and Gods will triumphs over brute strength. Goliath: A feared Philistine warrior famed for his strength and large size. He challenges the Israelites to a battle in order to determine which nation is stronger God: All-powerful, able to guarantee victory to underdogs if their cause is just Allusion Hey Arnold! The Movie Arnold and friends = David Scheck = Goliath

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Spy = God In Hey Arnold! The Movie, a young boy named Arnold and a band of rag-tag buddies must face off against a corporate giant, Scheck, in order to save their neighborhood from demolition. Against all odds, these children are able to keep their neighborhood from being destroyed by the corrupt Scheck through confronting him with conclusive evidence of his corruptness and the additional use of their wits to outsmart him. They also employ the help of a mysterious spy to aid them in gaining legal evidence against Schecks corruption. This is a direct reference to the very unbalanced show-down in the David and Goliath story, where an inexperienced young boy faces off against a large and famous warrior, winning the battle with strategy and smarts, in part due to Gods guidance. The triumph of the children in Hey Arnold! The Movie symbolizes this triumph of good over evil depicted in the David and Goliath tale, where David defeats Goliath in part because God supports Davids cause of keeping the people of Israel from being enslaved by the Philistines and their godless hunger for power. The help the boys gain from the mysterious spy is synonymous with Gods guidance of David against Goliath, because the spy is an all-powerful figure that helps the children triumph over Scheck. The children wouldnt have had the resources or opportunities available to them to defeat Scheck if it were not for the spy. This allusion enhances the movie because the triumph over brute force is an additional similarity to the manner in which David defeated Goliath with a clever fighting tactic that relied on strategy, not sheer strength.

Moses Summary During the time when the Egyptian Pharaoh declared that all boys were to be drowned at birth. Moses was born to Amran and Jochebed, who sent Moses down the Nile River, in order to save him from execution. Miriam, Moses' sister follows the basket down the river, where the Pharaoh's daughter, Bithiah, finds Moses in the basket and agrees to take care of him. Ultimately, Moses is raised to adulthood as the brother of the future Pharaoh of Egypt. When Moses reached adulthood, he witnesses an Egyptian man beating up a Hebrew man, and Moses kills the Egyptian man. Scared of taking the wrath of the Pharaoh, Moses retreats to the Sinai Peninsula. While Moses is walking down the Sinai Peninsula, he reaches, Midian, and cares for seven shepherdesses from rude shephards. Hobab admires Moses' kind acts and adopts him as his own son, and Hobab gives his daughter to Moses in marriage. For forty years, Moses serves as the caregiver for Hobab's flocks, while Zipporah gives birth to a son, Gershom. One day, Moses sees a burning bush, in which God commands Moses to free the Hebres. The Pharaoh doubts that Moses' powers were given to him by God, because the Pharaoh's magicians could easily duplicate Moses' powers even without God. God then releases the ten plagues: blood, frogs, lice, flies, livestock death, boils, hail, crickets, darkness, and death of firstborns. The final plague wrought such havoc on Egypt, that the Pharaoh forced the Hebrews to leave Egypt. While the Hebrews are heading towards Canaan, the Pharaoh follows them. This makes God part the Red Sea and allows the Hebrews to pass, but drowns the following Egyptian army. After crossing the Red Sea, Moses spends forty days and forty nights on top of Mount Sinai receiving the Ten Commandments from God. After Moses returns he saw the Hebrews worshiping the Golden Calf which was in direct violation with the Ten Commandments. Because of the Hebrews bitter acts, the Hebrews were killed by Moses' tribe, the Levites. God then tells Moses to inscribe another tablet with the Ten Commandments, which takes Moses another forty days and forty nights to inscribe. Throughout Moses' life time, Moses constantly helps the Hebrews with their problems. When the Hebrews complained about bitter water, Moses strikes the ground with his staff, bringing water for his people. When the Amalekites attacked the Israelites, Moses holds his staff up and brings victory to his people. After observing the way Moses deals with his people's problems, Jethro suggest that appoint judges for lesser matters. When the Israelites came to the wilderness in Paran, many wept and refused to stay, so the entire community had to wander around in the wilderness for forty years. Moses names Joshua his successor, and dies before reaching the Promised Land. Characters Egyptian Pharaoh: In power during Moses' childhood. Feared that a boy will overthrow his family off the throne due to a prophecy, and ultimately orders all boys to be drowned to death. Bithiah: The Egyptian Pharaoh's daughter, who finds Moses floating down the Nile river, and takes care of him Hobab: Moses' father-in-law, who takes Moses in while Moses was roaming through the Sinai Peninsula Zipporah: Moses' wife Gershom: Moses' first son Pharaoh of Exodus: the man that Moses appeals to for the freedom of the Hebrews Aaron: Moses' brother

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Joshua: One of the people Moses sends to scout out the Promised Land Allusion: East of Eden by John Steinbeck Samuel Hamilton=Moses After Cathy leaves Adam, he goes into a complete state of shock, because he could not believe that the love of his life would suddenly walk out on him. Samuel Hamilton is the only person that can break Adam out of this shock, and Samuel alters his own character from being passive to violent with Adam. Samuel constantly refers back to Cathy's ugly characteristics in order to demonstrate to Adam how evil Cathy really is. As a direct result from Samuel's actions, Adam is able to break out of this state of shock, and return back to living his original life.

Abraham and Isaac Summary Abraham was told by God to take Isaac, his beloved son, up to Mount Moriah and offer him up as a burnt sacrifice. The next day, Abraham, Isaac, and a servant left with a donkey for Mount Mariah. When they arrived, Abraham told the servant to stay with the donkey while he took Isaac up to the mountain. Isaac, being a grown man at the time, followed his father up Mount Mariah. Along the way up, Isaac asked his father what they were offering, as they only brought burning supplies and no animals. Abraham replied the Lord will provide. Although Isaac was strong enough to prevent being bound, he was willingly bound and set on the offering altar. After God knew that Abraham was faithful enough to sacrifice his own son, he had an angel stop Abraham before he killed Isaac, and pointed out that there was a ram that was caught in a bush. From then, Abraham and his family knew that God would always provide for them. Characters Abraham: Gods chosen man for the future of His people Isaac: The beloved son of Abraham and the sacrifice required from God

God: Asked Isaac as a sacrifice, but later provided a ram instead Ram: Sign of Gods providence Allusion From Billy Budd, by Herman Melville Captain Vere = Abraham Billy Budd = Isaac Court Martial = God Captain Vere testifies against Billy, who had murdered an officer. Billy was tried, found guilty, and sentenced by the martial court to death by the noose. He was tried with the evidence that Captain Vere had given. Captain Vere gave his eyewitness accounts as a result of his loyalty to the law rather than on his personal feelings that Billy should not be sentenced to die. Billy, who had a strong sense of duty, did not struggle for his life. This is similar to the biblical allusion of Abraham and Isaac as Captain Vere is bound by his integrity to sentence Billy to death, despite his affections for the young man. Billy represents Isaac as he willingly submitted to his fate and sense of duty to the greater power (the martial court), alluding to Isaacs complete obedience of Gods will. By referencing this tale, the author appraises the integrity of Billy and also magnifies the seriousness and severity of the predicaments of this story. Also, this allusion contributes to the story for it signifies Captain Verne's obedient personality is a good characteristic to have.

Jacob and Esau Summary

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In the book of Genesis, a man named Isaac has two sons, Jacob and Esau. Before these two were born, it was prophesized that the twins would become two nations, and that the older would serve the younger. Esau was brought into the world first, but Jacob was right there with him, holding onto his heel. As time passed by, Esau became a skillful hunter, while Jacob stayed in the tents. One day, Esau came back from hunting, and having caught nothing, was hungry. His brother, at the time was cooking red stew, and would only give it to Esau, if Esau sold his birthright. Famished, Esau quickly agrees without recognizing the value of his birthright compared to the red stew. But this wasnt the only time Jacob tricked Esau. Soon afterwards, Isaac, who was growing quite old, wanted to give his blessings to Esau. Before Isaac gave Esau his blessing, he told his son to go out into the field to bring him some food. When Esau left, Rebekah overheard this, and wanted the blessing to be given to Jacob. After preparing some game and dressing Jacob in goat skin and Esaus clothing, Rebekah sent the younger son to Isaac under the disguise of Esau. Isaac, being old and unable to see clearly, believed the disguise and gave Jacob his blessings. When Esau came back to find his blessings stolen by his younger brother, he swore to kill him. Jacob, well aware of his brothers anger, fled to his uncles house for fourteen years. Once he returned home, Esau forgot about his anger toward Jacob, and they reunite as brothers. Characters Jacob: A mild man who lived in the tents and cooked; he tricked his brother and stole his birthright and blessings Esau: A skillful hunter, whose birthright was stolen by his brother, he swore to kill Jacob Allusion From East of Eden Adam = Jacob Charles = Esau Cyrus = Isaac

In East of Eden, it appears as if the father, Cyrus Trask, favors Adam over Charles, thus seeming as if he loves Adam more than his other son. Adam receives Cyruss blessing, or rather command, to join the army, which Charles deeply covets for he feels that he is more deserving of his fathers love and more suited for the military. Thus angered by such displays of unequal favoritism, Charles reacts violently toward Adam and tries to kill him, driving Adam to escape by joining the military. However, Adam eventually returns and reunites with Charles and the two are friends once more, thus alluding to the resolution of the Jacob and Esau story as both men reunite as brothers. By referencing this tale, the author emphasizes the close bond that the two brothers are supposed to have and the "faulty" nature of their fathers. Also, the story is enhanced for the reader understands that the Cyrus' command to go to the army is more of a blessing, rather than just a simple privilege.

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Tower of Babel Summary Back in the beginning of the world, everyone spoke the same language. One day, instead of continuing to spread around the earth after the great flood, the people started to stay together in one city with a tower that would reach Heaven. They wanted to be able to study the stars and figure out how to get to Heaven. However, God knew that if they stayed in one place, they would not do what he wanted them to do, and so he decided to change their languages so they would not understand each other. This gave a reason for the people to move because they could no longer communicate, and the people stopped building the tower. Characters: Man: all the people of the Earth. Everyone still spoke the same language and could easily communicate with each other. Lord: God. In this story, he controls everyone and creates different languages to confuse and disperse the people. Characters Man: all the people of the Earth. Everyone still spoke the same language and could easily communicate with one another. The Lord: God. In this story he makes languages confusing in order to scatter them around the Earth. Allusion

Xelhua and the Tower of Cholula Man= Xelhua God= the gods Xelhua, one of the Toltecs, went to the Cholula and began constructing the pyramid to escape the flood of the gods. The gods, angered by the arrogance of the people who think they can escape the wrath of gods, destroyed the tower and killed the architects. This is a Native Central American allusion to the tower of Babel. Similaryly, the Tower of Cholula serves to show that man can defeat God. The story is further aided by the allusion to the Tower of Babel in its parallel relationship since it makes the story seem more realistic, as a similar thing happened in the past.
Samson and Delilah Summary Samson was a mighty judge over Israel who was invincible in strength. He refused to tell anybody his secret to his strength. One day, however, he fell in love with a woman by the name of Delilah. She was a woman from the Valley of Sorek and used her powers of seduction and deception to make Samson fall deeper and deeper in love with her. She met up with the Philistines, people who wanted revenge on Samson, and altogether plotted a plan to find out what Samson's weakness was. After asking Samson multiple times, Samson finally revealed to Delilah after the fourth time that his strength lied within his hair. He had been set apart to God at birth and his hair was to never be cut according to the Nazirite vow. One day while Samson fell asleep on Delilah's lap, Delilah called in someone to shave the seven braids in his hair. This left him weak and vulnerable to attack. He was taken captive by the Philistines and made a slave to them. He was humiliated and faced great tribulations. After some time, his hair started growing out again but the Philistines took no notice of it. Samson then started learn to be humble and he turned to God for help. In response, God answered his prayers and helped Samson during a pagan sacrificial ritual hosted by the Philistines. As they paraded Samson, their prisoner, he suddenly pushed two central pillars within the temple with all his strength, and the whole temple came crashing down. He was able to destroy all his enemies but Samson was also killed in the incident. Although he had died, he had killed more enemies in that one sacrificial act than in any other battle he's ever taken part in. Characters

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Samson: Mighty judge over Israel, had great strength because of hair Delilah: Temptress, deceiver that Samson fell in love with Philistines: People that came into conflict with Israelites Allusion Movie: Sky High Will Stronghold = Samson Gwen Grayson = Delilah Will Stronghold has finally reached to age to attend Sky High, a high school of kids that have their individually super powers. His father and mother are legends because of they are the most famous heroes. Their arch nemesis, Royal Pain, is continuously seeking revenge against them and decides to use Will as a path to the Strongholds' defeat. At school, Will soon meets one of the most popular girls in the school, Gwen Grayson. He immediately falls in love with her and Gwen uses her charm to attain his trust. At the moment Will lets his guard down, Gwen enters Will's parents' secret dome and steals the weapon that causes chaos among all super heroes. Will is like Samson in that he has super strength within the movie and is deceived by Gwen, or Delilah. Will gives away his secrets just as Samson does, leading both heroes to many tribulations. The allusion leads the audience into a deeper respect for Will after he defeats his enemies because it demonstrates that he not only was strong but also that he had defeated temptation.

Job Summary Job was a righteous disciple of God that did everything God had told him to. He followed God's will and was continually blessed by Him. God gave him ten beautiful children and an excess amount of food. They had many cattle and sheep in their land, and every day, they would celebrate and praise the Lord together as a family. One day, however, Satan mocks Job and tells God that the only reason Job loved and followed God was because he was blessed with so many things. Satan exclaims that if all these things had been taken away, Job would turn away from God. God then allows Satan to test Job as much as he wanted to in order to prove Job's faithfulness. Satan, however, was not allowed to lay a single finger on Job. In the next days, Job finds out that his house had collapsed and all his children within had been killed. He then finds out later that he had been robbed and no longer owned anymore sheep and cattle. He then also finds out that a tribe had murdered all his servants. With nothing left, everyone urged Job to curse God for treating him as such, yet Job never stirred a word against the Lord and obeyed God's will. He decided to trust everything God allowed to happen and waited it out. Satan then had a second test by covering him with sores from head to toe but Job still stayed true to God. Job continually defended God and as soon as the tests ended, God blessed Job by giving him twice as much as he head before. He became rich and had ten more children that were even more beautiful and twice as many cattle and sheep in his land. Characters Satan - devil, trying to make Job turn away from God God - the Lord, controls everything and blesses Job Job - person blessed with everything, person tested by Satan Allusion Pursuit of Happyness

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Chris Gardner = Job In The Pursuit of Happyness, Chris Gardner has everything taken away from him. He holds a creative device but does not know how to sell it to gain money. He loses his wife, house, bank account, and credit cards. He is left with nothing yet he continues persevering to find a steady job. He starts at the bottom without pay and eventually is led to be one of the top stockbrokers. Chris Gardner is like Job because he has nothing left but does not give up. He keeps striving forward, and in turn, he is blessed with more than he started with. The allusion heightens the movie because it helps portray Chris as a persevering man, like Job, that is eventually blessed for good deeds and determination.

Jacob and the Ladder Summary Jacob, the son of Isaac, was fleeing from his twin brother, Esau, because he vowed to kill Jacob. Esau claimed that Jacob had stolen Esaus birthright, which was the Jewish claim to inheritance, thus acquires hate for him. While going to his relatives house, Jacob lay down and dreamed of a ladder or stairway between heaven and earth. Gods angels were on it, climbing up and down, and God was at the top of the ladder. God repeated the promise He made to Abraham and Isaac, telling Jacob that he would have many blessed descendants. When Jacob woke up, he believed that God was present, and so he took the stone he used as a pillow, poured oil on it, and consecrated it to God. He deemed it Gods house if God provided him forage and a way to go back to his fathers house, calling the place Bethel. Characters Jacob: the son of Isaac and Rebekah, and the twin brother of Esau. God: told Rebekah that Jacob would be the more dominant brother and Esau would serve Jacob. Rebekah: favors Jacob and helps him trick Isaac. Esau: sells his birthright for a bowl of stew. Isaac: is tricked by Jacob into giving him the birthright. Allusion: Song: Stairway to Heaven

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Women in song: Jacob In the song, "Stairway to Heaven" by Led Zeppelin, a woman believes that her problems can be solved because she has a special pass to Heaven. She represents Jacob, and her passageway is Jacob's ladder. Just as Jacob did not deserve his blessings, the woman also does not necessarily deserve the blessing as well. This allusion enhances the song because the main character reaches dreams that are not necessarily practical, but her reference to Jacob's ladder foreshadows the fortuitous life she will lead with God's blessing.

Daniel in the Lions Den Summary The story of Daniel in the Lions Den is about a prophet-saint named Daniel. Daniel was a hard-working man who was well-liked and as a result, was given a job to work in the sacred Kingdom of Darius. However, the evil princes, who disliked him, set Daniel up and jailed him because of his religious beliefs. As a result, the king, who held Daniel in high regard, was forced to punish him. The King worried all night about Daniel, so the next morning, he rushed to the cave to go see him. Expecting to find a dead body, the King was surprised to find Daniel in the cave, untouched just like the night before. Daniels life was spared because of his reliance on his faith in God and his fervent prayers for God to protect his life and forgive the King. Characters: Daniel: Throughout his life Daniel was regarded as a saint and prophet, because of his special ability to interpret dreams; this ability brought him high up in the society of the time, and as a result, he had much influence over the Persian conquerors. The King: Trusted Daniel as a man of wisdom and worries about his safety when he is thrown into the lions den Allusion From Bruce Almighty God = God Daniel = Bruce

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In Bruce Almighty, Bruce dies but still prays that God will send Rachel someone to love her. Although he is in a secluded and unreachable place of death, just like Daniel was in the lions den, Bruce puts his concern for Rachel first and continues to pray for her well-being, instead of his own. God forgives Bruce and puts him back on Earth, giving him another chance. This alludes to the story of Daniel because Bruce selflessly prays for Rachel, much like Daniel prays for the forgiveness of the King. By referencing this tale, the author deems Bruce a man of selfless behavior and signifies the importance of prayer and second chances.

Jezebel Summary Jezebel married Ahab and became Queen of Israel. She influenced the rest of Israel to stray from God and persecuted the prophets of God and places the prophets of Baal in high positions of the government. Elijah foretold the death of Jezebel through dogs and was chased out of Israel after defeating the prophets of Baal. Jehu believed himself to be the next king of Israel and signaled to some of the people working inside the palace. They threw Jezebel out of the palace, and she was then torn apart by dogs. Characters Jezebel: Married to Ahab, Corrupted Israel with idol-worship, persecuted the prophets of God, wanted to kill the prophet Elijah Ahab: Push-over husband of Jezebel, king of Israel Elijah: Foretold the death of Jezebel Jehu: Believed himself to be the next appointed king of Israel Allusion The Little Mermaid Ursula= Jezebel Ariel=Jehu

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Ursula from The Little Mermaid works to attain control of the mermaid kingdom through witchcraft and trickery. She seduces Prince Eric, and through a series of events following that, gains control over the entire kingdom. Just as Jezebel controls Israel through a puppet-like figure, so does Ursula. However, Ariel, believing that power should be restored to her father and that she should be the one to marry Prince Eric instead of Ursula, attacks Ursula with a ship with the help of Eric. Ursula dies after being struck in the breast, and falls into the ocean where King Trident receives his powers again. Ursula correlates with Jezebel because Ariel, the Jehu figure, believes herself to be the rightful heir and brings about Ursula's downfall, the Jezebel figure. This allusion to Jezebel heightens the story by showing the treacherous nature behind the good looks Ursula creates through her witchcraft, and how true power shall be restored to those who are worth it. The allusion makes the story easier to understand since the character is modeled after Jezebel. Similar to Jezebel, Ursula is punished in the end and the continuity with the allusion makes the end more satisfying.

Sodom and Gomorrah Summary God tells Abraham he is going to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah, cities whose inhabitants had committed the sin of homosexuality. Abraham pleads to God to save these cities if he finds ten righteous men in Sodom, because his nephew Lot presides there. Angels are sent to Sodom to try to find ten righteous men. Lot takes these angels in, but during their meal together, all the men of Sodom come to Lots door, demanding to have sex with the angels. The angels urge Lots family to run from Sodom, never to look back. As they escape, Lots wife turns around, and because of this gets turned into a pillar of salt. Characters Abraham-the prophet who convinces God to give the cities a chance Lot-nephew of Abraham and the only righteous man in Sodom Lots wife-disregards the angels orders and dies because of it Allusion: Saving Private Ryan Private Caparzo=Lots wife Sergeant Miller=the angels In Saving Private Ryan, Sergeant Miller orders his squadron to abandon a family in a destroyed building, but Private Adrian Caparzo cannot leave the familys child behind because she reminded him of his niece. Caparzo is shot by an enemy sniper as a result, killing him. The allusion to Lots wife serves to illustrate the harshness of war, where disobeying an order likely results in death. Caparzos momentary weakness results in the utmost loyalty of Millers men, who fight till the end for their Sergeant. This allusion enhances the movie because it illustrates the fine line between doing whats right and what is wrong, making it that much more lamentable that Caparzo dies.
Golden Calf

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Summary Led by Moses, the Israelites escaped from slavery in Egypt and settled in the desert as Moses ascending Mount Sinai to receive the Ten Commandments from God. He left the Israelites for forty days and forty nights. As time passed, doubt grew among them and they worried that Moses would not return. SO they asked Aaron to make them the God of Israel, so they could worship him and keep hope. To appease them, he constructed a golden calf from their earrings saying, Israel, this is your God. The Israelites celebrated, worshipping and praying to the idol. However all was not well. When Moses came down, he was furious at what they had done; they had corrupted themselves in Gods eyes. Moses had the bull destroyed, grounded into powder, and he forced the people to drink it with water. This was their punishment for worshipping a fake idol. Characters Moses: leader of the Israelites Israelites: Gods people Aaron: brother of Moses Golden Calf: false idol created by Aaron to represent God Allusion Modern Day America Moses: American people (general public)

Israelites: Christian Right Aaron: Cindy Jacobs Golden Calf: Charging Bull on Wall Street During the economic downturn of 2008, many people turned to God for help in prayer. One group went beyond what was acceptable, however. Known as the Christian Right, the group gathered in front of the Charging Bull on Wall Street, a symbol of financial optimism and prosperity, and prayed to the bull. Singing and worshipping, the leader of this movement, Cindy Jacobs, called it the day of prayer for the worlds economies, asking God to take over. Ironically, the Christian Right worshipped God through an idol, the bull, similar to what he Israelites did. Similarly, the group was mocked by the American public like how Moses didnt approve of what the Israelites had done in their similar situation. The allusion illustrates how difficult it was to be different and be mocked, appealing to the audiences compassion.

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Original Sin Summary Adam and Eve, Earth's first people, were told by God that they were allowed to eat from any tree in Eden except for the Tree of Knowledge. Satan came to Adam and Eve in the form of a snake, and tempted them to eat the forbidden fruit, and they created the original sin when they complied. God punished Eve with pain from childbirth and inferiority to her husband. God cursed Adam's land to be full of thorns and thistles. Characters God: creator of all mankind Adam: first man created by God Eve: first woman, second person created by God Serpent: Satan Allusion The Lord of the Rings One Ring=forbidden fruit

In The Lord of the Rings, the One Ring represents the forbidden fruit. The ring was made by the Dark Lord, Sauron, and gives its possessor an unfathomable amount of power. Because of its evil and magical abilities, the ting is not to be worn by those unable to control it, though it is desired by many. The Ring would bring the weaker to evil and could physically harm them, which is paralleled by Gods punishment for Adam and Eve. This allusion enhances the movie by illustrating the great temptation the ring possesses, at the same time demonstrating the great chaos that would be unleashed.

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Exodus Summary The Exodus chapter of the Bible begins with the Egypt subjugation of the Israelites, and a mother's attempt to save her newborn son by floating him down a river where he is found and raised by Pharaoh's daughter, and named Moses. After Moses kills an Egyptian for beating an Israelite worker, he flees to Midian and starts a new life as a shepherd. However, God wishes to improve the condition of the Israelites in Egypt, and sends Moses a message through a burning bush. Moses goes back to Egypt with his brother Aaron carrying a staff that God gives him to perform miracles with. Moses then demands the release of all Israelites from the Pharaoh. The Pharaoh refuses, and God sends down 10 plagues upon the city. God sends swarms of locusts, turns the water in Nile River into blood, covers Egypt with frogs, turns all of the dust in Egypt to gnats, causes flies to go into the houses of Pharaoh and his officials, strikes Egypts livestock with disease, sends down a disease that creates festering boils on humans and animals, sends thunder, hail, and fire that destroy many crops, kill livestock, and finally kills all firstborn sons in Egypt. After all firstborn sons of Egyptians are killed, the Pharoah relents and the Israelites are freed. Moses parts the sea for the Israelites to cross, and they are safe. Moses leads them to Canaan, and gets 10 commandments from God. Characters Moses Chosen by God to lead the Israelites out of Egypt Pharaoh Refuses to let the Israelites leave, his first son dies God A powerful being capable of plaguing Egypt Allusion The Grapes of Wrath Israelites= Families forced out of Midwest

Joad Family= Moses In John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath, the migrants in the Midwest lose their homes and must cross the desert to head west toward the Promised Land. The Joad Family heading west is harassed by officers, just like how the Israelites were pursued by Egyptians when they left Egypt. The Joad Family is like Moses, leading their companions to the Promised Land. They suffer a string of ordeals throughout their journey, but never lose faith in God, just like the Israelites. The long journey is similar to the Exodus because the journey to Canaan for the Israelites is also long and trying. However, both groups end up in better places than where they came from. The allusion heightens the novel because it shows the hope of the migrants and how they brave through their obstacles with faith as their strength.

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Birth of Jesus Summary 2,000 years ago an angel named Gabriel appeared to a young Jewish woman named Mary. Gabriel told Mary she would have a son, Jesus, who would be the Son of God. Mary and her husband, Joseph, lived in a town called Nazareth, but had to travel to the city of Bethlehem to register for a census ordered by the Roman emperor. When they arrived in Bethlehem, they were left without a place to stay for the night because the inn was full. They ended up spending their night in a stable, and that night Jesus was born. The New Testament states that Jesus was sent as the son of God and as the people's savior. The purpose of his being is to shed light where there is darkness, aid those in need, and comfort the neglected. In the gospel of Mary, Jesus serves in secret to illustrate the unimportance of status. Characters Gabriel: angel who was sent to Mary to deliver news of giving birth to Jesus Mary: mother of Jesus Joseph: Marys husband Jesus: son of God Allusion

Superman Superman=Jesus In the movie Superman Returns, Superman is sent by his father to protect the people of Earth just as Jesus was sent by God in the New Testament. Superman is referred to as the Savior of Metropolis, similar to the name Jesus was given when he was born: the Savior. This allusion heightens the story of Superman by casting him in a completely good, almost ethereal, light, making those who watch him feel awe and profound respect.

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Lazarus Summary Lazarus is introduced in the Bible as a follower of Jesus, who lives in the village of Bethany near Jerusalem. He is the brother of the sisters Mary and Martha. The sisters send word to Jesus that Lazarus is deathly ill. When Jesus arrives in Bethany, he finds that Lazarus has already been dead for four days. He meets with the sisters, but Martha laments that Jesus did not arrive soon enough to heal her brother and Jesus replies by saying "[he] is the Resurrection and the Life. He who believes in [Him] shall live, even if he does. And everyone who lives and believes in [Him] shall never die in eternity." In the presence of a crowd of Jewish mourners, Jesus goes to the tomb of Lazarus. Over the objections of Martha, Jesus has the crowd roll the stone away from the entrance to the tomb and says a prayer. He then calls Lazarus to come out and miraculously, Lazarus does so, still wrapped in his grave-clothes. This incidence causes many of its witnesses to believe in the holy powers of Jesus. Characters Lazarus: follower of Jesus; brother of Mary and Martha Mary and Martha: tells Jesus that Lazarus is sick Jesus: resurrects Lazarus Allusion: The Lazarus Effect Jesus: RED

Lazarus: People afflicted with AIDS/HIV Jesus Miracle: The Lazarus Pill, as it revived the people that were on the brink of deaths from AIDS and HIV The Lazarus Effect is a 2010 documentary film about the impact of the free antiretroviral drug therapy on HIV/AIDS patients in Africa. The film tracks several people in Zambia who were in a deathly ill state, similar to Lazarus, but return to a healthier condition in a relatively short period of time after starting the RED antiretroviral drug therapy. HIV-positive patients and medical staff recount their experiences and believe that the drug is miracle because of the impact the medication has made on their lives. This allusion enhances the movie because it creates a sense of awe and relief over the miracle, making the movie more inspirational and casting the medical staff in a positive light.

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John the Baptist Summary John the Baptist was the son of the priest Zachariah and his wife, Elizabeth. John the Baptist was a preacher who led the religious movement during Christs life and also announces the coming of Jesus. Predicting the arrival of Gods son, John the Baptist spreads messages of attaining salvation by confessing ones sins. He later baptizes Jesus in the Jordon River although the baby is already without sins. The baptism reveals Jesus to be the son of God and marks the beginning of Jesus ministry. John the Baptist was executed by King Herod by the request of Herods wife and daughter, Salome. Characters John the Baptist: Baptizer of Jesus Jesus: Son of God Herod: King of Israel Allusion The X-Files, Season 8 Episode 10 Cult Leader= wife and daughter of King Herod

Sully= King Herod Fox Mudler= John the Baptist In this episode, the cult leader requires proof of Mulders death and requests that Sully bring the head of Fox Mudler. Just as Salome, daughter of King Herod, requests for the head of John the Baptist on a platter, the cult leader requests Sully to bring the head of Fox Mudler. The head is considered the reward that is owed to Salome, or in the X-files, the cult leader. This allusion to the story of John the Baptist enhances the ruthlessness and barbarity of the cult leader, as King Herod is infamous as one of the most ruthless kings of the Bible.

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Judas Iscariot Summary Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve disciples, is best known for his betrayal of Jesus Christ. He had led a group of soldiers to Jesus whereabouts and marked Him with a kiss. Jesus was then seized by the Jewish leaders, and then given to the Romans. Judas received thirty pieces of silver from the Romans for his disloyalty. After realizing his error, Judas attempted to give the money back to the priests, claiming he did a wrong by betraying an innocent one. However, the priests would not accept the money, and shortly after, Judas hung himself because of his guilt. Characters Judas: Disciple of Jesus Jesus: Son of God Allusion Teen Titans Judas: terra Jesus: the Teen Titans

Terra joins the Teen Titans and assimilates into their group; however, she betrays them for Slade. She feels in debt to him for teaching her how to control her powers. Like Judas, Terra is caught between two conflicting powers and chooses to abandon good for evil. After the Teen Titans are defeated, Terra has second thoughts about her betrayal and begins to feel guilty of her doing. After realizing her mistake, she realizes the only way to redeem herself is to destroy herself. However, Slades evil plan is already set in motion and threatens the city. In a last attempt to stop it, Terra sacrifices herself for her past mistakes. The allusion heightens Terras status as a remorseful traitor and emphasizes Terras willingness to repent through sacrificing her life as a last attempt for forgiveness.

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Resurrection Summary After Jesus was crucified, he was placed in a cave guarded by an immovable rock. A few days later, an angel from heaven moved the rock, allowing Mary Magdalene to find an angel who told her that Jesus had been resurrected and to relay to his disciples to meet him at Galilee. On her way to tell the disciples, Mary saw Jesus, who again told her to tell his disciples to meet him at Galilee. Jesus: crucified for claiming to be Gods son. His resurrection proved that he is the Son of God. Mary Magdalene: a close follower of Jesus Characters Jesus: crucified for claiming to be Gods son. His resurrection proved that he is the Son of God. Mary Magdalene: a close follower of Jesus Allusion The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe Aslan: Jesus Edmund: mankind

In The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe Aslan is likened to Jesus, who died for the sins of mankind, but came back to life. Similar to Jesus, Aslan accounts for Edmunds sins by promising his life to the White Witch, acting as a savior not only to Edmund, but also to mankind. Aslan is killed but is resurrected. By portraying Aslan as a Christ-like figure, Lewis gives Aslan the ultimate power, and thus the rightful throne of Narnia. Aslans parallel to Jesus makes Aslan destined to save the kingdom, and proves that good will always overcome evil.

Armageddon Summary In biblical context, Armageddon isnt just the idea of a catastrophic disaster that destroys human existence. In reality, Armageddon is actually the battlefield where Satan and Antichrist will gather the armies of the world to fight against God. In this doomsday scenario, the Antichrist, who is Satan, is said to speak great blasphemies about the true God, and lead a rebellion against Him. The Antichrist is further supposed to set himself up as God in the churches and demand that he be worshipped throughout the world thus, when this Antichrist gathers the worlds armies at Armageddon to battle with God, Jesus Christ is said to make the first part of his coming or rapture. This is followed by the Glorious appearing, which is the second part of Christs return to Earth in which he makes himself known to the world and judges humanity. It is then that Christ ends the world by killing the Antichrists minions, while also capturing him and Satan and throwing them into a poll of everlasting torment Characters Jesus Christ: Gods son and his messenger to Earth, carries out final judgment on Humanity after rapture Antichrist: the antithesis of Christ and a stand-in who pretends to be God until Armageddon destroys him Satan: Gods opposing force of evil which seeks to manifest itself and grow in humanity

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Allusion Flashforward, Episode 1 The Pilot Christs glorious appearing: the entire world blacking out Armageddons destruction: immense loss of life and destruction Christs judgment: the vision the people see of the future The premise for this TV show is based on the singular event when people all over the world blacks out at exactly the same time for exactly two minutes and seventeen seconds and experiences visions of their futures in a couple of months. The initial event of the blackout causes cars to crash, airplanes to fall, ships to run aground, and plenty of other disasters. The great magnitude of this death and destruction alludes to Armageddons human extinction. The fact that the entire world felt the blackout, regardless of race or religion, alludes to Jesus rapture (second coming) and making himself known to all including nonbelievers. This is relevant to the show because after the vision a young male nurse who was planning to commit suicide finds his faith again and decides to live. This also alludes to the revival of faith at Christs coming, the vision. The vision itself is Christs judgment because it tells people of the life they will have in the future. This allusion makes the show seem more realistic because it is correlating to a direct biblical reference.

Peter Summary Peter was a fisherman who was born in Bethsalda. He was the son of Jonah who was originally christened Simon. Jesus renamed Peter Cephas, which means 'small stone." This small stone refers to the unwavering rock foundation that Christianity is based upon. Peter was a modest man who humbly shunned praise. One day, Jesus made Peter catch an enormous amount of fish, more than Peter's ever caught before. Peter immediately becomes his disciple and becomes a "fisher of men," to try and bring men to God. At the last supper, Peter swears that he would never forsake Jesus, but Jesus predicts that Peter would shun him three times before the next sunrise. Jesus's prediction came true as Peter shunned any relations with Christ when asked. Peter died, hanging on an upside down cross. Characters Peter - apostle who became a fisher of men Allusion Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977 movie) and Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980 movie) Jesus: Obi-Wan Kenobi Peter: Luke Skywalker In Star Wars (A New Hope and The Empire Strikes Back) an allusion to the story of Peter is made as Luke Skywalker undergoes a similar journey. After Obi-Wan is struck down by Darth Vader and becomes one with the force, Luke, Han, Leia, and Chewbacca escape the Death Star I blowing it up as they leave. Afterwards on the icy planet of Hoth, Luke finds himself troubled not knowing whether to become a Jedi or not. In the end, however, as Luke is saved by Han solo from freezing to death, he decides to follow in Obi-Wans footsteps and train under Master Yoda to become a Jedi. This alludes to Peters story because both Luke and Peter deny the following of their masters at the beginning, but in the end they each realize their duties and follow in their masters steps so that they may finish their tasks. The allusion to Peters experience serves to make following the light side of the force and the way of the Jedi appear almost holy and emphasize their goodness.

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Nazareth Summary In the town of Nazareth, Jesus grew up. It was a town located in Galilee. Nazareth as known as a city of sin, where good could no happen. Jesus was seen preaching in the temples of Nazareth to try and save the people of Nazareth. While he was growing up, Jesus was mistreated by the people of Nazareth and when he left, he promised never to return. Characters Jesus - born in Nazareth and shunned from their people Allusion: Smallville. Jesus=Clark Kent. God=Jor-el. Nazareth=Krypton Clarks arrival on Earth is similar to a divine force. Clarks kind, the Kryptonians, appear to be fake because the people of Earth are unable to believe that there are more like Clark. The planet is parallel to Heaven and other Kryptonians are parallel to angels. Clarks father, Jor-el, represents God because it was his decision to send Clark to earth. He is also similar to God because he sends Clark to aid the inhabitants of Earth like Jesus was sent to save the people of Earth. The usage of this allusion heightens the plot because of the fact that Earth has a hero who is there to protect those in peril. Even though Clark is originally considered an outcast like Jesus returning to Nazareth, he eventually gains societys approval. This allusion heightens the story because Clark Kent is able to fulfill his destiny as Earths savior.

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Golgotha Summary Golgotha is known as Cavalry in English, Golgotha in Hebrew. It stands for "the place of the skull" which is where Jesus was crucified on the cross outside of Jerusalem. Golgotha was knownas the place where criminals were executed and hung on the cross. When the Pharisees heard Jesus preaching about the Gospel and proclaiming that he was the Son of God, he was charged with blasphemy. The Pharisees tried again and again to try and kill Jesus but failed until he was finally flogged and crucified, the punishment for the most villainous criminals. Crucifixion was the worst punishment one could get in that time. After he was flogged, Jesus was forced to carry his own crossbeam through the town up to the small hill of Golgotha. Many people saw him in the streets and mocked him, especially the Pharisees. Jesus was finally crucified to purify everyone from their sins. Characters Jesus - crucified at Golgotha Pharisees people responsible for getting Jesus crucified Allusion: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis. Jesus=Aslan. Golgotha=The Stone Table. Edmund=sinful humanity In The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, Aslan is a lion that rules the kingdom of Narnia. The Witch, who proclaims herself to be queen of Narnia, holds Edmund as prisoner. Aslan then arranges to sacrifice himself in exchange to save Edmunds life. He is killed by the witch at the Stone Table. The next morning, Aslan is brought back to life. Aslan sacrifices himself for Edmund, just as Jesus had done by sacrificing Himself for sinful humanity. Aslans walk toward the Stone

Table alludes to Jesus walk to Golgotha, demonstrating that the place where Aslan was crucified was equivalent to the place where Jesus died. By alluding to Golgotha, the Stone Table becomes a sacred place for Narnians because Aslan has been sacrificed and brought back to life there. The Temptation of Christ Summary Satan attempts to tempt Christ three times over Christ forty day period of fasting. Satan first tells Jesus that in order to prove that he is the son of God, Jesus must turn stone into bread. Jesus answered, It is written: Man does not live on bread alone. Next, Satan leads Jesus up to a high place and says that all the kingdoms of the world could be his if he worships Satan. Jesus answered, It is written: Worship the Lord your God and serve him only. For the last temptation, Satan challenges Jesus by telling him to throw himself off a temple, reasoning that the Lord will command to his angels to guard Jesus. Jesus answered, It says: Do not put the Lord your God to the test. Defeated, Satan finally leaves, and the angels come to Jesus to nourish him. Characters Jesus: the son of God Satan: a fallen angel who is the enemy of God Allusion Lord of the Flies Simon: Jesus

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Lord of the Flies: Devil Simon is spiritually sensitive and likes to be independent, just like Jesus. He encounters a hogs head, known as the Lord of the Flies, and out of hallucination, creates a conversation with it. The head tries to coerce Simon into abandoning his efforts against evil. Just as Jesus battles with Satan, Simon battles with the Lord of the Flies against morality. Like Satan, the Lord of the Flies tries to make Simon lose his resistance and faith and tells him he can never win against evil. Simon, representing Christ, attempts to save the other children on the island but is tempted by the Lord of the Flies, representing Satan, who prevents Simon from saving the others. By alluding to the temptation of Christ, Simon is further shown as a potential savior to the people on the island as he rejects the pig heads threats. This allusion highlights the importance of Simon to everybody else on the island as he is fully aware of things that occurred on the island. Just as Jesus demonstrates his innocence and good heart, Simon also does by trying to save the others. Both stories represent the metaphorical battle between the forces of good and evil, both which can occur in one person.

Jordan River Summary The Jordan River is an important symbol in the Bible because it is the place where Jesus baptized John the Baptist and the site of Jesus' preaching. the river has become a mark to represent renewal. It is located between Jordan and Israel. According to the Bile, many miracles have been witnessed there. one was that a man called Elisha was able to heal a man's wounds by just having him bathe in the river. another was being able to make an ax float by throwing a piece of wood into the river. lastly, Elisha and Elijah were said to have had walked across the water, and when they reached the other side, their feet were dry. Jesus was also baptized in the Jordan River by John the Baptist. Characters Jesus: Son of God John the Baptist: known for frequently baptizing people in the river Allusion The Lion King Briar forest=Jordan River In The Lion King, Simba witnesses the murder of his father, Mufasa, and immediately runs away to the forest of briars. Like the Jordan River, the briar forest symbolizes a threshold that must be crossed before his life can be renewed and his past can be put

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behind him. The briar forest acts as a barrier that must be broken, by Simba, for him to accept reality. This heightens the plot because without the crossing of the Briar Froest, Simba would continue to live in a world of fear unable to move past the murder of his father. Without this symbolic crossing of the Jordan River, Simba could never return back to his kingdom as a savior to end the rule of Scar, enhancing the movie by highlighting stark contrast between the two settings in the movie.

Virgin Birth Summary Mary was engaged to marry Joseph. Mary was informed, one night, by Angel Gabriel that she was going to become pregnant with the Holy Spirit. Mary thought that it would be impossible because she was still a virgin and it would be impossible to have a child without consummating with a a man first. The angel told her that she would give birth to the son of God. When Joseph found out that she was pregnant, he secretly decided to cancel the engagement. An angel appeared to Joseph and told him that Mary was pregnant from the Holy Spirit and that he would name his child Jesus, who would be the son of God. Mary gave birth to Jesus in a manger in the stables of an inn of Bethlehem. Characters Jesus son of God born from Virgin Birth Mary mother of Jesus, virgin Joseph husband of Mary Allusion The Matrix Neo = Jesus

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Created by machines = Virgin Birth In this movie, Neo was reborn into the Matrix. He was created and birthed through machines, a virgin birth without consummation. Morpheus tells Neo that if he is the one, then he would purify the matrix from the viruses that attacked it. Like Jesus, Neo is birthed through a virgin birth and is the chosen one. This allusion casts Neo in a almost holy light, rousing respect in the audience towards him as the protagonist.

Kiss (Judas Kiss) Summary Judas Iscariot was one of the twelve disciples that followed Jesus. The chief priests wanted to arrest Jesus and punish him for blaspheming the Word of God by calling himself the Son of God. Judas is known as the betrayer because he turned Jesus in to the chief priests for thirty pieces of silver. One day as Jesus was speaking, Judas informed the priests and elders that the one whom he would kiss would be Jesus. He went over to Jesus at once and kissed him. In response, a large crowd holding swords and clubs came and seized Jesus. Characters Judas: Betrayer of Christ, gave the kiss of betrayal Jesus: Son of God, followers considered him to be the Messiah or Christ Chief Priests: Otherwise known as Pharisees, priests that didn't believe Jesus was Son of God Allusion The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis Edmund = Judas White Witch = Pharisee Lucy, Peter, Susan = Represents Jesus

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In The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, Lucy, Peter, Susan, and Edmund find themselves entering the mysterious world of Narnia through a wardrobe. They are recognized as the destined heros that are meant to rescue all the creatures of Narnia from the White Witch. Throughout the book the children are constantly hiding from the White Witch. Edmund, however, finds himself attracted to the Witch's temptations and tricks. He is lured by the Witch and willingly helps her find his siblings in exchange for luxuries given to a king. Edmund betrays his siblings just as Judas betrays Jesus and his fellow disciples. Edmund tells the Witch which creatures his siblings are in contact with and leads the Witch closer to the location of his siblings just as Judas gives Jesus into the hands of the Pharisees for silver. The allusion heightens the plot because it clearly defines who the antagonists and protagonists of the movie are by including an act of betrayal.

Ascension Summary After Jesus died, he was resurrected from the grave and appeared to many people. Forty days after being resurrected, he is finally lifted into heaven to be at the right hand of his father. Jesus told his disciples at Mt. Olive that in place of Jesus the Holy Spirit would come. The disciples would be filled with the Holy Spirit, and they should go out and preach the gospel to people, spreading God's love. There was a white cloud that lifted Jesus up into Heaven. After he ascended into heaven, two angels appeared to the disciples and told them that Jesus would once again appear one day in the same manner on a white cloud. Characters Jesus ascended into heaven Apostles saw Jesus ascend and were filled with the Holy Spirit Allusion Star Wars Obi-won/Yoda = Jesus The Force = God Luke = apostles

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In this movie, after Obi-won and Yoda died, they became part of the Force, absorbed by the Force. They became living creatures of the Force. Yoda was Lukes teacher and taught him about the force. Obi-won briefly taught Luke about the Force and the Jedi life and reminded Luke to use the force instead of relying on machines. Luke listened to Obi-won and shot an accurate shot into the Death Star, defeating the enemies. Jesus was a teacher and a savior to the apostles. Obi-won and Yoda returned to the force, like Jesus returned to God. This allusion enhances the movie because it casts Obi-Won and Yoda in a holy light that creates a sense of awe, relief, and respect in the audience when they return.

Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-11) Summary The Beatitudes is a section of the Gospel that is a part of Jesus's most famous sermon called the "Sermon on the Mount." In this section, Jesus demonstrates to the people the way they should be acting in order to be blessed by God, and he also praises those that have already been acting in such a way. 1. The first proclamation states that those who are humble and poor in the world's possessions will have the kingdom of heaven. 2. Blessed are the people who are in deep sorrow because they will be given a freedom from pain. 3. Blessed are the submissive because they will receive everything they need. 4. Blessed are those that want God because they will be filled with Him. 5. Blessed are those that show mercy because they will be shown mercy in return. 6. Blessed are the people who's hearts are pure because they will see the Lord. 7. Blessed are the peacemakers in the land because they will be recognized as children of God. Characters Jesus: Messiah, son of God, one who gives "Sermon on the Mount" Allusion: To Save a Life In To Save a Life, Jake Taylor is a high school boy that has everything a teenage jock can ask for. He's the most popular boy in the school and has an both an ideal girlfriend and a basketball scholarship. One day, however, his childhood best-friend Roger commits suicide and this starts making Jake think. He meets a pastor and decides to walk the Christian life to find out what it's all about. In doing so, he takes up the different aspects of being a Christian and is in turn both blessed and a blessing toward others. Jake Taylor represents someone who follows the beatitudes represented by Jesus. He becomes a peacemaker in his family, merciful toward the weak, a fighter for righteousness, and a humble man. His purity in heart leads him closer to God. Jake Taylor follows Jesus' 8

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beatitudes within the Sermon on the Mount. The allusion heightens the movie because it portrays Jake as a role model, or Jesus figure, and encourages others to model his actions as well.

Parable of the Prodigal Son Summary The Parable of the Prodigal Son is also known as the Parable of the Lost Son. The story begins with two sons and their father. The father owned a large estate and the two sons planned to inherit the estate after the death of the father. The younger son, however, was rebellious and selfish and asked his father to give him his share of the estate ahead of time as an early inheritance. The father obliges to the son's request, and the son sets off on his own journey in hopes of gaining more riches. Instead, however, the son ends up wasting all his money and fortunes. He then turns to the job of feeding pigs, which is the lowest degree of job possible. One day the younger son realizes his foolishness in leaving home and returns back to his father. Being humbled by experience, he asks for forgiveness from his father. He asks to come back to the family by working under his father as a servant. Unexpectedly, the father rejoices and receives the son willingly with love. He prepares a great feast for his son and only cares that he has come back to him. Meanwhile, the older son becomes jealous because he had worked for his father the whole time, and the younger son had done nothing yet he was the one being rewarded. The father replies to the older son by reminding him that all the father has is the son's and that he should not dwell in bitterness but rather rejoice because his brother has returned back to his true home. Characters Father - owner of estate, father of two sons Younger son - takes advantage of fortune, goes off and ruins his life, the "lost son" Older son - continually works for his father, becomes jealous that the father would reward the younger son for doing nothing Allusion The Lion King Simba = Younger son In Disney's The Lion King, Simba is the prince of the Pride Lands. His uncle Scar plots the death of Simba's father, the king of the Pride Lands, and blames Simba for the

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death. In fear and guilt, Simba leaves the Pride Lands and wanders into the mysterious areas of the jungle. By running away, Simba leaves his responsibility as the next heir of the throne. He fools around in the jungle with his new friends and goes farther and farther away from what he's supposed to do. In this way, Simba represents the younger son in the Parable of the Prodigal Son because he leaves his home and wastes away his life. After awhile, Simba, just like the Prodigal Son, realizes that his home needs him and he ventures back to rescue the Pride Lands from the tyrannical rule of his uncle Scar. Simba thinks that no one will accept him back but he finds that all the other lions are joyous to see him simply alive and well. They willingly accept Simba and follow him as they should. The Father of the Prodigal Son didn't care about the past wrongs of his son but only focuses on the idea that he returned, just as the animals of the Pride Land only cared that Simba had returned. The allusion heightened the movie by creating a sense of relief and happiness in knowing a beloved son was returning home.

Sermon on the Mount Summary Matthew 5-7 describes Jesus giving a speech to his disciples about how to live their lives to glorify God. Jesus speaks on the mountain, hence the name Sermon on the Mount. Jesus tells his disciples to try to live a sinless life and resist evil temptations. The most renowned part of the Sermon on the Mount is the beatitudes, Matthew 5:3-10, and the Lord's Prayer, Matthew 6:9-13. These are the guidelines for the disciples to follow in order to obtain entrance into God's Kingdom. Characters Jesus-gave the disciples rules for living the Christian life Allusion Jane Eyre Helen Jesus Jane disciple When Helen Burns first meets Jane, she repeats one of Jesus sayings from the Sermon on the Mount: Love your enemies; bless them that curse you; do good to them that hate you and despitefully use you. Although Jane receives this advice rather skeptically, she is able to forgive her horrid aunt later on in the novel. Just as Jesus condemns revenge, Helen also does not allow injustice to crush [her] too low. She also says to Jane another one of Jesus beliefs detailed in his sermon: love the sinner, hate the sin. Helens

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exchange with Jane can be described as Jesus talking to his disciple, specifically, at the Sermon on the Mount. By using this allusion, Bronte demonstrates Janes initial imperfections and how later in the story, these teachings from Helens sermon have allowed her to be more compassionate and forgiving of others, like Helen was with other people.

Last Supper Summary The Last Supper was the last meal Jesus ate with his twelve Disciples prior to his crucifixion. It was held on the evening of preparation for the Jewish Passover, a very holy time for the Jewish nation in remembrance of when God spared the Jews from the plague of death on every firstborn child in Egypt. Representing the Christian form of Communion, Jesus and his twelve Disciples consumed bread and drank wine. the consumption of bread symbolized the body of Christ while the cup of wine symbolized Jesus' blood of the everlasting covenant. The meal took place in The Room of the Last Supper on Mount Zion, which is right outside of the Old City in Jerusalem. Characters Jesus: son of God 12 Disciples: Bartholomew, James the Lesser (James of Aphaeus), Andrew (Simon Peters brother), Judas Iscariot, John/Mary, Thomas, James the Great, Philip, Matthew, Judas Thaddeus (Jude Thaddeus), Simon Zelotes (the Zealot) Allusion Chapter 30 in The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Rose of Sharon: Jesus Christ When Rose gives birth to her stillborn child, she encounters a starving man. She attempts to save him by breastfeeding him, paralleling when Jesus gives the Body of Christ to his disciples. Her sacrifice suggests the notion of rebirth through Christs physical body, which is symbolized in the ritual of communion during the Last Supper. It also shows how Rose transforms from a nave, self-centered girl to a woman who is able to provide for the needy. Throughout the Bible, and history, the truth of Gods message has been established during the Last Supper- that we can join Jesus in heaven by

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acknowledging His sacrifice and accepting Him into our lives. This applies to Rose of Sharon because her sacrifice to the dying man allows him to rejuvenate and live a healthy life. When one is in need she is able to put others before herself and give life to someone in need. She couldnt give her life to her baby, and felt that being able to give life to another could make up for the lost life. The allusion of the Last Supper heightens the plot of the story because her offering highlights her saintly action toward the man, causing her to mature into the holy figure of Jesus Christ.

Crucifixion Summary Crucifixion (from Latin term "crucifixio"- "fixing to cross") is an ancient method of execution meant to give way to a slow, pain and tortured death. Victims of crucifixion (usually traitors, captive armies, slaves and the worst of criminals) were meant to be examples of disgrace to deter the public from lawful disobedience. The condemned is either tied or nailed by flesh to cross frame and then left to die on display as warning. In some cases, the person may be forced to carry the frame, or patibulum, to the place of execution. The hands are nailed at the top, while the feet are nailed to the side. A small footrest is provided to lend support and relieve some weight from the wrists. However, this "aid" was only meant to prolong death and crucifixion was also mind torture. Victims were hung in public- their vulnerability was exploited among the masses. Depending on environmental circumstance, the victim can die in a matter of hours to a number of days. The Crucifixion of Jesus: Despite Jesus prophesied claim as Messiah, Jewish high priest s and Sanhedrin elders reacted in disbelief. Accused of blasphemy, Jesus was sent to Pontius Pilate, who condemned him to scourge and crucifixion. He was stripped nude and forced to beat a crown of throne. Suspended on the cross beam, he endured derision and pain for six hours. His death way marked by the ninth hour. His corpse was brought down and taken to a tomb, where he rose from the dead just three days late. To most Christians, the crucifixion of Jesus is understood as a holy sacrifice, meant as repentance for humanity's sins. Through his death and resurrection, salvation is possible. Characters Jesus: His crucifixion atones for humanity's sins Pontius Pilate: Condemned Jesus to scourge and crucifixion Allusion Lord of The Flies, William Golding

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Simon: Jesus In Lord of the Flies, Simon represents the Christ figure. Despite the climate of corruption that had arrested the island, Simon is the sole bearer of truth and innocence; his innate goodness parallels the purity of Christ. Of all the boys, Simon is the only person to see the Beast for what it truly was- a deadly figment shaped by mass paranoia. He attempts to bring the truth to light, but its violently killed. The boys, so consumed with fear, mistake Simon for the Beast and murder him in blinded rage. It is only after his sacrificial death, that the boys are able to see truth. Simon, like Jesus, is crucified by his disbelievers. He dies for his disbelievers, his friends, so that they may the opportunity to save themselves. The allusion heightens the amount of sacrifice made through Simons death, and makes him all the more a victim. It also marks the savageness of the others.

Doubting Thomas Summary When Jesus died, he was resurrected from the grave. When the Apostle Thomas heard that Jesus had resurrected, he did not believe anyone. He would only believe if he touched Jesus' wounds where the nails once were. Jesus appeared to Thomas and allowed him to touch his wounds. Only then did Thomas believe that Jesus had resurrected from the dead. From this experience, Thomas became Thomas the Believer, preaching the gospel. He even died for Jesus. In modern day, this name is used to describe someone who will not believe someone on faith but must see tangible evidence of it. Characters Thomas - doubts that Jesus came back to life Jesus Comes back to life and visits the disciples Allusion: The Horse and His Boy by C.S. Lewis. Jesus=Aslan. Doubting Thomas=Bree Bree is a talking horse from Narnia who believes in the ideas of Narnia and in its leader Aslan, but does not believe that Aslan is a real lion. He feels that it would be absurd if Aslan had the same physical traits of a real beast and says that Aslan only represents the traits of a lion. Before he knows it, Aslan is standing next to him and tells Bree to touch him and realize that he is a true beast. Bree is an allusion to Doubting Thomas because they both demonstrated a lack of the complete faith that should be present in the true followers of every religion or cause. The usage of this allusion is important because Aslan represents Jesus, the ultimate figure in Christianity, and this allows people to realize the central role Aslan plays in leading his followers to salvation as long as they have faith in him.

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Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Summary The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are said to appear one at a time on different colored horses during the Apocalypse described in chapter 6 of Revelations. The first to arrive is Pestilence who carries a bow and rides a white horse. He represents sickness and disease and is often considered the Anti-Christ. The second to appear is War upon a red horse carrying a great sword. The red horse represents blood split on the battlefield, while the sword acknowledges fighting. The next horseman to appear is Famine, who carries balances and rides a black horse. The final horsemen is Death, who rides a pale (originally the color came from the Greek word chloros for green, but the English definition of green does not carry the same sickly connotation. As such, it usually remains as pale) horse. He is the only horseman explicitly named in the Bible (the others are interpretations) and his horse represents fear, death, sickness, and decay. Characters War: Rides a red horse Pestilence: Rides a white horse Famine: Rides a black horse Death: Rides a pale horse Allusion The second season of Robot Chicken The second season of Robot Chicken features a comedic commercial entitled Apocalypse Pony displaying four different colored horses arriving and terrorizing

children. The brown seemingly disease-stricken pony is Pestilence and emits disease. The blue-black pony is Famine and makes the bag of chips disappear. The red pony is War and breathes fire. The black pony represents Death and breathes death, killing the entire family. The creator alludes to the horsemen, riding possibly the most infamous of horses, as a complete contrast to the toy series My Little Pony. The allusion, and the comedic effect of it, prove the infamous status of the Four Horsemen as well as accentuate their dark attributes. The spoofed commercial (Robot Chicken being a show focused mainly on spoofing popular icons) intends to be comedic. It achieves this by contrasting the innocent and popular childrens toy series My Little Pony with the more disastrous, chaotic horses ridden by the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Both are relative extremes: My Little Pony, being insatiably innocent and childish, while the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are rather dark and foreboding. This heightens the effect of the commercial because the reader understands who the Four Horsemen are, and thus acknowledges the drastic contrast and humor of the spoof.

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Mary Magdalene Summary Mary Magdalene was a famous saint born in Palestine. She is most commonly known as the first person to see Jesus after he rose from the dead. Early Easter morning, she went to anoint the corpse and found the tomb to be empty. She ran to tell the disciples of the disappearance of Jesus's body. She is mostly mentioned in the gospels of Mark and John within the bible. The bible reveals her to be once a prostitute with seven demons inside of her. Jesus came and healed her physically and she became one of the women that accompanied and aided Jesus in Galilee. She was also a witness of the crucifixion. The Gospels also reveal that Mary was the woman that anointed Jesus' feet and wiped them with her hair. She was a passionate follow, believer, and lover of Jesus Christ. Characters Mary Magdalene: witness of Jesus's crucifixion and Jesus after death, passionate follow Jesus: Known to be Son of God, most important figure of New Testament Disciples: followers of Jesus Allusion: The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers Gandalf = Jesus Theoden = Mary Magdalene

In The Lord of the Rings, Theoden, the king of Rohan, is bewitched by the corrupt wizard Saruman. He controls his body and makes him weak and weary. This causes Theoden to look as if he's fifty years older. Gandalf, the white wizard, hears of this problem and rushes to Theoden. Breaking the spell tied onto Theoden, Gandalf pushes Saruman away from Theoden's body and makes Theoden look young and healthy again. From that point on, Theoden leads as a great leader and king, defeating the armies of evil. Theoden represents Mary Magdalene because he was controlled by other spirits. Gandalf cleanses Theoden and makes him into a king of righteousness just as Jesus cleansed Mary and made her into a disciple. The allusion heightens the movie because it helps the audience visualize Theoden as a faithful king just as Mary was a faithful servant.

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Gethsemane Summary Located at the foot of the Mount of Olives, Gethsemane is the garden Jesus Christ and his followers regularly visited. Its name literally means "oil press" in Hebrew. Gethsemane is most well known as the location where Judas, a former disciple of Jesus, betrayed Christ and had soldiers take him for future crucifixion. Before that arrest, Jesus and a few of his disciples had walked in the garden after the Last Supper and prayed there. He was noted to have shown intense suffering--so much so that an angel came to comfort him. Characters Jesus- Biblical Son of God Judas- one of the twelve original apostles of Jesus, best known for betraying Jesus and having him arrested Allusion Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, by J.K. Rowling Jesus= Harry Potter Angel= His parents, Lupin, and Sirius Disciples= His friends and fellow fighters at the Battle of Hogwarts Judas= Voldemort

Gethsemane= Hogwarts Right before Harry goes to Voldemort to be killed, he uses the Resurrection Stone to summon illusions of his parents, Sirius Black, and Remus Lupin to keep him strong as he walks into the Forbidden Forest toward what he believes is certain death. His friends are in Hogwarts Castle at the time, healing and hoping for victory just as Jesus disciples prayed for Jesus. Harry resembles Jesus in that both of them feel certain in their unfortunate fates and show immense internal suffering as they act upon their decisions to die with bravery. His parents, Lupid, and Sirius act as Jesus angel and comfort Harry as he walks towards Voldemort. Harrys friends and fellow fighters are his disciples as they follow his orders and believe in his capability to defeat Voldemort. Also, they are hoping or praying at the time for Harrys well-being. Voldemort plays the part of Judas as he indentifies Harry as an enemy and wishes for his death. Hogwarts resembles Gethsemane in that Hogwarts is a place where Harry frequents and Voldemort is not welcome just as Jesus visited Gethsemane frequently and Judas was not welcome. By alluding to the scene at Gethsemane, J.K. Rowling heightens the plot as her readers then know where Harry receives his strength in his death scene as he prepares to face Voldemort.

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Calvary Summary Calvary, meaning place of the skull, is the location where Jesus was crucified. Jesus began advocating Christian beliefs, which were completely new at the time. But his iconoclasm had disrupted the society, causing Roman citizens of Palestine to be outraged and desire for him to be crucified. The Roman governor, Pilate, was the judge of his trial. Pilate was compelled by the crowd to sentence Jesus to death. Thus Jesus carried his own cross to Cavalry, which was located outside Jerusalem, and was crucified. Characters Jesus - dies at Calvary Allusion Harry Potter series Dumbledore Jesus Like Jesus, Dumbledore sacrifices himself to aid the good side in the fight. Dumbledore sacrifices himself fighting against Voldemort and Jesus sacrifices himself fighting for his religion. They both remain pure and polite, fighting for what they believe in, even the night before their death not succumbing to the other sides desires and temptations. When Dumbledore dies, his body is described to be eagle-spread, resembling Jesus body on the cross when he is crucified. Dumbledore died in Hogwarts which resembled Calvary

for Jesus. J.K. Rowling alludes to Calvary because it emphasizes Dumbledore as an authority figure it gives insight to his motives for fighting for justice which was that he wants to defend all that is good in the magical world (and protect them from Voldemort). It also further shows his valiance in how he bravely sacrifices himself in an attempt to protect others. The allusion to Jesus unbending will serves to make a martyr out of Dumbledore and give the other characters in the book an acceptable role model both saintly and human. This allusion enhances the movie because Dumbledores death in a manner similar to Jesus provides the special push needed to outrage his supporters and finally begin the war.

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Bethlehem Summary Bethlehem or Beit Lam as it is called now, is a city five miles south of Jerusalem in modern day Israel and is surrounded by fertile country land and rock-cut cisterns. Before the New Testament, Bethlehem was only mentioned in the Bible fleetingly, as one of the twelve cities that belonged to a tribe named Zabulon. It was described as a small, poorly built town that help no real importance. Bethlehem was made famous when the New Testament stated it as the birthplace of Jesus Christ, an event that endeared it to many Christians. There is some controversy about this because some believe that Jesus was actually born in a small hamlet called Nazareth in Galilee. Emperor Constantine of the Holy Roman Empire established Bethlehem as the birthplace of the Messiah though, and built a basilica near the stable of his birth. The led Bethlehem to prosper into one of the greatest Christian centers in the Holy Land Characters Jesus Christ Biblical Son of God Emperor Constantine Roman Emperor from 306-337, he is best known for being the first Christian Roman emperor; he empowered Christianity throughout the Roman Empire Allusion Family Guy season seven, episode two I Dream of Jesus There is a humorous reference to Bethlehem, as well as many more allusions to Jesus in this episode. The main plot of this episode is how Peter meets at a record store as Jesus comes to Earth in his second coming, or Rapture. Jesus is depicted having exaggerated human characteristics and likes, such as a love for Amy Grant music. The show spoofs him as a celebrity also, with Jesus being a guest on the Jay Leno show, and even being introduced by

Dane Cook on MTV. The Bethlehem allusion occurs when Jesus enters the stage on the Jay Leno set and is introduced by an instrumental version of O little town of Bethlehem. These references are humorous because the revered icon of Jesus of Nazareth is taken to a modern human level and made into a pop culture celebrity. The song that introduces him is also a very subtle allusion to Jesus birthplace, which is amusingly pointed out as a little town, which is surprising true to Bethlehems origins. By using a song that was written by an American in the late 1800s to introduce Jesus, and having it themed about Bethlehem, this episode pokes fun at the scared status of Bethlehem as Jesus birthplace.

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Forty Days and Nights in the Desert Summary Jesus enters the desert in a fast (not eating) for forty days and nights, where Satan tempts him through a series of tests. In one of the most well-known tests, Satan mentions to Jesus that he can change rocks in the desert into bread in an attempt to break his fast. Jesus rejects Satans offer, saying that man does not live on bread alone but by Gods will. Satan then tries to tempt Jesus into throwing himself off a high tower, claiming that angels will save him, as he is the son of God. Jesus rejects this as well, claiming that Gods grace should not be tested. Satan then takes Jesus to the highest point of the world, offering him all the power of the world if Jesus will submit to him. Jesus refuses Satans temptation and demands him to be gone, successfully enduring the forty days and nights in the desert with complete resistance to the devils temptations. Characters Jesus: Enters the desert for forty days and nights to fast Satan: Attempts to break Jesus fast Allusion From Lord of the Flies, by William Golding Jesus = Simon Satan = Pig Head

The Desert = the Island Lord of the Flies alludes to the forty days and forty nights Jesus spent in the desert. The boys in the story, stranded on the island, are in a similar situation to Jesus, tempted by various evil things, such as power. Simon, the pure, quiet boy, represents Jesus put to the test. Like Jesus, Simon often leaves the group to meditate and on one of his journeys, he is confronted with the pigs head. This event alludes to Jesus confrontation with Satan on his secluded trip to the desert. Simons conversation with the pigs head represents the temptations that Satan offered to Jesus as the pigs head entices Simon to give up his integrity and become wild like the others on the island. However, Simon does not follow the words of the pigs head, just as Jesus rejects Satans temptations. This allusion enhances the story as it depicts Simon as a character of pure morals, who is able to overcome his fears.

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Trinity Summary The Holy Trinity refers to God (the Father), Jesus Christ (the Son), and the Holy Spirit. It does not refer to the three Gods, it instead refers to three manifestations of God. God the Father is the God who presides in Heaven. He is the omnipotent, omnipresent, and omniscient God who is the Creator, protector and ultimate authority. Jesus Christ is the human manifestation of God, who died for the sins of the average human. He is the one who was crucified. Characters God the Father, Jesus Christ, Holy Spirit Allusion The Harry Potter Series by J.K. Rowling Jesus Christ: Harry Potter Holy Spirit: the parents of Harry God the Father: Dumbledore Explanation of Jesus: In the seventh book, Harry sacrifices himself so that the last Horcrux of Voldemort can be destroyed. Just like how Jesus sacrificed himself for the benefit of others, Harry sacrificed himself so that Voldemort can be defeated, making the world a safer place.

Explanation of Holy Spirit: One of the jobs of the Holy Spirit is to help humans when they are in need of divine assistance. The ghost of Harrys parents serves the same purpose; they help Harry when he needs it the most. One example of this is when he faces Voldemort in the fourth book. As he is about to be hit by Voldemorts curse, Harrys parents guard him. Explanation of God: God the Father is the all-powerful God. Likewise, Dumbledore is known as one of the strongest wizard. He also fits the role of a protector by being the protector of Harry. Since the roles of Dumbledore as God and the ghosts of Harrys parents as the Holy Spirit are established early on, one would expect there to be a person fulfilling the role of Jesus. Eventually, Harry is revealed to be the Jesus figure, completing the trinity. The allusion enhances the movie for as the Jesus figure, Harry is expected to die and be reborn. This happened when he dies and was reborn during his fight with Voldemort.

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Holy Ghost Summary Mary conceived Jesus with the Holy Ghost. Throughout the Bible, the Holy Ghost, Father and Son are all considered the same entity. Though they all act as one figure, they play different roles. As Jesus left, he sent a gift to Mankind- The Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is the manifestation of God that dwells within humans. Jesus gave the gift of the Holy Spirit to mankind so that the Holy Spirit may guide human beings while serving the Lord. The Holy Spirit helps those in their times of needs and helps remind man of God's word. Characters The Holy Ghost: The Holy Spirit, the third part of the Holy Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Ghost). Allusion Star Wars series directed by George Lucas The Holy Ghost= Force Jedi= Common People The Holy Ghost is like the Force found in the Star Wars Series. It is an all-encompassing force that the Jedis believe in. The Jedi represent the common people who always prefer to the Force as a source of good. This binding power represents hope and strength to all Jedis. It is an allusion to the Holy Ghost because they are both spiritual entities and they pose as symbols of hope for the common people. The Force, like the Holy Ghost also has a lot of followers that adheres to its rules and ways of life. When Darth Vader returns to the good side of the force through redemption and

salvation, it represents another aspect of the allusion. This is similar to Christian beliefs because it stresses how redemption and salvation can be found when one is baptized by the Holy Ghost. George Lucas alludes to the Holy Ghost because it represents hope and a constant reminder of God's word. The force is like the Holy Ghost as it impedes people from falling into the hands of the Sith and looking to the force as a constant reminder of the good found within the universe. Without the force, the people will be lost and without guidance. The audience is able to see this parallel as it stresses on what is right and what is wrong.

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Sacrament Summary A sacrament is an outward sign from Christ that gives grace. Christ himself is considered a sacrament as he gave his life for that of. Sacraments of the New Testament are baptism and the Lord's Supper. There are seven Sacraments given in the Bible: Baptism, Confirmation, Confession, The Holy Eucharist, Reconciliation or Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders and Matrimony. By meditating these sacraments, people can then allow grace to flow to mankind. Jesus gave his Apostles and the Church to take care of his sheep when he had gone to heaven. The Chuch itself was a Sacrament from Jesus to give grace. He gave us the Apostles (and his body) as a sacrament as well, that helps us lead a good life and help save us from the afterlife. Baptism is composed of matter in form. The matter is the action (pouring the water) and the form would be the works spoken by the minister. The Lord's Supper is also known as the sacrament of the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Characters Jesus Christ- The Biblical Son of God Allusion The Simpsons Season 7 Episode 3 "Home Sweet Homediddly- Dum- Doodily" When Marge and Homer Simpson are accused of being negligent parents, Child Services agents arrive at their house and put Bart, Lisa, and Maggie under the care of their next- door neihbor, the Flanders. Meanwhile, Marge and Homer are forced to take a special class for bad parents so they can learn how to be better parent.s When Ned Flanders discovers that neither Bart or Maggie have been baptized, he decides to give them an emergency baptism and drives them to the Springfield River. At that moment, Homer and Mrge have just been declared decent parents and quickly head over to stop the baptism. Just as Flanders is about to pour holy water over Bart's head, Homer shoves him and prevents the water from hitting Bart's head. Had Bart been baptized by the Flanders, he would have become part of the Flander' family. Baptism is a Catholic ritual that is widely known, so alluding to

it provides a foundation that most people are familiar with. The allusion to the Catholic sacrament of baptism heightens the tension between the Flanders and the Simpsons and brings the Simpsons family closer. The Simpsons are separated for the majority of the episode and are brought together in the end by the almost-baptism.

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Born Again Summary In contrast to the physical birth that everyone experiences, the concept of "born again" refers to a spiritual rebirth once an individual has acknowledge the existence of God and Jesus. This idea is often associated with salvation, as those who are "born again" are set apart from those who have not yet acknowledged God and are therefore destined to go to Hell. Although usually positive, the concept of "born again" may sometimes be negative. Those who are fervent about the concept may tend to focus too much on the horrors of Hell in an attempt to persuade those who are still "unborn to recognize God. Therefore, the idea of 'born again" becomes a focus on avoiding hell- a negative perspective- rather than reach for Heaven- a positive perspective. Characters God Powerful being that acknowledges repentance through being born again Allusion n/a

Straight and Narrow Path Summary The "Straight and Narrow Path" is the ideal that Christians must live by. It is believed that God does not allow everyone to enter heaven and that in order to get in a person must live by a strict code of morals created by God. This code is exceedingly difficult to follow because it is easy to succumb to temptation and indulgence. The road to damnation is wide and easy to travel whereas the road to salvation is arduous and requires determination, but in the end, the rewards are worth it. Characters God powerful deity who defines the requirements to enter Heaven Allusion Star Wars Star wars code= the Straight and Narrow Path. In Star Wars, the Jedi have to follow the Jedi Code, which is a lot like the Straight and Narrow Path doctrine. To follow the Jedi code requires extreme discipline and vigilance, and any deviation from this set course will result in a step on the easy path to the Dark Side of the force. Thus, much like the Christian Straight and Narrow Path, the Jedi Code governs the lives of the Jedi and forces them to deprive of certain luxuries in order to reach a higher goal. This allusion enhances the movie for it gives the society in the movie a set of rules that are present throughout the movie, giving it order and adding a dimension of realism.

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Faustian Bargain Summary The Faustian Bargain is a popular motif in Christian folklore. Also known as the "deal with the devil", the Faustian Bargain is the dealing with the devil to offer the human soul in exchange for worldly possessions and the fulfillment of personal desires. Although its name is derived from a German folklore's major character, a person named Faust who undergoes negotiations with a devil figure called Mephistopheles for magic powers, Christianity includes many references to dealings with such hellish figures. These transactions usually involved signing a contract with the devil, usually in exchange for knowledge, power, or riches. Faustian Bargains usually involve a desperate character or persona (Faust), who would be willing to make any deal with a make any deal with a malevolent figure (Devil), to better themselves or overcome an obstacle at hand. Such bargains, however, usually end in the demise and fall of the character in desperation, the devil figure having claimed its end of the deal. Characters Faust: This character wants personal gains to the extent that he is willing to offer his soul in exchange for limitless knowledge and access to the pleasures of the world. Mephistopheles: He is the devil figure fulfilling Fausts wishes; in effect, he returns to bring about Fausts death and demise to meet his end of the deal Allusion The Picture of Dorian Gray Dorian Gray=Faust Painting= The Devils Bargain

In Oscar Wildes The Picture of Dorian Gray, a young man named Dorian Gray, known for his good looks, becomes so consumed by his own portrait painted by a fellow friend, Basil. Captivated by this painting, Dorian Gray mutters to himself a wish that the painting would grow old while his physical self would remain forever young. His wish is granted, as for years, Dorian Gray does not age or grow old, his impeccable physique impervious to the strains of time. Dorian Gray, however, is constantly haunted by the painting, causing him to eventually stab the painting, killing his physical self in the process. The man makes the devils bargain for immortality, but soon causes his own demise and fulfilling the devils end of the contract as he loses his life in bitterness at the end. His desire to remain forever young is granted, but he is damned to the suffering caused by his painting and the eventual grisly suicide at the end. Wilde bases his story off the traditional Faustian tale to illustrate the universality of human faults, and how those faults are consistent from the past to more modern times, being relatively unchanging human traits.

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Martin Luther Summary Martin Luther (1483-1546) is most noted for instigating the Protestant Reformation. Born into Roman Catholicism in the town of Eisleben, Luther grew up under the influence of the Holy Roman Emperor and the religious control of the Roman pope. Though he grew up educated and on track to become involved with a career in law, Luthers life plans took a turn in 1505. While traveling back to his university, he was almost struck by a bolt of lighting; in desperation, Luther cried out, Help me, St. Anne, and Ill become a monk! He escaped the ordeal unscathed, and, true to his word, Luther entered the monastery a year later. In the first few years of his career as a monk, Luther revealed how frightened of God he was, confessing sin as often as 20 times a day. At the age of 27, Luther was given the task of traveling to Rome to represent his monastery; there, he witnessed the immorality and flippancy that plagued many of the Roman priests. This discovery led to many meditations involving Luthers standing with God; he eventually resolved not to be so fearful of God. Later in his life, Luther nailed 95 Theses to the door of the castle church in Wittenburg, protesting against clerical abuses. This document, discrediting the claim that freedom from Gods punishment of sin could be purchased with money, is recognized as the main catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Characters Martin Luther Reformed the Catholic Church Allusion n/a

John Calvin Summary John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer was born on July 10, 1509 in Noyon, France, and was raised in a Catholic family. He was responsible for establishing major Protestant Religious movements in the West. After violence broke out between the Catholics and the Protestants in France, he moved to Geneva. He was exiled out of Geneva in 1538 due to religious contradictions and went to Strasbourg, where he was a leader of refuges. Through John Calvin's dedication to the study of religion, he ultimately created Calvinism. Calvinism is based around the idea that God is the absolute power and the greatest power. Also, Calvinist believed that one's destiny is predetermined by God before one is born. The system is often based on the "Five Points of Calvinism" which stresses the importance of predestination and depravity. In 1541, he received a letter from Geneva to return, and from there, he spent the rest of his life on teaching and giving sermons. Characters John Calvin Religious figure who propelled the Calvinism movement Allusion n/a

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John Wycliffe Summary John Wycliffe was a Christian Theologian and leader of the Protestant Reformation, like Martin Luther and John Calvin. He translated the Hebrew Bible into English for many people to read, which allowed many people to have access to God using the English Bible. He shared his beliefs about Christianity and politics with John Calvin. Despite his good intentions, many people believed that he was a heresy because of his disagreement towards the respectability of the Church and their ways. Wycliffe believed that the grace of God is essential to Christianity and to obtaining salvation. He emphasize the authority that ordinary people had. Although Wycliffe believed in the Bible and its power, he disagreed with the conventional doctrines of the Church. The Church deemed it illegal to read the Bible. By not letting the people read the bible, the Church was allowed to control what the people thought God was telling them and this prevented them from making their own assumptions and interpretations about God's word. The Church brainwashed the people into telling them what to think and controlled their lives. Characters John Wycliffe - theologian who translates Hebrew Bibles to English ones for the common man Allusion: N/A

Sins of the Fathers Summary Sins of the Fathers states that the child must pay for the mistakes made by their father/ancestor. This concept comes from the idea of balance where every sin requires a punishment. Therefore, if one's ancestor is unable to repay the punishments caused by sin, their children, and anyone else following them, must suffer the punishment until it has been fully amended. The most common application of Sins of the Fathers is seen in the original sin in Christian theology. As an effect dealt by the original sin due to Adam and Eve's weakness falling for temptation and consumption of the forbidden fruit of knowledge, all human kind must now bear the sin of the original parents because they were unable to repay their punishments. Characters N/A Allusion A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Darnay= human kind Evremonde Brothers (Darnay's father and uncle)= Adam and Eve. Darnay is forced to pay for his ancestor's sin with death. The Evremonde brothers (Darnay's father and uncle) had Manette (a completely innocent man) arrested after they raped and stabbed a girl nearly to death and begged him treat her. Then, they wrongly

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accused him and sent him in jail in order to cover up their heinous crime. After Defrage produced the letter that he had found in Manettes old jail cell detailing the reason of his arrest, the jury sentenced Darnay to death to pay for his father and uncle's death; which directly alludes to the sins of the father because he has to bear his ancestor's error. The Evremonde brothers in the case would be Adam and Eve, their crime is the consumption of the forbidden fruit, and Darnay is human kind who has to pay for the sins of their predecessors. With this allusion, Dickens foreshadows Darnay's arrest and sentence to death; proving that if the price of one's sin is not paid back in full, someone else (most likely descendent) will have to suffer the consequences instead.

7 Deadly Sins Summary As defined by the Catholic Church, the seven deadly sins consist of lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, wrath, envy, and pride. They are considered to be the Cardinal Sins and can only be repented for through confession, unlike the venial sins that are considered minor. Lust is the excessive thought of sexual desires. Gluttony is the overindulgence or over consumption of anything. Greed is also commonly known as avarice or covetousness, and like lust and gluttony, is a sin of excess. It is applied to a very excessive desire of wealth, status, and power. Sloth is the failure to use ones talents and gifts. The modern view perceives sloth as laziness and indifference. Wrath is the uncontrollable feelings of hatred and anger. It leads to self-destruction, violence, and hate. Envy is similar to greed because they are both characterized by insatiable desire. However, greed is associated with material goods, whereas envy implies resentment of another person because of the envious one believes they lack whatever the other has. Pride, also known as hubris, is considered one of the original and most serious of the seven deadly sins. It is characterized by the desire to be more important and/or attractive than others, and failing to acknowledge the good work of others. Characters n/a Allusion Seven (movie) Gluttony=death of an obese man forced to feed himself to death Greed=death of a rich attorney Sloth=death of an immobile man Lust=death of a prostitute

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Pride=death of a model who could not bear to live with a mutilated face Envy=death of a mans wife out of envy for his life Wrath=death of a man out of revenge The film Seven elaborates on the seven sins through a murderers will to mediate judgment on those that offend those sins. Each murder correlates to each of the seven sins. Gluttony is represented by an obese man who is forced to feed himself to death. The fatal bloodletting of a rich attorney depicts greed. The death of an emaciated man, who was forced to be strapped down to a bed for an entire year while kept alive, is the representation of sloth. The lust victim is a prostitute killed by a man who raped her until death. The plot moves along and the detectives find a young model who killed herself after her face had been mutilated, a victim who represents pride. The film takes an interesting turn when one of the detectives kills the others wife out of envy for his life. The now widower detective succumbs to his wrath and unloads his gun onto his partner, and the movie comes to a close.

Corresponding Virtues Summary Commonly referred to as the seven heavenly virtues, they are as follows: chastity, temperance, charity, diligence, patience, kindness, and humility. They correspond to the seven deadly sins; it is believed that only through the practice of these virtues, can one resist the temptation of the sins. 1. Chastity corresponds to the sin of lust. This virtue entails physical requirements such as abstinence from sex, cleanliness through hygiene, and avoiding intoxicants like alcohol. Moral elements-honesty, wholesomeness, and knowledge- are also important. 2. Temperance corresponds to the sin of gluttony. The main elements of this virtue are self-control and moderation. Prudence is also necessary to judge self- interest against the needs of others. 3. Charity corresponds to the sin of greed. Considered to be chosen by will rather than emotions, charity requires loving kindness towards all people and reflects the nature of God. It can become self- sacrificial in its most extreme form. 4. Diligence corresponds to the sin of sloth. This virtue emphasizes persistence, fortitude, and work ethic. It also incorporates values of integrity, such as upholding one's convictions even when no else is watching. As for the work ethic aspect, diligence requires effective budgeting of time and resistance of laziness. 5. Patience corresponds to the sin of wrath. Emphasizing mercy and peaceful methods of resolving conflicts, the virtue of patience incorporates moral elements such as forgiveness, mercy to sinners, and endurance through moderation. A physical element of patience is consuming meat in moderation. 6. Kindness corresponds to the sin of envy. This virtue requires absolute compassion and trust without ulterior motives or underlying feelings of resentment. Optimism in perspective and demeanor is integral to kindness. 7. Humility corresponds to the sin of pride. The central ideas of humility are modesty, respectfulness, and selflessness. This virtue emphasizes giving creit where credit is due- not being biased about one's self worth. Characters n/a

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