Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 267

...........................................................................................................

5
1. .............................................................................. 7
1.1. ..................................................................................................7
1.2. .................................................................................9
1 .........................................................................10

2. .......................................................................................... 11
2.1. .....................................................................................11
2.2. .....................................................................13
2.3. ...............................................................28
2...................................................................................................35

3. ................................................................ 36
3.1. ......................................................................................36
3.2. ..............................................................................46
3.3. ....................................................................................49
3.4. WDM ..............................................................53
3.5. .........................................................................................57
3.6. ............................................59
3.7. .........................61
3...................................................................................................72

4. ..................................... 73
4.1. ...............................................................73
4.2. ....................................................................78
4.3. ..................................................................86
4.4. EDFA .........................................................................92
4...................................................................................................94

5. ...................................................................................... 96
5.1. ..........................................................................................96
5.2. ............................................................. 104
5.3. OSI........................................................................................ 113
5................................................................................................. 115

6. FDDI.......................................................................................................... 116
6.1. .............................................................................................. 117
6.2. FDDI .......................................................................... 118
6.3. .................................................................................... 120
6.4. ................................................................ 125
6.5. PMD.................................................................... 129
6.6. PHY ....................................................................................................... 133
6.7. MAC ...................................................................................................... 140
6.8. SMT ............................................................................................. 145
6.9. FDDI ...................................................................................... 147
6................................................................................................. 151

7. Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet ................................................ 153


7.1. Ethernet...................................................................................................... 154
7.2. Ethernet .................................................................... 163
7.3. Ethernet.................... 171
7.4. Fast Ethernet .............................................................................................. 175
7.5. Fast Ethernet ............ 179
7.6. Ethernet .......................................................................................... 182
7.7. Gigabit Ethernet ( IEEE 802.3z 802.3ab) ................................... 183
7.8. Ethernet ........................................................ 191
7................................................................................................. 197

8. ........................................................................... 199
8.1. .................................................................. 199
8.2. ........................................................... 200
8.3. EDFA......................................................... 205
8.4. WDM/TDM..................................................................................... 212
8.5. ................................................................................... 214
8.6. ........................................................................................ 221
8.7. .................................................... 222
8.8. AON .............................................................................. 225
8.9. AON .............................................................................. 231
8.10. AON .............................................................................................. 233
8.11. AON .................................................. 235
8................................................................................................. 237

9. ................................................................................. 239
9.1. ............................................................ 239
9.2. HFC ............................................................................................................244
9.3. Homeworx ........................................................................... 247
9.4. DV6000 ................................... 254
9................................................................................................. 256

.................................................................. 258
............................................................................................. 262

..


. . . -, World
Wide Web ,
. , , Internet. -, ""
Internet, , . ,
Internet 8 [1].
, ,
.

.
- . , .
,

. ,
, . ,
. - . ,
- , . , , .
- ()
20 ,
. .
-
(SDH). Ethernet, FDDI, Fast Ethernet,
Gigabit Ethernet, ATM. , - , , . - HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coax).
- , , , ,
. , : IBM, Lucent
Technologies, Nortel, Corning, Alcoa Fujikura, Siemens, Pirelli
- .
DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division
Multiplexing),
- ,
TrueWave (Lucent Technologies), SMF-LS LEAF (Corning),
DWDM .
1996 , AT&T, Fujitsu NTT
, 55 DWDM , 20 /,
1,1 /c [2].


- , , .
, .
Internet
.
, : ADC Telecommunication, Corning, DiCon Fiberoptics, Ericsson, FOCAS, FOCI, Lucent Technologies, Molex, NBase Communication, Packet Engines, Scientific Atlanta, Seiko Instruments (Optical Fiber Componets Devision), SVEC. -
.. .. , .. ,
. Corning .. , .
.

..

1.
1.1.
- () ,
, " ". - , - . -
, , , , .
. ,
.



1014 [3].
.

.
. 0,2-0,3 1,55 .

100 [4].
-
, .
.
, , ( , ..).
, .
. - ()
. , 900- 7,5 , 0,1 . ""
, 1,5 ,
[5, 6]
.
, ,
-. ( ) , , "" . , ( , ) , [7]. , ,
. - .
.
. "" , ,
, , -

, . ,
. .
- . - , ,
.
. , , , , . 2:5.

. . 4000
(
) 10 / [8].
. . , . , , , 25 . / - .
.
.
. , , . , .
, - , -

.
- .


. .
. , -, , .
. ,
- . ,
.
, .
. ? . , ,
1 (109 /2) [9]. , , , 125 1 . , . , , ,
, .
, , (kevlar1). ,
. .

Kevlar E.I. du Pont de Nemours. Kevlar , .

..

- , , .

-
, , . 1.1.
, (), , , , .., , - () . , .
.
. , , .

. 1.1. "-"

1.2.
( ) ( ) .
"" ""
. LED ILD.

.
.
.

. p-i-n , .
,
,
, . .
, . , ,
. , .
, , . . , . -

, .
. . ,
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
, , . , , . , ,
.
1. , , ,
, . -
. .
2. ,
.
( 4-8). ,
- .
- ().
( , )
2-10 .
() .
( , ) .
.

1
1. P. E. Green. "Optical Networking Update", IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications,
vol. 14, no. 5, June 1996, pp. 764779
2. A. W. Pollack. "Speed Record: One Trillion Bits a Second", D2 The New York Times, March, 1-st,
1996
3. - : / .. , .. ,
. . .: , 1994. 160 c.
4. M. Mariani. - . 2000- , . 76-80.
. 1-2, .: "", 1994. 112 .
5. . . . : / .
.: "", 1996. 84 .
6. - :
/ . . . . .: , 1996. 200 c.
7. J. Hecht. Understanding Fiber Optics, Sams Publishing, 1993. 477 p.
8. X. Li. "Soliton-Based Optic Fiber Systems", WPI EE535 Telecommunications and Transmission
Technologies Course Homepage, April, 1996,
http://bugs.wpi.edu:8080/EE535/hwk96/hwk5cd96/li/li.html
9. W. Hioki. Telecommunications, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, 1995. 501 p.

10

..

2.
2.1.
, , . : MMF
(multi mode fiber) SMF (single mode fiber).
(step index multi mode fiber)
(graded index multi mode fiber).
(step index single mode fiber) SF (standard fiber),
DSF (dispersion-shifted single mode fiber),
NZDSF (non-zero dispersion-shifted single mode fiber)
. 2.1.
. , , .
. ,
.
.
.
(. 2.1 , ), , , .
,
, , .

, , - ,
. .
(. 2.1):

50/125 (. 2.1 );

62,5/125 (. 2.1 );

SF ( ) 8-10/125 (. 2.1 );

DSF 8-10/125 (. 2.1 );

NZDSF ( ).

2.1.

MMF 50/125

MMF 62,5/125

SF (NDSF)

DSF

NZDSF

(Ethernet,
Fast/Gigabit
Ethernet, FDDI,
ATM)

(Ethernet,
Fast/Gigabit
Ethernet, FDDI,
ATM)


(Ethernet, Fast/Gigabit
Ethernet, FDDI, ATM),
SDH)

,
(SDH, ATM)

, (SDH,ATM),

11

200/240

100/140
200

100

140

240

)
50/125

62,5/125

85/125

50

62,5

85

125

125

125

125

)
(SF)

125

)

(DSF NZDSF)

. 2.1.


800 1600 : 850, 1310 1550 ,
. 2.8 [1]. .


(50/125 62,5/125) 50 62,5 , .

12

..

. 850 1310
.


(SF) 8-10
.
> CF ( > CF ) (
). 1310
1550 . . 1310 , .
. 0,3-0,4
/, 0,2-0,25 / 1550 .
(DSF) , , 0 1550 . , . 2.1 . ,
, .
100 . ,
1550 .
NZDSF DSF , ( )
" " , .
,

(EDFA). EDFA
1530-1560 . NZDSF,
DSF, ,
.
,
: SF 1310 , DSF 1550 ,
NZDSF 1530-1560 . , , 1530-1560 SF. SF , NZDSF,

. (, ), (, , , ).

2.2.
, , , : ; ;
.

13


.
. , , . 2.2. n1 n2 , . , , :

= n 12 n 22 2n12 .

(2-1)

,
. n1 n1eff.
, :

n1 sin 1 = n 2 sin 2 ,

n1

2,

1,

(2-2)

n2

( ), ( n 1 = const). . 2.2 .
( n 1 > n 2 ), C ,
( 2 = 900).
:

C = arcsin ( n 2 n1) .

(2-3)

( 2),

, . ( 1),
.
, , . , .

2
1

n2
n1

2
2

. 2.2.

14

..

. , ,
NA. A , , :

NA = sin A .

(23)

. ,
:

NA = n 12 n 22 = n 1 2 .

NA(r ) =

(2-5)

n 12 (r ) n 22 , 0 -

.
, (2-10), ,

NA eff = n 12 (0) n 22

n 1 ( 0)

2,

(2-6)

. , , V,

V = d NA ,

(2-7)

.
.
,
. E / H n m (Enm Hnm).
n ( ), m ( ). : (E0m H0m), , () (Enm Hnm),
. , Ez, EHnm, Hz, HEnm. , , E0m H0m
, Enm Hnm [10].
,
.
, ,
. : V < 2,405 (
I0(x), [1, 2]).
HE11. , . . 2.2
, (2-7).
. 2.2,
1550 (2-8), .
1310 , . , , , , , . -. . . , 850 (2-8)
-

15

. , 850 , . . , 8/125
:1310 1550 , .

2.2.
V

()

(%)

n1

NA

1550

1310

850

step MMF
200/240

0,39*

V=158,09

187,06

288,29

step MMF
100/140

0,29*

58,77

69,54

107,18

grad MMF
62,5/125

2,1**

1,47**

0,28**

35,46

41,96

64,67

grad MMF
50/125

1,25**

1,46**

0,20**

20,26

23,98

36,95

step SMF (SF)


8,3/125

0,36**

1,468**

0,13**

2,187

2,588

3,990

: step MMF (multi mode fiber) ; step SMF (single mode fiber)
; grad MMF ;
* [3]; ** , Corning [4]

V < 2,405

V , ""
V , . 2.3.

2.3.

Nm

0 2,405

HE11 ( )

2,405 3,832

HE11, H01, E01, HE21

3,832 5,136

HE11, H01, E01, HE21, HE12, EH11, HE31

5,136 5,52

HE11, H01, E01, HE21, HE12, EH11, HE31, EH21, HE41

5,52 6,38

12

HE11, H01, E01, HE21, HE12, EH11, HE31, EH21, HE41, H02, E02, HE22

6,38 7,02

14

HE11, H01, E01, HE21, HE12, EH11, HE31, EH21, HE41, H02, E02, HE22,
EH31, HE51

7,02 7,59

17

HE11, H01, E01, HE21, HE12, EH11, HE31, EH21, HE41, H02, E02, HE22,
EH31, HE51, HE13, EH12, HE31

7,59 8,42

19

HE11, H01, E01, HE21, HE12, EH11, HE31, EH21, HE41, H02, E02, HE22,
EH31, HE51, HE13, EH12, HE31, EH41, HE61

Nm
2

1
1 d
1 d

N m = V 2 = NA = n 12 n 22
2
2
2

16

).

(2-8)

..

, .
.

:

n 1 2(r / a )2
n (r ) = 1
n 2
(a ,

1/ 2

, 0 r<a

(2-9)

, a r<b

b ) :
2

1 d
N m = n 12 n 22
4

).

(2-10)

. 2.3 : , , .

n2
n1

n2
n1

n2
n1

. 2.3. :
) ,
) ,
)

(cutoff wavelength)
, , . . ,
. , .

17

( CF )
( CCF ). . , . ,
-. CCF CF .
.
, . (2-7), (2-8) (2-9)

CCF,

CF,

CF = d NA 2,405 = 1,847 d n 1

CF

CCF

(transmitted power method) [5, 6]. 2 , .

A m ( ) = 10 lg

Am

Ps

Ps ()
Pm ( )

(2-11)

Pm

.
. , . A m ( ) , . 2.4, (1). (2), (1) 0,1 .
(2) A m ( ) .

Am
(1)
0,1 (2)

CF

. 2.4.

TIA/EIA CCITT [1, 2, 3].


, 2. 200 ;
0,20; 10 , ; 1000 1600 10 .
CF
2 , 140 , .
2.5 . , 140 . ,
(2-7), .

18

..

CCF

22 .
, 140 , .
76 1 -, . 2.5 . , , , 140 .

280

L=2
28

)
1

76

76
L = 22

. 2.5. : ) CF ; ) CCF

: .
() ,
.
, : ;
; .
,
,
. 2.6.

abs

int

rad

sct

. 2.6.

19

( /) :

= int + rad = abs + sct + rad


(2-12)

abs

( ), ,
. , ,
( )
. , . 2.7.
1480 , OH-. .
.
. 1,6
- , , . 2.7.
sct . 1970 (99,9999%),
. 800 1,5 /. .

. , , . .
.
4
, . 2.7.

1,0


()
0,5

(/)

0,3

0,2


()

0,1

0,05

0,03

0,02

1,1

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,5

1,6

1,8

2,0

()

. 2.7. , 1500
( Corning Optical Fiber, [7])

20

..

,
, 1550 .
:

OH ()

= K rel 4 + OH ( ) + Ce k ,

OH 1480 ,


( K rel = 0,8 4/; C = 0,9 /; k = 0,7-0,9 ;

, /

). . 2.8
(
850, 1300 1550 , 1480 ) .

1,8

2,8

0,55

1,0

0,35
0,20

0,8
0,6
800

SMF

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

, ()

MMF

. 2.8.

()

rad

, -

, ,
, . 20% . , , .


, , .
= c ,

( 3 10

/).

d d = c 2 ,

= c 20 . 0 = 1300 = 200 , 35 ( 35 1012 ) , 0 =


1550 = 200 , 25 .
1550 ,
0,2 /, . 2.8. , 25 /c , . , .
. -

21

WDM. WDM
( ),
( ). ,
.
.
DBR 0,1 . , 0,8 15301560 , EDFA, 40 40 .
10 / [8]. TDM, TDM 100 , 4 / ( 40 ) [9].
. , ,
.


,
. , , . ,
.
1
L

2
(L ) = t out
t in2

[10]. 1 ,

/. , :

(
mod),

( w),

( mat).

mod

mat

chr

. 2.9.

,
. :

2 = 2mod + chr 2 = 2mod + ( mat + w )2 .

(2-13)

22

..



, (. 2.3 , ). (2-9) :

n 12
n 1
L,
L < Lc
L
,
L
<
L

c
c
2
c
, mod grad ( L) L =
,
mod step (L) L =
2
n
1
n 1 L L , L > L
L Lc , L > Lc
c
c
2c
c

(2-14) / (2-15)

Lc ( 5 ,
10 ).
, . , . L > Lc
, . 2 . .
, , .
, , . W [1]:

W = 0,44 .

(2-16)

. ,
. W ( ) 1 . , .



, . - .

. :

mat (, L) = L

d 2 n1
= L M () .
c d2

(2-17)


[1]:

w (, L) = L 2n 12 c = L N( ) ,

M ( )

N ( )

(2-18)

, () .
D( ) = M ( ) + N ( ) . /().
, -

23

, . , ( 1310 10 ) M() B(), D( ) . , ,

0 .

, -

0 .
Corning
. 1 .
(800-1600 MMF, 1200-1600 SF DSF) , ( 2 ). , , , .

(Sellmeier, [4]):

( ) = A + B2 + C2 .

A, B, C , ,
( ), . 2.10.

D( ) = = 2 B C3 = S0 40 3 4 ,
,
/(2),

50

10

D
0

-5

a)

100

-50
-100

800

1000 1200 1400


()

-150
1600

100

10

50
D

5
-50
0

-5

-100

800

1000 1200 1400


()

S 0 = 8B

, -

15

(/)

(/)

15


(/ .)

(
.

-150
1600

(/)

14


(/ .)

0 = (C B)

(2-19)

50

D
0

-50

-5
1200

1300 1400 1400


()

-100
1600


(/ .)

. 2.10. :
) (62,5/125);
) (SF);
) (DSF)


( ) = A + B + C ln ,

D() = = B + C + C ln = 0S0 ln( 0 ) ,


0 = e

S0

1+ B

S0 = C 0 ,

(2-19)

chr ( ) = D( ) , . -

24

..

, ( 2 ),
. . 2.4
.

2.4.

,
/

mod
414

1)

,
/()

D( )
3)

= 2mod + ( D() )

= 2

= 4

= 35

958

766

125

MMF

850

50/125

1310

414

1,0

1062

1062

1050

1550

414

19,2

1058

1044

540

441

414

114

973

2)

99,6


, , W = 0,44

4)

MMF

850

106,7

62,5/125

1310

973

4,2

452

452

450

1550

973

17,3

451

450

384

SF

1310

> 120000

61000

6900

8/125

1550

12600

6300

720

DSF

1310

10400

5200

594

8/125

1550

> 120000

65000

7400

5)

< 1,8
17,5
21,2

6)

< 1,7

(2-14), =0,013, n1=1,47


(2-14), =0,02, n1=1,46
3) (2-19), =12971316 , S 0,101 /(2)
0
0
4) (2-19), =13221354 , S 0,097 /(2)
0
0
5) (2-19), =1301,51321,5 , S 0,092 /(2)
0
0
6) (2-19), =15351565 , S 0,085 /(2)
0
0
, Corning.
1)

2)

, / , . . 2.4.
2.1. Ethernet .
10Base-FL 20 . = 35 (850 )
50/125 125 4 31 ,
20 . , , 4 . , 3 /, .
Ethernet 10Base-FL 2 ( 62,5/125, ), Ethernet ( = 50 ).
2.2. FDDI .
FDDI PMD 4B/5B 125 .
= 35 (1310 ) 62,5/125 450 , 2 225 ,
125 , , , 2 ,
FDDI PMD .
( 62,5/125)
, 1310 (450

25

= 35 , 452 = 2 ),
. , 1310 .
2.3. Fast Ethernet . 100Base-FX FDDI 4B/5B 125
. = 2 (1310 )
8/125 120000 100 1200 , 125 . , , 100 , . 25
0,4 / 62,5 .
, 1550 .
25 ,
0,25 /, 100 . = 2
(1310 ) 8/125 12600 . 100 126 ,
Fast Ethernet. .
= 2 ,
DSF. (SF),
, = 1 .
2.4. ATM 622 /c (STM-4) . ATM 622 /c 8B/10B,
778 . = 0,1 (1550 )
8/125 252000
(12600 x 20) 100 2520 ,
778 . , , = 0,1
(1550 ) 100 ,
.
2.5. - 100 DSF. = 0,1 (1550 )
DSF 8/125 2400 (20 x 120000
) 20 120 , 100 . , , 20
. -
100 / ,
.

pmd

. 1
(

),

pmd

pmd

pmd = L .
2pmd

(2-13). -

, -

( 2,4 /c
) 0,1 . .
,
. , , , . 2.11 .
26

..

, , . 2.11 .

PMD

. 2.11. [11]

pmd ,

2 -

, , .
, .
(>2,4 /) - pmd .
() ,
.
.
2.6.

pmd

L 0 , chr

, -

D = 2 /(),
= 0,05 .

L > L0

hr = DL

pmd

= T L,

= 0,5 / , -

L 0 = (T D )2 =25 .

L < L 0,

, . (>100 /c) .
2.7.
L max, W = 100 , , ,

(2-16)

L max = (0,44 WT )2 = 0,44 100 10 9 1 10 12

))

= 1,0 / .
:
pmd = T L < 0,44 W .

19 .

= 0,5 /

77 .
- 0,5. , ,
.

(.) - , .
(chirp-modulated signal).

27

2.3.
: Corning Optical Fiber, Lucent Technologies Alcoa Fujikura. ,
.
, . , ,
. 2.5.

2.5. [12]

EIA/TIA

EIA/TIA-455-78


IEC
IEC 793-1-C1A
IEC 793-1-C1C

EIA/TIA-455-59

IEC 793-1-C1C

EIA/TIA-455-62

IEC 793-1-C11

EIA/TIA-455-170

IEC 793-1-C7B

EIA/TIA-455-175

IEC 793-1-C5C

EIA/TIA-455-113122

EIA/TIA-455-164

IEC 793-1-C9A

EIA/TIA-455-167

IEC 793-1-C9B

EIA/TIA-455-176

IEC 793-1-A2

EIA/TIA-455-176

IEC 793-1-A2

EIA/TIA-455-176

IEC 793-1-A2

EIA/TIA-455-173

IEC 793-1-A3

EIA/TIA-455-178

IEC 793-1-B6

EIA/TIA-455-31

IEC 793-1-B1

EIA/TIA-455-28

IEC 793-1-B2A, B2B

EIA/TIA-455-111

EIA/TIA-455-60

IEC 793-1-C1C

EIA/TIA-455-89

EIA/TIA-455-3

IEC 793-1-D1

EIA/TIA-455-7273

EIA/TIA-455-7475

EIA/TIA-455-6770

EIA/TIA-455-76

IEC 793-1-B7A

EIA/TIA-455-97

IEC 793-1-B7D

* IEC


62,5/125
50/125, , . 2.12 .
. 2.12 .
. 2.6
50/125 62,5/125.
, 1300 850 . . , , .

28

..

4,0

50/125

3,5

2,5

62,5/125

2,0

50/125

, /


(%)

3,0

1,5
1,0
0,5

)
b)
c)
d)

3,0
2,5
2,0
1,5

50/125

850
1300
1380
1550

2,42
0,66
1,10
0,57

62,5/125
)
b)
c)
d)

62,5/125

850
1300
1380
1550

2,72
0,52
0,92
0,29

c)
b)

d)

1,0
50/125

0,0

0,5

-0,5
-60 -45 -30 -15 0 15 30
()

62,5/125
0,0
45

60

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

. 2.12. : )
50/125 62,5/125; )

2.6.

MMF 50/125

MMF 62,5/125

850 (/)

2,4

2,8

1300 (/)

0,5

0,6

850 (/)

2,5

3,0

1300 (/)

0,8

0,7

850 ()

400

200

1300 ()

800

400

12971316

13321354

0,101

0,097

50,0 3,0

62,5 3,0

0,200 0,015

0,275 0,015

600C +85 0C

600C +850C

0,2

0,2

,
,

()

S0 (/(2))

d ()
, NA
,



+850C 850 1300 (/)

600C

100C
+850C, 98% 850
1300 (/)

0,2

0,2

, ()

11004400

11008800

()

125,0 2,0

125,0 2,0

3,0

3,0

245 10

245 10

5%

5%

0,7

0,7

neff
850

1,4897

1,5014

neff
1300

1,4856

1,4966

()
()

(/2)

29

(2-14),
(2-15) , . D() 1300 (0) ,
850 100 /(2). ,
, 50 , 2 .
, 850
. ,
. 1310
1550 , .


, , , : SF ( , . 2.13 ), DSF (. 2.13 ) NZDSF.
1310
1550 , .
,
, , , . .
(WDM) 1550 . , , , , .
[13].
3,0

1,0
8,3/125

2,0

(

)

1,5

0,9

(%)


(%)

2,5

1,0
0,5
0,0

0,8
0,7
0,6

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0

-0,5

-0,1
-25

-15

-5 0 5
()

15

25

-25

-15

-5 0 5
()

15

25

. 2.13.
: )
( ); )
( )
SF. 80- 1550 30

..

1300 . SF (. 2.13 )

. 1310 ,
1550 .
DSF. 1550
,
. 80- DSF,
1550 , . DSF .

EFDA, . , ( 90- ) , (1550 ),
,
( , ), .
DSF WDM. DSF
WDM , , ( 0 ).
, . , ,
. - ,
, 0 ,
, ( ) .
NZDSF 90-
DSF, .
- , ,
.
DWDM .

20,0
18,0

, SF

(/ )

16,0

6,0

LEAF TM, NZDSF

5,0

TrueWaveTM, NZDSF

4,0
3,0

DSF

2,0
1,0
0,0
-1,0

1525

1530

1535

1540

1545

1550

1555

-2,0

1560 1565
()

SMF-LSTM, NZDSF

-3,0
-4,0
-5,0
-6,0

. 2.14. 1550

31

- , , : TrueWave Lucent Technologies [14] SMF-LS


Corning [15, 16].
. TrueWave 1523 , SMF-LS
1560 , . 2.14. 1998 Corning
- LEAFTM [15]. TrueWave, SMF-LS LEAF 2.7.

2.7. NZDSF :
TrueWave [14] SMF-LS, LEAF [15]

TrueWave

SMF-LS

LEAF

()

1550

1550

1550


1550
(/)

0,22-0,25

0,25

0,25


1310
(/)

0,5



1525-1575 (/)

0,30

0,30

0,30

1,0

2,0

2,0

0,50 (1 32 )

0,50 (1 32 )

0,10

0,10


1383 3 (/)

1550
()

0,05 (100 75 ) 0,05 (100 75 )


1550
()


min (/)

0,8 ( 1540-60 )

1,0 (1540-60 )

max (/)

4,6 ( 1540-60 )

-3,5 ( 1530-1560 )

6,0 (1540-60 )

0,092

1540

1560

8,4 0,6

8,4 0,5

9,5 0,5
9,6 ()

1260

1260

0,5 1550 (max)

0,08
1550 ()

S0 (/(2))

0 ()


1550
()

CCF

()

0,5 1550 (max)


0,1 1550 ()
)

LEAF TrueWave.

1 . 32

..

1550
. 2 , , , .
,
TDM (STM-16 2,4 / STM-64 10
/) WDM.
(Lucent, MIT, Fujitsu
.) 32
, 40 / , ( 16 2,4 10 /c) .
, 2,4 10 /
. ,
, , , .
, - . - TDM , -
, ,
. [17]:

DCF (dispersion-compensating fibers). ,


SF, DCF c ,
. ;

(0,1 ), ;

NZDSF, "" 1550 ,


, , , (
) .

SF
90 ( 2,4 /).
, , 140 , . 2.8 .
,
.
2,4 10 /. ( 120-140 ) 2,4 / 10 / . ( 70 ).
SF DSF
, NZDSF .
SF DSF , SF , . SF 1550
, (, DFB ).
SF, DSF NZDSF
. 2.8 , .

33

2.8.

a) 2,5 /c ()

EDFA

SF

2,4 /

70-90

2,4 /

140

2,4 /

120-140

2,4 /

120-140

1
2,4 /
120-140
EDFA
( )

SF
,
1, 2, 4, 8 2,4-20 /
>500

SF
,
1, 2, 4, 8 2,4-20 /
>500

SF
SF
DSF
NZDSF

DSF
NZDSF

1-(.
)

2,4 /

>500

1, 2, 4, 8

2,4-20 /

>500

EDFA

ASE,
ASE,
ASE, ,
4-wave mixing
ASE,

) 10 /c ()

EDFA

SF

1
10 /

SF
,
1
10 /
+ *

DSF
,
1
10 /

,
NZDSF
,
1
10 /
0

50-70

120-140

120-149

120-149

EDFA
( )
10, 20, 40
>300
, ,
1, 2, 4
SF
/
+ *
DSF

NZDSF

,
0
EDFA

1-(.
)

10 /

>300

1, 2, 4

10, 20, 40
/

>300

ASE,
ASE, ,
4-wave mixing
ASE, SPM,

* , .
: , , ,
, ASE (amplified spontaneous emission), 4-wave mixing , SPM (self-phase modulation)

34

..

2
1. - : / . . , . . ,
. . .: , 1994. 160 c.
2. . , . . , .:
, 1973. 832 . (. 777-781)
3. J. Hecht. Understanding Fiber Optics, Sams Publishing, 1993. 477 p.
4. Corning Optical Fiber Information Center, Engineering Handbook, 1994 1995
5. EIA/TIA-455-80 (FOTP-80). Cutoff Wavelength of Uncabled Single-Mode Fiber By Transmitted
Power, Method B
6. EIA/TIA-455-170 (FOTP-170). Cable Cutoff Wavelength of Single-Mode Fiber By Transmitted
Power, Method B, Configuration 2
7. W. Hioki. Telecommunications, Second edition, Prentice Hall, 1995. 501 p.
8. J. Hudgings, J. Nee. "WDM All-Optical Networks", 1996,
http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/~jnee/ee228a/
9. All-Optical Networking Consortium WDM Slide Presentation, 1996,
http://www.ll.mit.edu/aon/WDMSlide3B.html
10. - : / . . , . .
, . . . .: , 1993. 264 c.
11. What is PMD? Understanding Polarization Mode Dispersion, Corning TPD Library,
1994-1998, http://pro.corningfiber.com/library/nv1072.html
12. EIA/TIA-455-A. Standard Test Procedures for Fiber Optic Fibers, Cables, Transducers,
Sensors, Connecting and Terminating Devices, and other Fiber Optic Components (A series of
fiber optic test procedures, EIA-455-1 through EIA-455-190.), (ANSI/EIA/TIA-455-A-91) (Aug.,
1991)
13. T. Fuerst. "Optical Layer Planning Requires Flexibility", Lightwave, October 1997. pp. 50-51
14. TrueWave Single-Mode Optical Fiber, Lucent Technologies, 1997, http://www.lucent.com
15. Corning SMF-LS CPC6 Single-Mode Dispersion-Shifted Optical Fiber, Product Information,
2/1995; Corning LEAF CPC6 Single-Mode Dispersion-Shifted Optical Fiber, Product
Information, 2/1998
16. M. A. McDonald. "Conventional Single-Mode Optical Fiber and Dispersion-Shifted Optical Fiber
Designed to be Different", Corning TPD, Library-UTC, 1995
17. G. F. Wildeman, C. Weinstein. Dispersion-Shifted Optical Fibers Adapt to Network Capacity
and Data Rate Changes (R1052), Corning, 1997, http://pro.corningfiber.com/library/

35

3.
, ,
, , , ,
, , .., , -
.
- . , , , ,
- .
. , -
. : ( ) ,
, .
.
. , , . ( , connectors) /. .

3.1.

[1]. . 3.1. : , . 3.1 . -
, . , . -, . , , . . .
:
(coupling), . 3.1 .
(ferrule). , , . 3.1 . .
2,5 . () . , , ,
. 126 +1/0
127 +2/0 . (, 124, 125, 126,
127 ) . ,
, .
( ), ( ). .
: , , ,
, , .
36

..

:
1 ;
2 -;
3 ;
4 ;
5 ;
6 ;
7
();
8 ;
9 ;
10 ;
11

)
6

10

11

9
8

10

)
. 3.1. : ) ; ) ;
)


( ) D D = Pout Pin , a

a = 10 lg D = 10 lg Pout / Pin

[],

Pin Pout

.
. ,
( Pin ).
. Pout . ( ), 0,3 0,5 .
: .
,
( ), , , , / .
.
, .
,
.
, .
, .
-

a F = 10 lg 4n 1 n 2 (n 1 + n 2 )

) [], n

n2

( ).
. , ,
NA 1 , , NA 2 ,

a NA = 10 lg(NA 2 NA 1 )

[].

NA 1 < NA 2

,
,

D2

a D = 10 lg(D 2 D1 )

, .

[],

D1 < D 2

D1

.
-

37

62,5/125 50/125. 50 62,5 . . -


50 . 50/125
62,5/125, (
). 62,5/125 50/125,

(50 62,5)2

, 1,94 .

. , (50 ),
(62,5 ).
, , 62,5/125, ANSI/TIA/EIA-568A [2].
, . , FDDI
(PMD), Fast Ethernet (100Base-FX)
11 2 . ,
3 /, 0,5 , 62,5 50 , 2,5 ,
(2 ).
.
( 16 ) ,
.
,
, . : ( , L, S); ; , . 3.2.

1,5

NA = 0,15

1,0

NA = 0,2

0,5

NA = 0,5

()

()

4
L
3
2
1
0

3
4
1
2
()

0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
L/D

NA = 0,5

3
2
1
0

()

()

NA = 0,2

1.0

0,5

NA = 0,15
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4 0,5
S/D

1
8
15
()

. 3.2. [3]:
) ; )
; ) ; ) -

38

..

, L S (. 3.2 , , ) [1, 4]:

a = 10 lg1

arcsin NA
4 L
a L = 10 lg 1
D

[],

(3-1)

[],

(3-2)

a S = 10 lg[1 (1 + 2(S / D) tg[arcsin (NA / n 0 )])]

NA

[],

n0

(3-3)

, -

.
, , ( ),
, (. 3.2 ).

.
-
, ,
n1
n
n1

Pin
Pout
, . 3.3.
Pr

S
:

. 3.3.

DF =

4n12 n 2

4n12 n 2 + (n 12 n 2 ) sin 2 (2nS )


2

(3-4)

, ,

))

a F = 10lg DF = 10lg 2n1n n1 + n2 [],


n 1 (1,5), , n , . 3.3. ( n =1) -

0,35 . , , ,
.
0,3-0,4
. , ,
.

PC, Super PC, Ultra PC, APC


, . , ,
, ,
. , , .
, , .
, (
1 ) , , , , . , .
-

39

.
R R = Pr Pin ,

Pr

b = 10 lg R = 10 lg Pr / Pin

[],

. (

) ,
. ( 0 ) ( ) .
, ,
S ( ) .

RF =
n1

(n

2
1

n 2 ) sin 2 (2nS )
2

4n12 n 2 + (n12 n 2 ) sin 2 (2nS )


2

(3-5)

( ),

(. 3.3). . , R F + D F = 1 , . S . ,
,

n1 = 1,5

n = 1,0

b F = 10 lg R F = 10 lg (n 1 n )

(n

2
1

+ n2

)) [].

11 .

S , .
. ,
. ,
, , . . 3.1
.

3.1.
(n1=1,5; n=1,0; . 3.3)

S/

, DF

, aF,

, RF

, bF,

0,250

0,85207

0,69524

0,14793

8,3

0,100

0,94341

0,25298

0,05659

12,5

0,050

0,98369

0,07141

0,01631

17,9

0,020

0,99728

0,01183

0,00272

25,7

0,010

0,99932

0,00297

0,00068

31,6

0,005

0,99983

0,00074

0,00017

37,7

0,002

0,99997

0,00012

0,00003

45,6

0,001

0,99999

0,00003

0,00001

51,6

S ( S <0,1)

,
.
,
(physical contact, PC) [5].
? ,
. , , ,
, . 3.4 . , = 0,05o 40

..

1 ( 2,5 ).
, . 4 .
, : PC < 30 ; SuperPC < 40 ; UltraPC < 50 . . 3.1
, .
R PC- 15 25 .
, , (, ).

() (angled PC, APC), . 3.4 .
, , , . , , , .3.4 . APC 60 , 75 .
R APC 5 15 .
PC , = 1 2 -

. 8o, 70 .
,
. , ,
12o [6].

. 3.4. : ) ; )
(PC); )
(APC)

- APC . HFC, ( 1 /c )
APC.
. , .

, ,
. 500-1000 . 0,2 . , . . , , ( , )
, .
, .
.

41

. , .
, , .
. , ,
. .


: Biconic, D4, D-hole FC, FC,
SC, MIC (FDDI), ESCON, SMA, ST, - . SC, ST FC. ,
SC (. 3.2).

3.2. C *


( )


( )

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

Optaball (CF-03, IEC 874-3)

EC (CF-08, IEC 874-13)

DIN47256 (LSA, IEC 874-6)

SC-APC (IEC 874-14) (EC)

OCCU-PC (IEC 874-11)

SC/PC (IEC 874-14)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

SC/PC (IEC 874-14)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

SC/PC, SC-APC (IEC 874-14)

Biconic (BAM, IEC 874-5), FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

SC/PC, SC-APC (IEC 874-14)

DIN47256 (LSA, IEC 874-6)

DIN47256 (LSA, IEC 874-6)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

SC/PC (IEC 874-14)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

Biconic (BAM, IEC 874-5), FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

SC/PC (IEC 874-14)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

SC/PC (IEC 874-14)

Optaball (CF-03, IEC 874-3)

EC (CF-08, IEC 874-13)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

SC/PC (IEC 874-14)

FC/PC (IEC 874-7)

SC/PC (IEC 874-14)

* Molex

SC
SC, NTT,
, , .

SC, . 3.5 . (push-pull) . SC
(mm), (sm) . . 3.5 )
SC. SC Duplex SC, , , Duplex SC, . 3.5 , . Duplex SC . ISO TIA Duplex SC
. 4 SC
4SC, . 3.5 .
42

..

. 3.5. SC: ) SC; ) Duplex SC; ) SC;


) Duplex SC; ) 4SC
( ): SC:
SC; Duplex SC: Duplex SC SC; 4SC:
SC.
SC . 3.3.

ST
ST (. 3.6 , ) , SC. , . ST
, .
ST mm (Ethernet). Ethernet (10Base-FL). ST , .
ST . 3.3.

. 3.6. ST: ) ST; ) ST (


); ) ST

FC
FC (. 3.7 , ) 80- .
, SC ST (2,5 ). . , SC. , , SC,
. FC , SC.
. 3.7 . FC
. 3.3.

. 3.7. FC: ) FC; ) F (


); ) F
-

43

3.3. FC, SC, ST


FC

FC/PC

SC
SC MM

ST
SC SM

ST MM

ST SM



()

80.75,


( push-pull)

, ,
,

SMF: D/125

, ,

MMF: 50/125; SMF:


MMF: 50/125;
62,5/125 D/125 62,5/125

SMF:
D/125

FLAT

< 1,0

PC

< 0,5

< 0,25

< 0,5

< 0,7

< 1,0

SPC

< 0,5

< 0,25

< 0,5

< 0,7

UPC

< 0,5

< 0,5

< 0,7

APC

< 0,5

< 0,5

FLAT

PC

< 27

< 22

< 27

< 30

SPC

< 40

< 36

< 40

< 40

UPC

< 50

< 50

< 50

APC

< 60

< 60

: SMF , MMF , D SMF (810 ), FLAT , PC , SPC ,


UPC , APC

MIC
MIC (media interface connector)
FDDI, . 3.8. Duplex SC. , MIC,
,
(A, B, Master, Slave). , FDDI.

. 3.8. MIC (FDDI)


, . , ( 44

..

, ), ( ), ( ).
. : ST Duplex SC MM 50/125 5.
50/125 5, Duplex SC, ST.
:

; (
-).
. 3.9.

. 3.9. : ) ST-ST; ) SC-ST


. ,
.
- , .


, .. , :
( / ),
.
.
3 900 (tight-buffer). ST, FC, SC
1 [7].

()
, , , . , , 250 -1 .
( )
( ) . ,
, < 0,2 < 50 ,
[7, 8]. .


- , , , ,
, , , , .
, , ,
. -

45

. ,
. () , , , ,
. , ,
, (
)
.

( , , , ). , . : . ,
.
: Seiko Instruments, 3M,
AMP, Amphenol, Molex, ADC Telecommunications. () " ".
,
Seiko Instruments (90% ).
"-",
" ", " ". .
, (, ).

3.2.
(fusion splicing) ,
.
,
V- .
PAS, . ,
, , , .
V- (V-groove)

, . 3.10.

)
Y
Z

. 3.10. V-groove:
) ;
) / ;
)

46

..

Vgroove:

(cladding diameter distribution);

/ (core/clad concentricity);

(fiber curl) .

V-groove 125,0 1,0


, , Bellcore TR-20 1994 .
1,0 /,
0,8 [10].

. , , .
, , .
,
( ). ,
.
. , .
. , .
.
(. 3.4) -
.

3.4.

. . , , , .
,
.
.
.

, . , .

47

0,05 0,1 , [9].


,
.
, V-groove.
, ,
( 4 12 ). ,
,
. () , , Vgroove. , c V-groove. (36, 72, 144).


: .
(< 70 ),
,
. ,
.
n n < 0,001 . , , . , ,
.
. , - , , , () .
, ,
, .
- . ,
.
, , , , , - . ( ) . 3.11 .

(MFD, mode field diameter).
( ), MFD ,
. 3.11 .
-
MFD. , - MFD 9,3 0,5 0,04 .
.
, , .
, ,

-.
, , . , . , , , ,
.
.

48

..


0,2

0,4

0,3

0,4

D1 - D2
0,3
0,2

NA 1 - NA2

0,1
0,0

0,1

0,10

0,0

0,08
0,06
0,04
0,02
0,00
0,80 0,86 0,92 0,98 1,04 1,10 1,16

. 3.11. [9]: ) -
; )

, , , , . ,
: ,
, .
Fujikura FSM-30S Sumitomo Electric Industries Type-35SE.

3.3.
, ,
(coupler, splitter).
-
, (all-optical
networks). .
, , , [1].
, , .
, , , .
: ;
; .

(tree coupler)

,
(. 3.12 ).
. n x m, n ( n = 1),
m , . -

49

2 32. . .
.

(star coupler)
. n n . 2x2 4x4. ,
, ,
. 3.12 .
.

(tap)
,
, .3.12 .
1x2, 1x3, 1x4, 1x5, 1x6, 1x8, 1x16, 1x32.
( 50%) () , . .

1
.
.
.
n

4x4

1
2
3
4

1
.
.
.
n

a
b
c
d

. 3.12. : ) ;
) ; )

Pi
Pi , j

. 3.12 , :
, i (, d);
, j

i (, 1).
.
(insertion loss) ,
. a ins (i, j) = 10 lg(Pi , j / Pi ) .

50

..

i, j , i = a, j = 1.
,
. , , b dir (i, j) = 10 lg(Pi , j / Pi ) . i, j , i = 2, j = 3, i = a, j = c (. 3.12 ). , . i, j , , . 3.13 . , , . , . .

b bs (i) = 10 lg(Pii / Pi )

Pii

i . . i- (.
3.13 ).
. . ( ) .

b
4x4

a
4x4

. 3.13. : ) ,
)


. nxn , 2nx2n. 4x4 (. 3.12 ) . 3.5.

51

3.5. a i , j ,
(j)
(i)

45,5

48,5

47,2

49,7

6,8

6,9

6,7

6,7

47,6

46,1

47,4

49,7

6,9

6,8

6,8

6,6

49,8

47,6

45,9

46,9

6,6

6,8

6,8

6,7

50,5

48,2

48,9

46,2

6,6

6,7

6,8

6,7

6,7

6,8

6,9

6,7

47,1

47,3

48,9

46,6

6,7

6,8

6,8

6,7

47,8

46,5

49,7

48,3

6,7

6,9

6,8

6,7

48,3

46,5

47,7

48,5

6,7

6,6

6,9

6,8

47,3

46,7

49,1

47,9

, a 4.
6,66,9 ,
.
:

6,9 ;

( (6,9 ) (6,6 ) ) 0,3 ;

48,5 ;

46,2 .

a exc (i) = 10 lg ( Pi , j ) / Pi
j

, -

i,
.
.
(passband) , . , . ,
, (achromatic).
35 . .
(splitting loss) , , . (1xn) n , , a SL = 10 lg 1 n . , -

( )

. , 4x4

a SL = 6,02

( ).
(splitting ratio) , . , , ( ), , 100% .
. 3.6 , , ADC Telecommunications.

52

..

3.6. [11]


200
201
210

1x2
(3) 1x2
1x2

220
230
240

(%)

(, max)

(, )

50/50
(50/50) x3
55/45

3,7/3,7
(3,7/3,7) x3
3,2/4,1

3,1/3,1
(3,1/3,1) x3
2,7/3,6

1x2
1x2
1x2

60/40
65/35
70/30

2,7/4,7
2.3/5.3
2,0/6,0

2,3/4,1
2.0/4.7
1,7/5,4

250
260
270

1x2
1x2
1x2

75/25
80/20
85/15

1,6/6,8
1,3/7,8
1,0/9,2

1,4/6,2
1,1/1,7
0,8/8,4

280
290
305

1x2
1x2
1x3

90/10
95/5
70/15/15

0,8/11,2
0,5/14,4
2,0/9,7/9,7

0,6/10,2
0,4/13,2
1,7/8,5/8,5

310
320
330

1x3
1x3
1x3

60/20/20
55/25/20
50/30/20

2,7/8,4/8,4
3,2/7,3/8,2
3,7/6,4/8,4

2,3/7,2/7,2
2,7/6,3/7,2
3,1/5,4/7,2

340
350
360

1x3
1x3
1x3

50/25/25
40/40/20
40/35/25

3.7/7.4/7.4
5,0/5,0/7,3
5.0/5.3/7.0

3,1/6,2/6,2
4,2/4,2/7,1
4.3/4.7/6.1

370
380
390

1x3
1x3
1x3

40/30/30
35/35/30
33/33/33

4,7/6,4/6,4
5,7/5,7/6,0
5,9/5,9/5,9

4,1/5,4/5,4
4,8/4,8/5,4
5,0/5,0/5,0

391
410
420

(2) 1x3
1x4
1x4

(33/33/33) x2
40/30/15/15
40/25/20/15

(5,9/5,9/5,9) x2
4,7/6,4/10,1/10,1
4,9/7,0/8,2/10

(5,0/5,0/5,0) x2
4,1/5,4/8,5/8,5
4,2/4,3/7,3/8,8

430
440
450

1x4
1x4
1x4

40/20/20/20
35/35/15/15
35/25/25/15

4,9/8,4/8,4/8,4
5,7/5,7/9,7/9,7
5,7/7,4/7,4/9,7

4,2/7,2/7,2/7,2
4,8/4,8/8,5/8,5
4,8/6,2/6,2/8,5

460
470
480

1x4
1x4
1x4

35/25/20/20
30/30/20/20
30/25/25/20

5,4/7,4/8,4/8,4
6,4/6,4/8,4/8,4
6,4/7,4/7,4/8,4

4,6/6,4/7,2/7,2
5,4/5,4/7,2/7,2
5,4/6,2/6,2/7,2

490
510
520

1x4
1x5
1x5

25/25/25/25
25/25/20/15/15
25/20/20/20/15

7,4/7,4/7,4/7,4
7,4/7,4/8,4/10,1/10,1
7,0/8,6/8,6/8,6/10

6,2/6,2/6,2/6,2
6,2/6,2/7,2/8,5/8,5
6,1/7,3/7,3/7,3/8,8

530
610
800

1x5
1x6
1x8

20/20/20/20/20
8,6/8,6/8,6/8,6/8,6
7,3/7,3/7,3/7,3/7,3
20/20/15/15/15/15 8,4/8,4/10,1/10,1/10,1/10,1 7,2/7,2/8,5/8,5/8,5/8,5
12.5/12.5/...12.5
11,3/11,3/...11,3
9,5/9,5/...9,5

116
132

1x16
1x32

6,25/6,25/...6,25
3,13/3,13/...3,13

14,9/14,9/...14,9
18,5/18,5/...18,5

12,7/12,7/...12,7
15,8/15,8/...15,8

3.4. WDM
() WDM WDM
MUX () DEMUX ( )

53

. , MUX
DEMUX . WDM , , , . 3.14.
WDM 90- . 1310 1550 .
1550 WDM
, 1550 .
. EDFA. (passband), EDFA / (1530-1560 ),
. DWDM (dense wavelength division multiplexer) WDM 1,6 . WDM
WDM , .
, .
4, 8 16. 32.
WDM

1
2

WDM

1
2
....

....

. 3.14. ,

WDM
WDM . .
(. 3.15 ) WDM ( ) , . 3.15 . WDM . , . 3.15 .
1 , 1 (. 3.15 ), 3 (common). , ,
1 2. , . 3.15 , , 100%

1 -

.
WDM . .
, WDM .
. NEXT (nearend crosstalk directivity)
, 1 2,

2 ,

1 (. 3.15 ).

FEXT (far-end crosstalk, isolation)


. , -

54

..

1 3 (common), (. 3.15 ), FEXT , 1 2, 2 .


2
3

WDM

WDM
2

1 2
3

WDM

. 3.15. WDM: ) ;
) ; ) /

WDM / n / 1, 2, ..., n,
1 , 2 , ..., n , / (com) ,
. 3.15 . 1:n.

:
Pi ( k ) k , i;

Pi , j ( k )

k ,

j,

k i ( i j ) ;
Pii ( k ) k , i;
Pi ,com ( k ) k , com-,

k i;

Pcom ( k ) k , com-;
Pcom, j ( k ) k , j,
k com- ( j k );
Pcom,com ( k ) k , com-;

Pcom,k ( k )

k ,

(), ,

k com-.

55

b NEXT ,

b FEXT

, -

b NE

b FE

b NEXT (i, j) = 10 lg

b NE (i) = 10 lg

Pi , j ( i )

, (i

Pi ( i )

Pi ,i ( i )
Pi ( i )

, (i

b FEXT (i, j) = 10 lg

j = 1,..., n );

= 1,..., n );

b FE (i) = 10 lg

a NE

Pcom, j ( i )

Pcom,com ( i )

,(

Pcom ( i )

Pcom ( i )
a FE

, (i

j i = 1,..., n );

= 1,..., n ).

a NE (i) = 10 lg

Pi ,com ( i )
Pi ( i )

, (i

= 1,..., n );

a FE (i) = 10 lg

Pcom,i ( i )
Pcom ( i )

, (i

= 1,..., n ).

WDM 1:n n ( ), ( n + 1) x ( n + 1) .
WDM 1:2 . 3.7.

3.7. a i , j () WDM 1:2

1 =1310

2 =1550

3 (com)

3 (com)

50

25

1,5

50

25

25

25

50

25

25

50

1,5

3 (com)

1,5

25

50

25

1,5

50

WDM
WDM ,
, 70 (1310, 1550, 1625 ).
1310/1550 , .
1550/1625
1625 .
WDM DiCon
. 3.16 . :
1310/1550 ; (. 3.15 ), (. 3.15 )
(. 3.15 ); 60 ;
40 ( 1) 20 ( 2);
1,0 0,7 ( 1 2 );
55 ; Corning SMF-28; ( 3 ,
900 ), .
WDM 1,6 ( 0,8 ) 70 . , , . :
- EDFA, "add/drop", .

56

..

() WDM
. 3.16 , .

. 3.16. WDM DiCon [13]:


) 1310/1550/1625 WDM (1:2);
) WDM (1:2);
) 4- WDM (1:4)

. WDM : ADC [11], Amphenol [12], DiCon [13], FOCI [14], Lucent Technologies [15], Molex [16],
Nortel [17], Oki Electric Industry [18] .

3.5.
, , , , . .
, , , , .
,
(>100 ), ( -
1 ). ,
(, WDM
, ),
. .
, () .
, ,
.



.
= VB z d , V (Verdet) , ,
, B z , d
.
. ,
. .
. , ,

2 .
57


: 1 ( ), 2 3 ( ), . 3.17. , , , 45o. .
, 1,
, , . 3.17 .
2, 45o 3.
(. 3.17 ) 3, , 2, . , 1
90o, 1 .


, ,
( 1-2 ) ( ) (>30 ). , ,
. 1,3-1,55 , , Y3 Fe 3 O12 . 0,85 .

= 45o

Bz

(3)

(2)

(1)

= 45o
Bz

)
z

(3)

(2)
(1)

) ;
) ;
) ()

. 3.17. :

, EOT (Electro-Optic Technology), OFR (Optical For Research, Inc.) . 3.8.


.
,
. ,
1 .

.
, . , , , , , -

58

..

. .

3.8.


( )
90%

IO-G-1310 (1310 )

IO-G-1550 (1550 )

36

8 16

12%

=1310

12%

=1550

0,71,2

0,71,2

> 55

> 55

20

+55oC

20 +55oC

35 +80oC

35 +80oC

95%, 0oC 40oC

95%, 0oC 40oC

: DiCon [13],
FOCI [14], FiberPlex [19], Shinkosha [20].

3.6.

. ,
. . .
.
0-20
0,5
. .
,
0, 5, 10, 15 20 . , , [7, 26].
,
, .
: -, , -FM . -
(ST, SC FC).
. - ( ), ( ). -FM , . 3.18,
, 5, 10,15 20 (
, ).

. 3.18. -FM SC

59

- HFC , , . , 80 FC/APC SC/APC.


,
, ,
. ,
, , .
. , ,
(, , FDDI). : - ( ), , , : , , , , .
, , ,
. .
:

1xN ,
N , . 3.19 ;

2xN ,
2, . 3.19 ;

2xN ,

, . 3.19 ;

2xN ,
1, . 3.19 .

.
1
2
.
3
1
4
2
.
.
N

.
1
.
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
N

.
1
2
3
N

0
.
1
2

.
1
2
3
4
.
.
N

. 3.19.

FDDI 8- (4 4 ) OBS (optical bypass switch), : 1-1, 2-2, 3-3, 4-4; : 1-2, 2-1, 3-4, 4-3.
. -
, ,
25 500 .
DiCon Fiberoptics
100,
(RS-232, RS-485). . 3.9 .

60

..

3.9. [13]

1x2 MM Switch

2x2 SM Switch

FDDI Dual Bypass


Switch

0,5; max 1,0

0,6; max 1,3

0,5; max 1,8

< 50

< 25

< 50

< 25

> 10000000

> 10000000

> 10000000

< 80

< 80

< 80

,
,

: AMP, DiCon, Fibertron,


JSD Fitel, Molex, NetOptics.


.
.
,
. , ,
, ..
,

, . . 3.20.

. 3.20. : ) 10
( NK Cables); ) 3 (
" ")

PLP [21], Lucent Technologies, Siemens, NK Cables (Nokia) [22].

3.7.

( ) , , , - (
). . .

61



,
/, .
: ; , (pig-tail-); .

, ,
, . 3.21 .
.
pig-tail-
pig-tail-. Pig-tail ,
. , . 3.21 . ,
, , .
. (-, -).
( ), . 3.21 . . , ,
.

Pig-tail

-
,

. 3.21. : ) ; ) pig-tail-; )

62

..

, . ,
.
, .

. (),
() .


. ,
- , (-) .
, . , , . : ; .

()
, , . , - ,
. pig-tail-.
ADC Telecommunications, AMP,
Optronics, Telect, AT&T, .
, : "-", "
", " ".
: ,
, .
()

, . 3.22.
pig-tail-. (. . 3.2. ), . Pig-tail
, . pig-tail- (). Pig-tail-
, .
6

9
10
11

3
2

:
1 ;
2 ;
3 ;
4 ;
5 -;
6 ;
7 ;
8 ;
9 pig-tail-;
10 pig-tail-;
11

. 3.22.

63

SC
mm SC mm, FC sm, SC sm. .
, , , . , , . . 3.23
.

. 3.23.

() 19.
, -
. .
. . 3.24 . . 3.24 , -. .
. 3.24 , . -, ,
- .
.

. 3.24. : ) 24-
- ; ) 72- ,

64

..


, . 3.25. , , , ,
. , ,
. , . ,
.
, , .

. 3.25.

() . , .
.
.
SFET, ADC Telecommunications [23].
( x x ),
,
/,
,
( )

91,4 x 81,3 x 33,2


11,3
14 (7+7) / 14 (7+7)
144
SC, FC, ST, D4

SFET
- . .

()
(>100)
. , . :
( 120-500)
() ( >500).
.

65

. 3.10 .

3.10.


08

8 16

16 32


32 120 120 500

>500

: ;
; ;

: 3M; ADC Telecommunications; Lucent Technologies;


Molex; Nortel; Reltec; Siecor; Telect.
. , SDH/ATM.
, .
, .
,
" " "all-optical networks".

-
: (interconnect) - (cross-connect).
()
, , , ,
. 3.26 . , , .
.
, . , ,
, ,
. , , , . ,
.
, - ,
.
- (), , , , ,
. (-)

, . 3.26 .

66

..

-
. - :
1.

2.

( ) , , -
( ,
);

3.

- .

) -
. 3.26. -


, - ,
, , , .
,

. .
, , . , - , .
, ,
, . - ,
, . 3.27.

67

Pig-tail

. 3.27. -

.
.


: ,
; ; ;
.
, . , , .
, . , 5 .
, , , ,
.
.
,
. 3.28.
1.
( 1).
2. 1.
3.
.
4. ( 3).
5. 3.
6. .
7. , ( 2, 3).
(logistics) , , ()
, ..
, .
. , ,
. .
, . , -

68

..

4
3

3
2

3
. 3.28.


,
- . FiberBaseTM ADC Telecommunications [24] OSP InSight Advanced Fiber Optics [25].



- .
, , - . ,
?
. 3.11 ADC Telecommunications : F3DF,
FMDF.

69

3.11.
ADC [26, 27]

F3DF FMDF

H x W x D (3)

214 x 58 /77* (
) x 30

214 x 66 x 61

SC, Angled SC, FC, Angled FC.


D4, ST, Duplex SC, MIC (FDDI)

SC, Angled SC, FC, Angled FC

576**
(8 x 72 ./)

864
(12 FTB*** x 72 ./)

1728

2592

60

1x2, 1x3, 1x4, 1x5, 1x6,



( SC PC, FC PC,

SC, 80 Angled SC, FC, 80 Angled
( VAM)
FC, ST, 80 Angled ST)

1x2, 1x3, 1x4, 1x5, 1x6


( SC PC, FC PC, SC,
80 Angled SC, FC, 80 Angled FC)

* 58 77 .
** , ,
( ) .
*** FTB (fiber terminal bloc) .

FMDF F3DF (60 8) . F3DF ,


, . ,
8- () 5 . FMDF , 6
, .

. 3.29. FMDF
FTB 72

70

..


. 3.30.

. 3.30.

. 1,
2,
3.
, , , 4.
, 5. 6, - 7. - 6 8 .
.
1.
2. 3, .

71

3
1.

- : / . . ,
.. , .. . .: , 1993. 264 c.

2.

ANSI/TIA/EIA-568A. Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard,


October. 1995

3.

Warren Hioki. Telecommunications, 2nd ed., Prentice Hall, 1995. 501 p.

4.

J. Hecht. Understanding Fiber Optics, Sams Publishing, 1993. 477 p.

5.

N. Suzuki, "PC Polishing Techniques", Seiko OFC Section Teiln-NR, 1996 (pp.1-4)

6.

M. Vukovic. "Analyze Connector Parameters to Realize High Performance",


LIGHTWAVE, July, 1996 (pp. 50-56)

7.

. " ",
-, 1997, http://www.peterlink.ru/ads/pt

8.

- . 1-98
"-", M, 1998, http://www.vimcom.ru

9.

Single Fiber Fusion Splicing, AN103, Corning Inc., 1994. 15 p.

10.

W.T. Morris. V-Groove and mass splicing send manufacturers 'back to school' to
develop fibers that meet the challenges of these technologies, Geometry 101: Studding
Fiber's Parameters, Corning Inc., 1998, http://pro.corningfiber.com/library/r152.html

11.

Frameworx - Value-Added Connector Module System, ADC Telecommunications, 891


7/1994. 28 p.

12.

Fiber Optic Products Catalog, Amphenol, March, 1998,


http://www.amphenol-fiberoptics.com

13.

DiCon Fiberoptics Inc., 1997, http://www.diconfiberoptics.com

14.

FOCI Fiber Optic Communications, Inc., 1996/1997,


http://www.foci.com.tw/96catal1.html

15.

Lucent Technologies, 1998, http://www.lucent.com

16.

Active and Passive Fiber Optic Components, Fiber Optic Product Catalog, Molex, 1998,
http://www.molex.com/product/fiber/fiber.html

17.

Nortel: Info Center Complete WDM Component Solutions, Feb, 1997,


http://www.nortel.com/home/press/1997a/2_18_9797053WDM.html

18.

WDM cross-connect system, Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd, 1996,


http://bugs.wpi.edu:8080/EE535/hwk96/hwk5cd96/luke/luke.html

19.

FiberPlex, Inc., 1997, http://www.fiberplex.com

20.

Optical Isolator Products, Catalog, Shinkosha Co., Ltd., 1996.

21.

Fiber Optic Products, PLP Product Overview, 1997,


http://www.preformed.com/PROD/prod.html

22.

- .
NK Cables, 1997. 55 .

23.

Outside Plant Secure Fiber Entrance Terminal (SFET), ADC Telecommunications, User
Manual, 1994, http://www.adc.com

24.

FiberBaseTM Fiber Network Management Software, ADC Telecommunications, 1997,


http://www.adc.com/Products/fiberbase/10p-AD.html

25.

OSP InSight, Advance Fiber Optics, 1997, http://www.advancefiber.com/ospmain.html

26.

Fiber Cable Management Products, Second edition, Catalog, ADC Telecommunications,


1996, http://www.adc.com

27.

Fiber Main Distribution Frame, Catalog, ADC Telecommunications, 1996,


http://www.adc.com

72

..

4.

4.1.
(), -
, . . , , .
, .


. , , :

. ,
: 850, 1300, 1550 ;

, , ;

,
, , ;

, , (LED)
(LD).

. ,
, . 4.1 [1, 2]. .

( = 1-3 )

( = 30-50 )

( = 0,1-0,4 )

~1

. 4.1.

73


, , .

, . 4.2 . () (p- n-) p-n , .
()

Eg

()

= 1,24 E g

, . 4.2 .

,
, ,
.

0,1-0,2
n-

p
p-

Eg

. 4.2. : ) ;
)

. GaAs InP.
, . 4.1.
0 , ,

0,5

, .

4.1. ,
[2]

Ga(1x)AlxAs

E g ,

GaAs

2,02...1,42

610...870

In(1x)GaxAsy P(1y)

InP

0,95

1100...1700

In0,73Ga0,27As0,58 P0,42

InP

0,95

1310

In0,58Ga0,42As0,9 P0,1

InP

0,80

1550


. , . ,
, , . ,

74

..

(1-2 )
30-50 , . 4.1.
- .
, . I thres , , -

, . 4.3.

I thres

. 4.3. - :
1 - ;
2 -

, I

Pout

(output power) .
. Pout ,
(103 ),

p out = 10 lg Pout ().

. , , . (output power range). , 19/14 , p out min = 19 , p out max = 14 .


1,3 1,55 .
1,55 ,
(L 100 ) . , 1,3
( ). 1,55 SMF 17 /. ,
. . 2.4 ( 2) ,
=4 100 63 , = 0,2 1260 . , 1,55
(DSF), (SMF),
.
: -; ;
; .
- (FP , Fabry-Perot). ,
. ,
100%, , , , .
. 4.1 -. , , , .
. -

75

. ,
2 D = N , D -, N . , ,
. ,
1 . 0,5 , . FP
, ,
, , , -.
, , , , FP
,
( 10 1-2 ).
, ,
- [2].
(DFB )
(DBR ). -, . DFB
(. 4.4 ), DBR (. 4.4 ).
. , DFB DBR FP :
, 100 . T FP
0,5-1 /oC, DFB 0,07-0,09 /oC.
DFB DBR , , .
(EC ). EC
, , ,
. . 4.4 ) EC . , 30% . , , .
.
,
-,
, 30 . , EC [3]. DFB DBR .


: ; .
. , , .
0,1 0,9

. , .. , . rise fall ,
, 0,1 0,9 , , 0,9 0,1. -

76

..

, 0,1 0,9, .
200 , (
). W.
, ( ), (2-8): W = 0,35 / rise .


. 4.4. :
) , DFB ;
) , DBR ;
) , EC

. , , , . .
. , , . , , ,
50000 (5-8 ).



. (housing), : , .
. , . . , ,
. 4.5, [4].
-

77

. : Epitaxx Inc.,
Ericsson Components Ab, Fujitsu Microelectronics Inc., Hamamatsu Corp., Hewlett-Packard,
Hitachi, Lasertron Inc., Laser Diode Inc., NEC Electronics Inc., OKI Semiconductors, Optek Technology Inc., Optical Communication Product Inc., Ortel Corp., Siemens Corp. . [5].

. 4.5. ()

4.2.
() . , , . .

, ;

, ,
;

, .

. , ,
. , , .
.
. 4.6 () ()
. .
. - , .
.
,
0 1, , ,
.
.

78

..

. 4.6. ():
) ; )

- [6].
.
.
.
. ,
. -
. (), ,
. , , . , ,
, .
, 0,5 . . ,
.


, . , , , ( - ). - ,
. -
.
p-n , . , ,
p-i-n , , .
p-i-n , i- ( n-) p+ n+- (+ ), . 4.7 . i-
, . p-i-n
Uo ( ).
, ( ) i-. i-,
, i- .
i-, - . -

79

, . i-, p+- n+-


, . p+- n+- ,
,
.


,
-

p -

p -

i-

n -

i-

p-

n -

U
Uo

Uo

. 4.7. , :
) p-i-n ; )

.
,
, . 4.2.
() ~ 80-100%. - .
4
,

n 1 n 2 , n 1 n 2

i- .

4.2. ,
[4]

400-1000

600-1600

GaAs

800-1000

InGaAs

1000-1700

InGaAsP*

1100-1600

80

..


, ,
. ,
, , .
, ,
, , , .
: ; ;
; ; ; / ; ; ; ;
; .

S ph

()

(/)

S ph = I ph P( ), I ph , P( )
, . .

N ph

( )

, ,

= N e N ph ,
Ne

( - ).
p-i-n 1 (100%).

. 4.8.

S ph =

e
,
hc

e (1,601019 ),

(6,631034 ),

S ph =

(3,00108 1).

.
1,24

. 4.8

. p-i-n 0,5-0,8
/, 20-60 / (. 4.3).
S ph , -

(%)

100

80

Ge

InGaAs

Si

InGaAsP

60

40

20
0,4

0,6

0,8

1,0

1,2

1,4

1,6

1,8

()

. 4.8.
[4]

81

Id

() -

. , , .
, ,
(. 4.3). ,
.

:

I sn

p-i-n

I sn = (2eI d B)

12

, e ,

Id

, B ( );

I jn = (4KTB R )1 2 , (1,381023
(), B , R (),

Ijn,

1),

[7].

2
I n , I n = (I sn
+ I 2jn )

12

rise (

fall )

. , , 0,1 0,9 ( 0,9 0,1)


, . , , , .
( rise ) .
. ,
0,707
.
, . (. 4.3). p-i-n . p-i-n . .

4.3.

, /

p-i-n (InGaAs)

0,8

0,1-3

0,01-5

p-i-n (Si)

0,5

10

0,1-5

(InGaAs)

20-60

30

0,3

(Ge)

20-60

400

0,3-1

18

25

2500

(Si)

Pn ()

.
, /
, Pn = I n / S ph , I n . , . Pn ,

B.

/1/2 .
, 2 , R= 5108
, S ph = 0,5 /, B =1 , -

82

..

I sn = 2,51014 A, I jn = 5,61015 A, I n = 2,61014 A,

Pn = 5,11014 .

, ,
, ,
, , , ,
. , ,
.
, .
, :
.
/ . / . / 50-60 , 30 . Pn /,

Pn _ min

.
. ,
/ ,
. ,
, .

. ,
, 0 1, BER.
. , . 4.9.
5
-4
BER
10
1012 103.
BER, -6
10
/ ,
.
10-8
,
, BER
10 25
50
60
(/)
109.
10-10
BER 1012. BER
10-12
, BER.
-38
-36
-34
-32
-30

. 4.9.
,
BER ,
.
. .
()

.
, . , , . ,
"" , , .
, , ,

83

.
, BER
.
.

Ur

, -

\ . . ,
.
(O). ,
.
, ,
. , . 4.10
.
, 1 . ,
600 , , >600 .
, - ,
, . 4.10 . 8-10oC.

1,0
0,8

0,4

-0,4

()

1100

1000

900

800

-0,2

700

600

0,2

500

(T=1oC)

400

/ (%)

0,6


( )

1,2

1000

100

10

1
0

50

100

()

. 4.10. :
)
1OC ;
)

(. ).
, .


. () ,
. p+-i-n+, p- (p+-i-p-n+), . 4.7 . , , , p-. i- - . ,
. i- p - p-.
p-, ,

84

..

() .
. ,
p-i-n . M

M = 1 1 (U U b )

), U

, M

, Ub , (breakdown)

100 ,
1000
, n
3 6, . 4.11.
500
200
, . 100
,
50
M,
(
20
M2,1). 10
M,
5
30 100.
2
1
p-i-n 0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1,0
1,1

(U/Ub)
. 4.11.
.
,


,
.



, , . ,
: , ,
, , .
.
1-10 , .
p-i-n 0,6 0,8 /,
, . . .
. .
.
. , , , .
, .
/ ( ) . , , , , .
.
, , . -
. .
-

85

, . , (0), ,
(1). . , ,
. ,
.
, , , ,
.
. . , , 1
. , . "" . (jitter, ). . ,
.
, .
-
, SDH. SDH , ( ) . SDH
(master clock),
.
. : Epitaxx Inc., Hamamatsu
Corp., Hewlett-Packard, Hitachi, Honeywell Inc., Lasertron Inc., Laser Diode Inc., NEC Electronics
Inc., OKI Semiconductors, Optek Technology Inc., Optical Communication Product Inc., Ortel Corp.,
Siemens Corp., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Toshiba . [5].

4.3.

,
- .
- . ,
. ,
, ( ) , .


: .
-
, , .
(- )
, , ,
, . 4.12 . . , ,
.
.

86

..

, , . 4.6 . .
, , , .
, , . "" ,
.
(), , , , . 4.12 . .
, . , .

. 4.12. : ) - ;
)


. 4.4. . , ,
, , . ,
, , . , , . ,
.
. ,
.
.
.
, (WDM )
, .
, , .


,
. , (mm)

87

(sm) . .
FDDI (100 /) [8, 9], ATM (155 /), ATM (622 /) [10] sm/mm .

4.4.

850, 1300, 1550

1530-1560

, ,
,


. ,
. , . . 4.5 [4].

4.5.

( )

1. -. . ( 25
) (1,5 ), (800 ) .
,
( 20
5 ). , -
,
WDM
.
2. , . ,
, , , f 1

f2 .

f1 ,

f2 .

, 1,5 .

88

..

3. , . ,
. ,

(f

f1 )

, WDM .

.
4. (). , , [11, 12].
, .
4 , . 4.13.
,

. 4.13.
,
. ,
.
, , , ( 9 ). , . ,
, .
. , (
) 4-8
. ,
.
. , . ( ), .
.
,
. . , .
. 4.14
, .
-

89

, .
,
.

6x6

1300
1305
1310

1315
1320
1325
1

1300

20

1325

20

. 4.14. . (

)

5. .
, [13, 14, 15].
. 4.15 . (1) (2),
, ,
(3),
, . ,
(4). . (5), , . (6)
. , .
, . (7) (8) (9).
(10)
.

(3) (6)

(8)

(5)

(1)

(9)

(4)

(2)

(6)

(7) (10)

. 4.15.

90

..

, , . 4.16. .
( A) ( B). B C. B
C ,

A C, C

.
hCA
,

, .
A

,
. 4.16.
.

,
,
. EDFA.
, , , [16]. EDFA 1530 1560 ,
h CA ,
980 .
1300
, .
.

, . , 1 (30 ), 1
(0 ), 30 . , . , 1
20 ,
13 .
. 4.17 , K EDFA
. K
Pin = 1 .
.
( 1530 1560 ) . . , ,
.

91

K, ()

40

35
30

25

70

20
15

10
5
0
1520

1525

1530

1535

1540

1545

1550

1555

1560

, ()

. 4.17. EDFA
( Corning)

,
. 4.18. , ,
- .

, ()

10
5
0

-5
-10
-15
-20

-25
-30
-35
-40
1530

1535

1540

1545

1550

1555

1560

, ()

. 4.18. EDFA

4.4. EDFA
EDFA : , - [14].
.
EDFA WDM
. ( -) 1530 1560 .
, , . 4.19.
92

..

, ()

EDFA , /
.
10

0
EDFA. -5
1550 ,

-10
,
-15


-20
40.
-25
(-30
) -

, -35

3
.
-40
1530

1535

1540

1545

1550

1555

1560

, ()

. 4.19. , ,

10

10

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
1530

, ()

, ()

DWDM


. . 4.20 16- STM-16 (2,5
/). , / (SNR), , 1540 , SNR .
, DWDM , (, 1545 ) SNR, ( 1540 )
SNR.

1535

1540

1545

1550

, ()

1555

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
1530

1560

1535

1540

1545

1550

1555

1560

, ()

. 4.20. ( ) DWDM : ) ( 1540 ); ) -


-

93

, EDFA
, EDFA. ( ) 1530 1542 , . , , , , , . , ,
DWDM .

SNR .
, .
. ,
. , SNR
STM-64 (10 /) 6 , STM-16 (2,5 /).
, STM-64.
, ,
[17, 18].
EDFA , , .

-
. ,
,
1530-1542 , DWDM .
. 4.20 , DWDM . SNR.

, .
- EDFA ( )
, 1480
. , 980 , EDFA, EDFA,
, .
, . ,
- EDFA, , .

4
1. - : / . . , . . ,
. . .: , 1994. 160 c.
2. - : / . . ,
. . , . . . .: , 1993. 264 c.
3. K. Vilhelmsson. Continuously Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Laser, Radians Innova AB,
Box 14194, S 400 20 Goteborg, Sweden, 1996. 2 p., http://www.radians.se/laser/extprin.html
4. J. Hecht. Understanding Fiber Optics, Sams Publishing, 1993. 477 p.
5. Ronald Shamus. "Optoelectonic Components", EE535 Homework 5, 1996,
http://bugs.wpi.edu:8080/EE535/hwk96/hwk5cd96/rshamus/rshamus.html
6. F. Halsall. Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems, Addison-Wesley, 1996.
907 p.
7. The Johnson-Nyquist Formula, 1998, http://www.tip.csiro.au/~fgreen/jnyq2.html
94

..

8. A. Mills. Understanding FDDI: A 100 Mbps Solutions for Todays Corporate LANs, Prentice Hall,
1995. 277 p.
9. FDDI Multimode to Singlemode Converter N320FD. Catalog NBase, 1996,
http://www.nbase.com
10. ATM Multimode to Singlemode Converter N420ATM. Catalog NBase, 1996,
http://www.nbase.com
11. Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, May 1995,
http://www-phys.llnl.gov/H_Div/photonics/SOA.html
12. Semiconductor and Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifiers (EDFA), Australian Photonics CRC, 1998,
http://www.vislab.usyd.edu.au/vislab/photonics/
13. Optoelectronics in Japan and the United States. JTEC/WTEC, Feb. 1996,
http://itri.loyola.edu/opto/toc.htm
14. T. Fuerst. "Today's Optical Amplifiers Enable Tomorrow's Optical Layer", Lightwave, July 1997.
(pp. 47-48)
15. T. Fuerst. "Optical Layer Planning Requires Flexibility", Lightwave, October 1997. (pp. 50-51)
16. P. Myslinski, D. Nguyen, J. Chrostowski. "Effect of Concentration and Clusters in Erbium-Doped
Fibre Amplifiers", paper WP3, Conference on Optical Fibre Communications, OFC'95, San Diego,
CA, Feb.Mar.,1995
17. S. B. Alexander. "WDM Network Operation Calls for Close Control of Parameters", Lightwave,
June, 1997. (pp. 27-32)
18. K. M. Kissa, D. J. Fritz. "AOTFs Route Traffic in WDM Networks", Lightwave, June 1996. (pp. 6466)

95

5.
5.1.

. . , , ,
.
()
.
:

1 FDM:
,
.

2 TDM:
, -,
-, . TDM ( - (
-) , ,
- , , .

. 5.1 FDM TDM. , (, , , ) ,


MUX, ,
DEMUX. , .

FDM
(. 5.1 )
, , ,
. ,
, , .
, 6,5
. ( 860 )

.
FDM WDM,
- .
1,3 (230 ) 1,6 (188 ). 1530-1560 .


n
( n -)
. ,
. . 5.1 1
2

.
.

96

..

- 12- TDM. - 1 , 2 .. -
W n , W .
-.

12
11

10
9
8
7

12

6
5
4
3
2
1

) , FDM


12 - ()

9 10 11 12 1

9 10 11 12 . .

) , TDM

. 5.1.

,
-
W n . . , , , .
.
, .
8
n .
.
. , , , , .
.
( , )

97

.
.
. : "-", , . 5.2. .
"-"

""

" "

. 5.2.

MUX

. 5.3. " TDM "


. , "", " ", . 5.3. .


,
. " "
SDH, Token Ring, DQDB, FDDI.
, (drop-add-pass), . 5.4:
1.

"Drop & Add" ( ). ( ),


. ,
, -

98

..

.
,
TDM , , Ethernet Token Ring.
-.
2.

"Drop & Pass" ( ). " ". . - .

3.

"Pass Only" ( ).
, ,
( -), .

4.

"Terminate & Add" ( ). , . , .


() " ".

5.

"Drop Only" ( ).
" ".

6.

"Terminate" ().
" ". , , ( -), .

Drop & Add

Drop & Pass

Pass Only

Terminate & Add

Drop Only

Terminate

. 5.4. ,

- .
, - TDM-.
- Optimux RAD.
. 5.5, . 5.1 .

E1
E1
E1
E1

E1
E1
E1
E1

. 5.5. -
Optimux RAD Data Communications

-, , : ADC Telecommunications Quad Fiber Loop


Converter, 4xE1 [2]; Pan Dacom FME-H, 6xE1 [3])

99

5.1. - Optimux RAD Data Communications [1]



, /

8 ( E2)

(mm) / (sm),

(LED , LD )

850 mm LED /1300 sm LED / 1300 sm LD /


1550 sm LD

ST, SC FC

75

E1

ITU G.703, G.742, G.823, G.956


, ( ) ,
ASCII SNMP

TDM MagnumPlus ADC Kentrox. , .


. 5.2.
, MagnumPlus
TDM ,
-, , .
TDM .
TDM . SDH, SDH .

5.2. MagnumPlus [4]


-, ,

,
/

155 (
STM-1)

(mm)/
(sm)

1300 : mm, 12 / mm, 20 / sm, 20 /


sm, 30
1550 : sm, 20

-
In/Out
-, /

28
8 (
-)
4,7

Ethernet, Token Ring, EIA RS-449/RS-422, V.35,


RS-232, RS-530, E1/T1, IBM 3270, AS/400, System/3X


( ) ,
SNMP , In/Out -

100

..

MagnumPlus, . 5.6:

(IN/OUT).
, ,
Ethernet Switch ( AUI, BNC, F/O), Token Ring 4 16 / ( DB9), E1
(G.703);

. 48V DC, 110V AC, 220V AC.



;

. , SNMP ;

. - (155
/) (DS3, 45 /).


()

IN/OUT

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

. 5.6. MagnumPlus ADC Kentrox

TDM NBase-Fibronics (MultiHUB) [5] Racal Data Group (PremNet 5000, PremNet Branch) [6].
SDH
8.

()
, , . -
. ,
,
-. , - , , , . ,
. - , -.
, , , , , , .
TDM ,
, , , . ,
, .
, .

101

.
c
X.25, Frame Relay ATM.
. 5.3
. , .

5.3. TDM
TDM

TDM


,
.

TDM

TDM


, .

5.1. .
. 4- , . 5.7 [7]. ( ) 4-
300 /, 8- "" "" . ""
"" ,
- , 10 -.
. - ,
300 /. 600
/. , 4- . , , -.
,
. . 5.7
120 /, 150 /, 120 /, 90 /. 480 /. 80% ( 16 20). 80%
- , 8 10- -, 480 / ( 64% = x ).

102

..

. 5.7 . 100% -.

SMUX

8- + "" ""

300 /
-, 8 + 2 ( )
1 1
1
1
= 80%
2 43 1 21 34 2
2 312 43 1
= 80%
2 2
2 2 2
= 64%

600 /

2 41 3

1234

23 12 4

= 36%
= 100%
= 36%

31

)

1200 /

. 5.7. () ()


n , , ,
.
,
. , 384 /
64 /,
. ,
( ) , 64 /.
, . . 5.8.

IDEMUX

IMUX

. 5.8.

103

.
( 1000 ) . (EDFA), .
, (. 2),
. , .
,
.
10/100 /. 2.5 ( 2)
100 20 . , ,
. 5.9 [8]. , ,
. () .

MUX
40


100 /c

1310 ,
1550

WDM (MUX)
1
2

40
2,5 /

1, 2

,...,

40

40

EDFA

DEMUX
WDM (DEMUX)

40
1
2

1,

2,...,

40

40
2,5 /


100 /c

1310 ,
1550

40

. 5.9. 100 / 40 2,5 /

5.2.
3 . , , ,
. , . , . 5.10.
3

,
.

104

..

. 5.11
. : [9, 10].
, , , ,
, .
, ISDN. (
).

( ). , ,
.

C
2
1

5
E
4

6
F
7

-
-

. 5.10.

(ATM)

Frame Relay

. 5.11.


. .
, . 5.10.
1.

. . A E.
, ,
. , A 4
E. A-4 ,

105

. 4 ,
6.
, 4 , 5, (
TDM FDM) .
A 4 5.
4,
. 5 4 6 ,
4. 6 E. , , E,
.
2.

. , .
(, )
(, ).
, . , : A-4,
4, 4-5, 5,
5-6, 6 6-E. , , , .

3.

.
, .
4, 5, 6, .

, .
, , ,
. , .
.
, .
100%. , ,
. ,
. , , , .


, . , . , , . ,
50%. , . , .
1.

(, -)
.
. , .

2.

. -
, .

.
, ( ).
.

106

..

, , . 5.12.

( )

. 5.12.

, , ,
. , , , () . .
. 5.13 . (, ) ().
/ ,
, , .
, . , , .
, . "" , .
.
1.

,

. ,
, , ,
, . , , , -
.
-, .

2.


. ,
.

3.

, , . .
, ,
.

4.

.
, , , ,
.
, .

,
.
. , , .

107

, : .
,
, . 5.13.

3 2

2
1

)
3
2

3 2
1

. 5.13.


,
.
.
.
. . , ,
, , . ,
,
-.
.
, , .

108

..

. , , . 5.14. ,
.
. , .
.
, ,
. , , .
,

, (,
)
.

3 2

2
1

3
2

3 2
1

. 5.14.

.
, -

109

. , , , ,
. , . , , , . ,
, 4 6 (. 5.14)
6 , 6 4 . ,
"" . , E A , ,

A. , ,
.
.
. . ,
, ""
, , . . .
, ,
.

ISDN
. ,
. , .
, , , , .
, . . .
.
.
,
, , . ISDN.
ISDN
, . ISDN: (BRI) (PRI). BRI (144 /)
B 64 /c D 16 / (2B+D). PRI 1 (1,544 /) E1
(2,048 /), 23 30 B , , ,
D- 64 / (23B+D 30B+D).
B-,
. , D .
() ISDN :
, ? , , ISDN 8 26 . ,
, . , -

110

..

.
ISDN .
, , .
ISDN ,
. ISDN ,
, , , , , .

X.25
, , , ,
.
, , X.25.
X.25
. X.25
, ,
.
.
X.25
( ITU-T) , , , .
.
X.25 , , , .
.
. , .
X.25.
,
64 /.
, (
)
. , , , .

Frame Relay
, . ,
,
.
, , , X.25.
, , . .
Frame Relay
, - .
Frame Relay , X.25. Frame Relay . .
, .

111

64 /, Frame Relay
2 /. Frame Relay ,
.
Frame Relay , SNA, X.25 . ,
Frame Relay .
, ,
: 1500 . ,
Frame Relay - . , . (, , ), "" . , Frame Relay ,
.
Frame Relay, , ,
, , ATM.

Cell Relay
, ATM, 20
. ,
. , Frame Relay
, Cell Relay ,
, . ATM,
. Frame Relay 2 /c, ATM
/.

c
.
. .
X.25 ,
. , , .
, ,
.

, , [11].
, .. , .
.
(X.25) - . , . 5.15 . , , , HDLC, ( ), , .

112

..

3
2
1


3
2
1

3
2
1

3
2
1

) (X.25)
3
2b
2a
1


2b
2a
1

2b
2a
1

3
2b
2a
1

) (Frame Relay)
3
2
1

3
2
1

)
(B-ISDN)

. 5.15.

. , . Frame Relay
.
, . . 5.15 .
B-ISDN (ATM) . . ,
, . 5.15 .

5.3. OSI
. .
. , . ,
- ,
.
,
. . , .
. ,
.
:

, ;

113

, (Open
Systems Interconnection/Reference Model), OSI ().
1977 . ISO CCITT ( ITU-T) , . 5.4 [12].

5.4. OSI
(layer)

1
(Physical)

,
( ; ; - ; , RJ-45, AUI, DB-9, MIC, ST, SC; ; ..).

2
(Data Link)

.
( ) , . Medium Access Control (MAC)
Logical Link Control (LLC) . MAC
(Arcnet, Token Ring, FDDI, 100VG AnyLAN)
(Ethernet IEEE 802.3). LLC
.

3
(Network)


(), , IPX, TCP/IP
., .

4
(Transport)


, .

.

5
(Session)

( ), , ..
, .
, ,
().

6
(Presentation)

,
,
. : , , .

7
(Application)

OSI. :
, FTP, .

,
.

IEEE 802
, OSI ( ) IEEE 8802 ( IEEE 802). . MAC ( )
. , LLC ( ) 3, 4 .. .
. 5.16 IEEE 802. ,
FDDI, , ,
,
OSI/IEEE 802.
114

..

IEEE 802.12 VG AnyLAN



IEEE 802.11 CSMA, polling


c

( )

ANSI/ISO 9314 FDDI


IEEE 802.6 DQDB



IEEE 802.5 Token Ring


IEEE 802.4 Token Bus


IEEE 802.3 Ethernet




IEEE 802.2
:
- , ;
- ;
- , .

. 5.16. IEEE 802


:
, ; ,
(, -) .

5
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Optimux-4E1, Four E1 Channel Multiplexer, RAD Data Communications, 1997


http://www.rad.com/products/family/opt_4e1/opt_4e1.html
E1 Quad Fibre Loop Converter and Universal Mounting Chassis Ordering Information, ADC
Telecommunication QFLC, 1997,
http://www.adc.com/Products/FLC_products/E1Quad_specs.html
The Fiber Optic Multiplexer FME-H: Up To 6 x E1/T1 Over Fiber, Pan Dacom, 1997,
http://www.pandacom.com/news/tele_p/telecom.html
MagnumPlus and Magnum100 Broadband Access Multiplexors, ADC Kentrox, 1998,
http://www.kentrox.com/products/index.html
MultiHUB Multifunctional intelligent hub supporting Ethernet, Token Ring, and real-time
protocols, Fibronics,1996, http://www.fibronics.co.il/fib96/multihub/mhinfo.html
PremNet Branch The Power of PremNet in a Smaller Package, Racal Data Group, 1997,
http://products.rdl.co.uk/nlines1/21f6_1be.htm
E. B. Carne. Telecommunications Primer Signals, Building Blocks and Networks, Prentice Hall PRT, 1995. 596 p.
All-Optical Networking Consortium, WDM Description, 1996,
http://www.ll.mit.edu/aon/aonWDM.html
M. De Prycker. Asynchronous Transfer Mode: Solution for Broadband ISDN, New York: Ellis
Horwood, 1993
W. Stallings. Local & Metropolitan Area Networks, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey 07458, 1997. 605 p.
M. De Prycker, R. Peschi, T. Van Landegem. "B-ISDN and the OSI Protocol Reference
Model", IEEE Network, March, 1993, pp. 10-18
F. Halsall. Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems, Addison-Wesley,
1996. 907 p.

115

6. FDDI
FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) , , , , , , - 100 /. FDDI X3T9.5 (ANSI) 80- . FDDI , .
- , FDDI
, , [1, 2, 3].
FDDI :

100 /;


,
, ..;


, .

FDDI Token Ring, . FDDI Token Ring.


,
,
. FDDI IEEE 802.5 Token Ring [4]:

Token Ring , , , . FDDI


();

FDDI , Token Ring


.
. 6.1 FDDI.

6.1. FDDI

100 /

4500

500

2 ( )
20 * ( )
100 ( UTP Cat.5)
100 ( IBM Type 1)

200


()

100 ** ( FDDI)

(, ), (UTP Cat.5, IBM Type 1)

50 .

**
(
WRAP) 200 .

116

..

6.1.
FDDI -
( ), , . 6.1 . .
.
, (primary). .
FDDI, . ,
, . (secondary) , .

FDDI
)

FDDI
)

. 6.1. FDDI: ) ;
) (WRAP)

- ,
(, , ), ,
, , . 6.1 .
WRAP, "" . , ( , /).
. , FDDI
.
.
FDDI ,
, .
.
FDDI
. ,
(token).
, , .
, ,
, . 6.2 , . FDDI (upstream neighbor)
(downstream neighbor), . . 4500 ,
. ,
, . , ,
, THT (token holding time)
-

117

(. 6.2 ). THT () , . 6.2 . , , .


)

)
-

. 6.2.

. ,
MAC , , . 6.2 .
, , ( ),
(,
IP), (. 6.2 ), : , .
, , ,
. - ,
, , (. 6.2 ), , , ,
.
, .
. FDDI 95%.
, Ethernet ( ) 30% .
FDDI, ,
. 6.7.

6.2. FDDI
FDDI , , . 6.3.

118

..

, FDDI
802.2 (LLC), IEEE 802.2,
ISO 8802.2. FDDI LLC, .

IEEE 802.2

MAC

SMT

-
-
-

-
-
- SMT

PHY
- /
-
-
PMD / SMF-PMD / TP-PMD
-
-

FDDI
. 6.3. FDDI

( 1988 ) (
ANSI / ISO FDDI . 6.2):

PMD (physical medium dependent) . ( ) ( 1300 ), (2


), , (optical
bypass switches), .

PHY (physical) . MAC- PMD, . :


4B/5B; ; 125 ;
.

MAC (media access control) . : ( ,


); , ( , 32- ); .

SMT (station management) . : c


PHY, PMD MAC; ;
; ( ).

119

(1993-1994 .) PMD ,
,
1:

SMF-PMD (Single Mode Fiber PMD) , .

TP-PMD (Twisted Pair PMD). ANSI 1994 FDDI TP-PMD.


5 (UTP Cat.5) RJ-45 (CDDI
FDDI ), (STP IBM Type 1)
DB-9 (SDDI). 100 .

6.2. ANSI/ISO FDDI [5]


FDDI
MMF-PMD
PMD

ANSI / ISO
ISO 9314-3:1990 / ANSI X3.166:1990

SMF-PMD

ANSI X3.184:1990

TP-PMD

ANSI X3T9.5 TBD:1994

PHY

ISO 9314-1:1989 / ANSI X3.148:1988

ISO 9314-2:1989 /ANSI X3.139:1987

SMT

ANSI X3T9.5/84-49:1992, rev 7.3

6.3.
FDDI :
( , ); ; [1, 6].
FDDI . - FDDI . ,
.
FDDI:

DAS (dual attachment station) .


( A B)
FDDI . DAS FDDI DAS .

SAS (single attachment station) .


( -) S
FDDI FDDI-.

DA (dual attachment concentrator) . A B, M, . M- .

SAC (single attachment concentrator) .


S M. SAC .

NAC (null attachment concentrator) .


M-.
FDDI: A, B, M S .

, ,
MMF-PMD.

120

..

, , PI/SO (primary in/ secondary


out) DAS DAC , , .
FDDI.

B, , PO/SI (primary out/ secondary in) DAS DAC , ,


.
FDDI.

M master, , PI/PO (primary in/ primary


out) FDDI (NAC, DAC, SAC).
M- .
DAS, DAC ( , Dual Homing A B), SAS SAC, S. FDDI ,
.

S slave, PI/PO SAS SAC. SAS SAC c . , .

. 6.3.
A B DAS DAC
. 6.4, S M
. 6.5.

6.3. FDDI

A

V, N

V, N

VP

V, N

V, N

VP

V, N

V, N

:
V
X
N SMT
VP ,
,
(, Dual
Homing).

MAC. ,
( ), MAC-,
MAC-. MAC, , ,
. FDDI, ,
MAC-. MAC-
, , ,
..
( ), MAC-, SM (single
MAC) , , MAC-, DM (dual MAC) . MAC-, .
DAS DAC MAC-, . 200 /. , 100 / MAC-
. , , Dual MAC
.

121

6.4. A B ( DAS DAC)


-

A-B B-A

. "peer" -, THRU.

A-M B-M

, DualHoming. , A-M
B-M. "tree" . THRU .

A-S B-S

, . ,
( WRAP). "peer".

A-A B-B

, . . ,
SMT .
"peer".

A-M B-A

FDDI.
. B-A ( "peer") A M-
. ,
( WRAP) B-.
, B-A,
A-M. , Dual Homing, , .
A "tree".

6.5. S M
-

S-M M-S

"". "tree".

S-S

( ), SAS. "peer".

M-M

, " ",
FDDI. .
"none".

S-A S-B

, ,
( ).
(A B) M-
(.. ), , ( ) , , . .

. 6.4
.
"" MAC. FDDI,
, , ,
TTRT.
, , ( SAS, M-)
. .
SAS
MAC (roving MAC),
122

..

MAC-. MAC-, MAC-,


M- [6].
M- DAC, roving MAC,
, , S SAC, ,
, . Roving MAC ( ) . roving MAC
,
,
.
FDDI MAC. FDDI .

FDDI
FDDI
"-". "-" . , ,
, . ,
, "-".
, , . .
, .
(,
), , . FDDI
, .
: -, ; ; ; ;
Dual Homing.
-, . 6.4 . , FDDI SAS. , , ,
.
, . 6.4 . "-"
(DAS),
( ), , . 6.4 .
, ,
.
,
.
.
( ) ,
, . 6.1 . , .
( ) . , . DAS
(. . 6.4), .
, , DAS , .
, FDDI .

123

SAS

NAC

MAC

MAC

DAS
PS
IO

A
MAC

DAS
SP
IO

PS
IO

DAS

MAC

SP
IO

PS
IO

MAC

M
SP
IO

MAC

MAC

MAC

NAC

MAC

MAC

MAC

)
M

MAC

MAC


DAC

SAC
S

PS
I O

S P
I O

PS
I O

A
MAC
M

MAC

MAC
M

SAC

MAC

SP
I O

P S
I O

SP
IO

MAC
M

DAS
S

MAC

MAC

MAC

)
S

MAC

MAC

MAC

MAC

)
:



. 6.4. FDDI

, . 6.4 . FDDI
NAC, ,
FDDI (backplane). M- SAS, DAS
. DAS (A/B) M-
, M-
Dual Homing.
, . 6.4 . (NAC) (. 6.4 ).
(SAS DAS) / (SAC DAC).
FDDI
FDDI.
:
,
;
, ;

.
124

..

, . 6.4 . , ,
(DAC). DAS. "-" DAS DAC. FDDI , ,
. SAC
DAC, SAS DAS, ..
, FDDI. ,
. .
Dual Homing, . 6.4 . FDDI
, DAS ( DAC), , A B M- FDDI. , , Dual Homing.
B, DAS
(DAC) . A
, ,
B .
,
, , , ,
, .

.

6.4.
SAS M- , , .
SMT M-, , . 6.4 . , , , .
DAS DAC, , , , WRAP.
, .
, . 6.5. OBS (optical bypass switch),
(
) () .
DAS (DAC) . , ,
PHY .


FDDI
)

. 6.5.
-

125

OBS
FDDI.
OBS (. 6.6).

A

A

DAS/DAC
OBS

. 6.6. (OBS)

. 6.7.
5 . () .
, OBS,
:


(
(. 6.7 ) ()
(. 6.7 ), . AMP tmax < 10 [7];

FDDI. 10 150
.

- , (
1 / ( 1300 ) OBS FDDI PMD
OBS 2,5 ),
, . , - (. 6.7 ). , 2-3 , , ,
( ) .
c OBS. :
2 , OBS, 4 ( ).
, ( ) 11 , 1 /, 0,3 , :

126

..

3,0

3,5

1,2

2,8

OBS ( AMP)

1,1

2,1

5,3

8,4

4,7 (115,3)

2,6 (118,4)

PI SO

SI PO

PI SO

SRx PTx

PRx STx

DAC/DAS

Bypass

Bypass

DAC/DAS

Normal

-
PRx (primary receive) -
STx (secondary transmit) -
PTx (primary transmit) -
SRx (secondary receive) -

DAS/DAC

Normal

SRx PTx

Bypass

PRx STx

SI PO

DAC/DAS

DAC/DAS

DAC/DAS

. 6.7. :
) ; ) ;
)
OBS

OBS
- : , . , , .
- . ,

127

. , ,
, . . ,
- . ( ).
(. 6.8).
. 1, OBS , . 2, .


In
Out
Tx
Rx

2
In
Out
Tx
Rx

( )

( )

In - OBS FDDI
Out - OBS FDDI
Tx - OBS
Rx - OBS,

. 6.8. OBS,
( AMP [7])
AMP OBS DiCon [8], Molex [9],
NetOptics [10].
. - OBS. ( 3-4 OBS)
, NetOptics, . 6.9.
OBS, :

1280-1650

1,3 () 2,5 ()

+5 V (DC)

50

0 C + 50 C.
OBS NetOptics . 6.9.

. 6.9. OBS FDDI


( NetOptics [10])

128

..

6.5. PMD
FDDI PMD PHY . , PMD
PHY (. 6.3). PMD
: , ,
.

MMF-PMD, SMF-PMD TP-PMD


, , ,
. PMD ( PMD) , : , -
, , . PMD . 6.6.
FDDI MMF-PMD SMF-PMD - , :
, ( ), ( )
, . 6.6.
FDDI -
62,5/125
. 50/125 . PMD. 1300 .
PMD 31 .
2,5.1010. 2 , 1012. FDDI PMD :

14 ;

20 ;

14 ;

31 ;

11 ;
2,5 .

SMF-PMD , MMF-PMD,
(31 ). MMF-PMD
SMF-PMD, 1300 .
TP-PMD
, .

. TP-PMD STP
1 2 ( ), UTP 5 (4 ).
,
.
EIA/TIA, UL NEMA. 1 2 , , RS232.
(
5):

3: 10 /c ( 100 ), Ethernet (10 /);

4: 16 /c ( 100 ), Token Ring 16 /, Ethernet;

129

5: 155 /c ( 100 ), ATM (155 /), FDDI, Token Ring, Ethernet.

PMD
, FDDI, ,

. (signal detect).
PMD. PMD
Signal_Detect . PHY,
Line State Detect (. 6.10) [6].
PMD PHY
Signal_Detect,
43,5 , 45 . , 1,5
45 .

, ,
. , . , , PMD PHY Signal_Detect [1].

6.6. MMF-PMD, SMF-PMD TP-PMD


PMD
PMD
MMF-PMD

SMF-PMD

TP-PMD

,
,
,
62,5/125, 50/125

,
,
8/125 12/125


STP

IBM Type 1/2 UTP . 5

MIC mm
Duplex SC mm
2 x ST mm

MIC sm
Duplex SC sm
2 x ST sm

DB-9

RG-45


, *

20 (50)

0,1

0,1

1300

1300 (1550)

, 11

, 36,
, 10**

* . . ,

, 0,5-0,7/, , . FDDI .
, FDDI -, NBase-Fibronics, , PMD.
** . , , 10 , , MIC-.

130

..

PHY

Signal_Detect

PMD

. 6.10. PMD


ANSI FDDI - .
MIC, - FDDI
(. 6.11). , ,
.
MIC ,
. , , .
MIC , PMD, . 6.12.

. 6.11. MIC


( A,B,S,M)

B
B

. 6.12.
MIC

FDDI ST, FC ( , SMF-PMD) Duplex SC (


, , PMD SMF-PMD). MIC Duplex SC. , Duplex SC . ,
. Duplex SC ,
, , .
FDDI ,
. 6.13. ( )
.

131

.
( )
. ,
, Fast
Ethernet ATM, .

S SAC
4

S SAC
3

S SAC
2
mm

sm
B

M
M
M DAC
B
A

1
FDDI

FDDI

. 6.13. FDDI


(MMF-PMD, SMF-PMD TP-PMD) . .
-
: ( );
; ; ; ; - . .
, , : ; .
. STP IBM Type 1
UTP cat. 5 ,

.
. , . ,
.
.
, . FDDI-, .
132

..

6.6. PHY
PHY (physical layer protocol ) (. 6.3) ,
. ,
,
PHY.
, PHY:

MAC
, FDDI;

, ;

, ;

, , ;

,
.


FDDI PHY . [1, 11].
.
.
, , . ,
, . . . , . , , ..
, .


, , . PHY,
MAC PMD. PHY PMD MAC, . 6.14.
FDDI : 4B/5B NRZI [12].
4B/5B. FDDI , Token Ring Ethernet, ( ), .
6.15. , 200 ,
100 /. FDDI 4/5
, 4 5-
, . 6.7. , 100 /
4/5B 125 (125 ).
, 4B/5B (4 ),
(5 ). , . , , .

133

( MAC)

4B/5B + NRZI

MMF, SMF
TP

PMD

PHY

( MAC)


NRZI,
. ,

4B/5B

MMF, SMF
TP

PHY

PMD

. 6.14. 4B/5B NRZI PHY

. 6.15. , Ethernet Token Ring

NRZI. 4B/5B
, , NRZI. ( ), , . 6.16. , ,
( ) .
NRZI, , . , 0, , .
( ,
),
NRZI. ,
, , . 4B/5B, ,
, , . 4B/5B , .
, . , , ,
( 0, 1). , , NRZI,
, ,
. .
134

..

4B/5B

4B/5B NRZ

NRZI

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
NRZ

4B/5B NRZI

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
NRZI

(125 )

. 6.16. 4B/5B, NRZ NRZI

. . 6.7 5- , FDDI. 32 5 , 25 . 4 [12]:

(3) Q, I, H.
(PHY). PHY . I
(Idle)
.

(4): J, K, L, T. L FDDI FDDI-II.

(2) R, S.

(16). .

32 (. . 4.1)
.
,
9000.
. FDDI, ,
.
(baseline wander) , - .
+1 1, . FDDI 4B/5B
NRZ/NRZI , 0. 10%.
.
. , , . (line states).
( ) . 6.8. , NRZI .
ILS 62,5 . 4 : QLS, MLS, HLS ILS. ALS NLS , , .

135

6.7. FDDI

00

00000

QUIET

31

11111

IDLE

"

04

00100

HALT

"

24

11000

17

10001

"

05

00101

"

13

01101

07

00111

RESET

25

11001

SET

"

30

11110

0000 (0)

09

01001

"

0001 (1)

20

10100

"

0010 (2)

21

10101

"

0011 (3)

10

01010

"

0100 (4)

11

01011

"

0101 (5)

14

01110

"

0110 (6)

15

01111

"

0111 (7)

18

10010

"

1000 (8)

19

10011

"

1001 (9)

22

10110

"

1010 (10A)

23

10111

"

1011 (11B)

26

11010

"

1100 (12C)

27

11011

"

1101 (13D)

28

11100

"

1110 (14E)

29

11101

"

1111 (15F)

01

00001

VIOLATION*

02

00010

VIOLATION

"

03

00011

VIOLATION

"

06

00110

VIOLATION

"

08

01000

VIOLATION

"

12

01100

VIOLATION

"

16

10000

VIOLATION

"

* VIOLATION () , ,
( ,
), .


4B/5B+NRZI UTP .5 - . , -

136

..

IBM 1 2 SDDI. FDDI TPPMD, , UTP .5. TP-PMD , Fast Ethernet (100Base-TX)
.

6.8.

QLS (quiet line


state)
MLS
(master line
state)
HLS
(halt line state)
ILS
(idle line state)

ALS
(active line
state)
NLS
(noise line
state)

NRZI

, 16 17
Q (Quiet)
, 8
9 H-Q (Halt Quiet)
16 17
H (Halt)
, 16 17
I (Idle)
,
,
,


(0 )
10
(6,25 )

ALS ,

,
,

10
(12,5 )

10 (62,5
)

,
Violation

UTP .5
(100 ), NRZ/NRZI, MLT-3.
( ), ,
.
MLT-3, .
. , , , , . 6.17.

( MAC)

4B/5B + NRZI

MLT-3

UTP

( MAC)

4B/5B + NRZI

PHY

MLT-3

UTP

TP-PMD

. 6.17. TP-PMD

137

MLT-3. TP-PMD FDDI (+1, 0, 1). NRZI ,


, 1. , : , 1 , , , 1
.
, . 4
, 4 ,
31,25 ( 125 ),
.

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

NRZI

MLT-3

(125 )

. 6.18. MLT-3

. MLT-3 , . , ,
, , 100 /c.
.
NRZI MLT-3. 4B/5B, ( x + x ), . 6.19. . , , . FDDI (ILS, MLS, QLS, HLS), . "" . "" 11- . , .
11


11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

. 6.19.

138

..


- , , , , , .
. , , ,
.
. .
PHY : (.
6.14).
, , . , , . , ,
,
. ( )
, . , FIFO (first in, first out
, ).
0,005%. 4B/5B.
9000 (4500 x 2,
5- ) 45000 10 (45000 x 0,00005 x 2 x 2 = 9,
1 ), 2 0,01%, 2 , .
10 ,
125 0,08 . , , , ,
, 1 [13].
, , ,
, ,
.
- .
() , ,

.
( ,
-, 16 ). ,
,
, . , ()
, ( , . .6.7. " MAC").


, . . PHY ,
.
, , 16 . ,
ANSI X3T9.5 FDDI, ,

, 1012,
.

139


, VIOLATION, .
,
.
6.1. ,
5 /, FDDI : ) 2 20
, ) 20 200 , ) 100 500 .
( FDDI) TL = Tp + N Ts , Tp
- ,

N , Ts

:
)

TL = 2 5 + 20 1 = 30 ( 3000 );

TL = 20 5 + 200 1 = 300 (30000 );

TL = 100 5 + 500 1 = 1000 (100000 ).

, , . ,
SAC, SS, .
2000 , .

6.7. MAC
OSI . MAC
LLC. MAC FDDI. MAC
FDDI :

TTRP (timed token rotation protocol);

, , , ;


, FDDI, , . ,
, .
, . MAC
.
. 6.20 FDDI. [12]:

PA. , , ,
16 idle (I). RCRCLK, .

SD. JK, .

FC. . 8 . , CLFFZZZZ, :

140

..

( 1) ( 0);
L (2 6 );
FF , 01 LLC ( ) 00 MAC-.
-
Claim Frame,
Beacon Frame SMT Frame;
ZZZZ .

DA ( ) ( ), () . 2- 6-
.

SA , .
, .

INFO , .
0 4478 ( 0 8956 ). FDDI Source Routing, 802.5. SA
102 , , , .

FCS 32- ,
CRC-32, IEEE 802. FC, DA, SA, INFO FCS.

ED Terminate (T), . .

FS.
(error, E), (address recognized, A)
(frame copied, C). , reset (R), set (S).

.
, , FC,
1 0000 ZZZZ, . 6.20 .

64

16 48

16 48

SD

FC

DA

SA

SD
FC
DA
SA
INFO
FCS
ED
FS

0
INFO

32

FCS

ED

FS

(starting delimiter)
(frame control)
(destination address)
(source address)

(frame check sequence)


(ending delimiter)
(frame status)

()

SD

FC

FS

()

. 6.20. FDDI

141


FDDI
Token Ring. , FDDI.
FDDI , , ( 6.1 , ). Token Ring
, . , Token Ring ,
, , , FS
. ,

. Token Ring.
FDDI
. , ,
( FS ), ,
" " . , , ,
, FDDI. -
, ( ).
.
FDDI. -.
, . , , . .
SA . ,
. (SD, FC, DA) , .
, ,
, SA. SA
, .
. ,
,
, .
,
, - ,
, 6.2.
6.2. (), , ()
, () FDDI 100 , () FDDI (4500 ).
5 /.
100 /c 0,01 ,
0,08 , n 0,08n .
, , 0,08n/5 = 0,016n .
(a) 81 10,125 . L = 0,162 ;
() L = 0,016 100 = 1,6 ;
() L = 0,016 4500 = 72 .
TTRP (timed token rotation protocol). FDDI
TRT (token rotation time), , ,
, , .
, TRT , . TRT
.
TTRT (target token rotation time),
4 165 . TTRT .
: 142

..

THT
(token
holding
time),

THT , . THT , , ,
. , TTRP
, TTRT .
. 6.21 ,
TL -

THT = TTRT TRT .

TTRT. ,
.
TTRT
THT

:
, - (early token)
, - (late token)

. 6.21.

, . t 0 . 1,
1 . 1
TRT , TL . THT,

TTRT TL ,

. 2, ,
. 0, TRT
TTRT. 3 1 .
t 1 = t 0 + TTRT + TL 3 2 . 3 -

t 2 = t 0 + 2TTRT + 2TL 3 , 1 t 3 = t 0 + 3TTRT + 3TL 3 = t 0 + 3TTRT + TL , ..,


TTRT TL .

U ,
t 0 t 3 , :

U=

3(TTRT TL )
3TTRT + TL

[11].

n [12]:

U=

n (TTRT TL ) TTRT TL

nTTRT + TL
TTRT

143

TL

nTTRT . ,
TTRT. TTRT
,
.
.
FDDI [13].
,
( , ,
).

FDDI,
Tsynch , .
, .
, - .
, THT , .
THT = TTRT TRT Tsynch .
FDDI-II. , : . FDDI, FDDI-II. , ,
: ( ) FDDI-II ( ).
TDM
(. . 5). , FDDI-II , FDDI.
.


. ,
, -
( ,
TTRT), ,
,
SMT :

(claim token process);

(initialization process);

, (beacon process).

. TTRT, , .

TTRT.
,
TTRT, . , TTRT, .
TTRT. TTRT
MAC-. ,
(, TTRT ). .

144

..

. ,
, . , ,
. ,
, , TRT.
.
. , , , .
( 165 ), . , . , , .
, , .
.
. 6.22.

MAC

(beaconing) MAC

(5)

MAC

(2)
(1)

(beacon frames)
(6)

(7)
(claim frames)
(9) claim

(10)

MAC
(4)


(claim winner)
(3)

(8)
(claim frames)
(11)
(own claim frame)
(12)

. 6.22. FDDI [12]

6.8. SMT
PHY, PMD , FDDI SMT (station management).
,
FDDI. SMT ,
. , SMT ,
FDDI. SMT [6].
SMT (. 6.23):

CMT (connection management);

RMT (ring management);

, FBM (frame-based management).

145

CMT
CMT :

ECM (entity coordination management)


CMT, , .
ECM;

PCM (physical connection management) . PCM ;

CFM (configuration management)


CCE (configuration control element). MAC CCE.

FBM
,

m x RMT

m x MAC

(p+m) x CFM

1 x ECM

(p+m) x CCE

p x PCM

CMT

p x PHY

p x PMD

SMT
:
m - MAC
p -

. 6.23. SMT

RMT
RMT ,
CMT, SMT . RMT .
-. RMT
SMT :

- ;

Beacon ;

-;

146

..

Trace,
( Stuck Beacon);

. . Beacon :

Claim Token ;

SMT MAC Beacon.

, FBM
SMT , ,
. FBM , :

NIF , ,
- . .

SIF . SIF , , ,
, , .

SRF , . , , , , .

PMF
SMT MIB.

- ECF .

6.9. FDDI
FDDI
FDDI :

, ;

,
;

, ;

FDDI ,
Ethernet Token Ring LLC.

FDDI , . , . , Fast Ethernet 100 /,



( Fast Ethernet).

147

.
FDDI 100 . , . ,
, . - FDDI Fast Ethernet , Fast Ethernet .
, . ,
FDDI, :

, ;

( 10 );

(2 4);

( ).
. 6.24.

FDDI. . 6.24
FDDI. , . :
FDDI. . , , - . .
.
Fast Ethernet, . 6.24 . Fast Ethernet
Ethernet , (
) ,
"-". , () ( ), . , 1-10 10 , 1-9 8, ..
( 1) .
Fast Ethernet ,
. 6.24 . 6 Fast Ethernet. .
Spanning Tree. . , Spanning Tree
, 6. , . "-".
ATM , . 6.24 . ATM/Fast Ethernet/Ethernet .
, , Ethernet Fast Ethernet.
, ATM () , 1 6, . 6.24 , .
, Ethernet/Fast Ethernet ATM (ATM access).
Fast Ethernet, . 6.24 .
Fast Ethernet ,
c ATM . ,
Fast Ethernet .
.

148

..

3
4

10

) FDDI


Fast Ethernet

3
4

10

= 20
= 10
= 4 (2 )

= (sm)
Fast Ethernet
+ FDDI DAS sm


Ethernet/Fast Ethernet

) Ethernet/Fast Ethernet

3
4

10

) Ethernet/Fast Ethernet ( )

3
4

10


: 2 x ATM + n x 10/100Base-TX

) ATM ATM/Ethernet/Fast Ethernet

3
4

10


Ethernet/Fast Ethernet

) "" Ethernet/Fast Ethernet

. 6.24.


FDDI Ethernet Fast Ethernet .
FDDI FDDI.


. FDDI, FDDI FDDI/Ethernet/ATM . ( 1991 .
FDDI, 1994 . ANSI TP-PMD SMF-PMD), . FDDI : 3Com, Adaptec, BayNetworks, Cabletron, Cisco,
DEC, NBase-Fibronics, Madge, Network Peripherals, SysKonnect .
. 6.9 FDDI, .
. 6.25 FDDI .

149

6.9. FDDI

( [14])
FDDILink 32-Bit PCI Fiber 3 PCI: SAS Duplex SC mm /
SAS/ Fiber DAS/ UTP SAS DAS Duplex SC mm, OBS /
SAS RJ-45 (CDDI)
FDDILink-F 32-Bit EISA /
2 EISA: SAS MIC mm /
FDDILink-UTP 32-Bit EISA SAS RJ-45
PC8735/LCF, PC8739,
PC8736/LCF, PC8739/D

PC8741, PC8742,
PC8743, PC8744

PT-SBS600

3Com [15]

4 EISA: SAS Duplex SC mm/


SAS RJ-45 (MLT-3, CDDI /
DAS Duplex SC mm, OBS/
DAS RJ-45 (MLT-3, CDDI)
4 PCI: SAS RJ-45 (MLT-3, CDDI) /
SAS Duplex SC mm /
DAS Duplex S mm /
DAS RJ-45 (MLT-3, CDDI);

NBaseFibronics
[16]

SBus: SAS Duplex SC mm/ Performance


Technologies
SAS RJ-45 (MLT-3, CDDI /
[17]
DAS Duplex SC mm, OBS/
DAS RJ-45 (MLT-3, CDDI).
OC Windows NT, Solaris x.86 Solaris 2.x.

SK-NET FDDI SBus (Model Sbus, SAS: Duplex SC


SK-56x1)
mm RJ-45 (MLT-3, CDDI).
OC Solaris x.86 Solaris 2.x.

SysKonnect
[18]

FDDI
SmartSwitch 9000

C / ( 6, 14 ). FDDI :

9F241-12
9F206-02
9F426-03

FDDI MicroLAN module, 12 M- Duplex SC mm


FDDI Enhanced Repeater module, 1 FDDI DAS 2 MIC mm
High-Density FDDI SmartSwitch module, 3 FDDI DAS 6
MIC mm, DAS ,
42 FDDI (14 )

GIGAswitch/FDDI

( 14 , 1 ). IP . FDDI :
2 MIC mm, 2 x SAS 1 DAS
4 MIC mm, 4 x SAS

FGL-2
FGL-4
GigaHUB XH152
LC380
LC382
LC383

( 14 , 1
). FDDI :
FDDI DAS 2 x Duplex SC (mm/sm)
FDDI 9 x RJ-45 (MLT-3, CDDI)
FDDI 9 x Duplex SC (mm/sm)

Cabletron
Systems
[19]

DEC
[20]

NBaseFibronics [16]

c (MM/SM Converters)
N320FD- I/II-x*

mm/sm FDDI , x- ST/FC/


SC ( ANSI X3T9.5), I - 20 , II - 40

NBase
[21]

OM320, OM330*

mm/sm FDDI ( SC),


OM320 - 20 ,
OM330 - 30

Net Optics
[22]

FDDI c (FDDI UTP/FO Converters)**


FD-CD-01, FD-CD-01(SM) FDDI : FD-CD-01 RJ-45/SC mm,
FD-CD-01(SM)- RJ-45/SC sm
: FDDI ANSI X3T12, FDDI TP-PMD

Transition
networks
[23]

* , ,
, STM-1 (155 /, 194 ).
** FDDI UTP/FO Fast Ethernet UTP/FO,
Fast Ethernet FDDI PMD .

150

..

) GIGAswitch/FDDI

) GigaHUB (XH152)

) SmartSwitch 9000

) LC383/2 XH152

) 9F426-03
SS9000

e) FDDI mm/sm N320FD

. 6.25. FDDI

6
1.

A. Mills. Understanding FDDI: A 100 Mbps Solutions for Todays Corporate LANs, Prentice
Hall, 1995. 277 p.

2.

Welcome FDDI Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), United States Navy Computer, 1996,
http://sholeh.nswc.navy.mil/x3t12/FDDIFAQ.html

3.

Our Testing Environment and Capabilities, FDDI Consortium, 1998,


http://www.iol.unh.edu/consortiums/fddi/index.html

4.

. . . : - , 1992. 756 .

5.

ANSI X3T12 (FDDI) Home Page, United States Navy Computer, 1996,
http://sholeh.nswc.navy.mil/x3t12/

6.

" ", ,1997,


http://www.citforum.ru/nets/lvs/contents.html

7.

Increase FDDI Reliability with Bypass Switches, AMP, 1997


http://www.amp.com/product/articles/dd68_a.html

8.

FDDI Dual Bypass Switch, DiCon Fiberoptics Inc., 1997,


http://www.diconfiberoptics.com/dicon.htm

9.

Active and Passive Fiber Optic Components, Fiber Optic Product Catalog, Molex, 1998,
http://www.molex.com/product/fiber/fiber.html

151

10.

FDDI Dual Bypass Switch Single Mode Fiber Networks, Net Optics, 1997,
http://www.netoptics.com/sm_bypass.html

11.

Ross F.E., Hamstra J.R. "Forging FDDI", IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 11, no.7,
Feb.,1993. pp.181-190

12.

W. Stallings. Local & Metropolitan Area Networks, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey 07458, 1997. 605 p.

13.

F. Halsall. Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems, Addison-Wesley,


1996. 907p.

14.

Welcome FDDI Products (Adapters), United States Navy Computer, 1997,


http://sholeh.nswc.navy.mil/x3t12/Adapters.html

15.

FDDILink 32-Bit FDDI Adapters, 3Com, 1998,


http://www.3com.com/products/dsheets/400191.html

16.

Backbone/Enterprise Switching Solutions, NBase, 1998, http://www.nbase.co.il/

17.

PT-SBS600 high-performance SBus FDDI adapter, Performance Technologies, 1997,


http://www.wcmh.com/lantimes/lantimes/buyers/company/192485/341613.html

18.

SK-NET FDDI SBus (Model SK-56x1), SysKonnect, 1997,


http://www.wcmh.com/lantimes/lantimes/buyers/company/192394/321445.html

19.

SmartSwitch 9000 FDDI Products, Cabletron Systems, 1998,


http://www.cabletron.com/switching/9000/

20.

GIGAswitch/FDDI Multitechnology Switch, Digital Equipment Corporation, 1998,


http://www.networks.digital.com/dr/npg/defga-mn.html

21.

N320FD FDDI Multimode to Singlemode Converter, NBase Communications, 1998,


http://www.nbase.com/

22.

Fiberoptic Multimode to Singlemode Fiber Converter (ATM, FDDI, 100 BASE Ethernet or
SONET), Net Optics, 1997, http://www.netoptics.com/convertor.html

23.

FDDI Fiber to UTP Media Converter Product Description, Transition Networks, 1998,
http://www.transition.com/products/mediacon/fddi_cddi.html

152

..

7. Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet


Ethernet IEEE 802.3,
() CSMA/CD. - , ,
, Ethernet , Ethernet,
Fast Ethernet Ethernet.
Ethernet Xerox
ALOHA [1]. , CSMA/CD,
2,94 /. 100
.
Xerox, DEC Intel Ethernet, 10 / [2]. IEEE 802.3.
. , Ethernet ,
UTP cat.5 . , .
. 7.1. 1980 Xerox, DEC
Intel DIX1 Ethernet, 10 / . , , .
Ethernet ,
"" , . 90- Ethernet, (collapsed backbones) , , . ,
"-",
- Ethernet.
1995 IEEE 802.3u Fast Ethernet,
100 /. : Fast Ethernet ,
10/100 / . , ,
Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3z IEEE 802.3ab.
, , , (
Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet) ( ) .
,
, , : , , ,
.. , , , , . Ethernet. Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet ,
.
Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet, , 802.3x, 802.1Q, RSVP, Gigabit Ethernet
- .

DIX DEC-Intel-Xerox.

153

1000 /

100 /

1000 /

100 /

10 /

100 /

10 /

10 /

. 7.1. Ethernet

7.1. Ethernet
: ,
CSMA/CD
: , , - [3].

Ethernet
. 7.2 Ethernet. :

: 7 ,
10101010. .

(SFD, start frame delimiter): 1 ,


10101011, , .
.

(DA, destination address): 6 , MAC- (MAC ), () . (unicast), (multicast) (broadcast).

(SA, source address): 6 , MAC- ,


.

(T or L, type or length): 2 .
Ethernet ( raw formats )
Ethernet_II IEEE 802.3 (. 7.2),
. Ethernet_II . : 0x0800 IP, 0x0806 ARP, 0x809B
AppleTalk, 0x0600 XNS, 0x8137 IPX/SPX. ( ) , .

IEEE 802.3
(LLC Data).

154

..

64 , LLC Data Pad.


, IEEE 802.3
1500 (0x05DC). ,
, , .

(LLC Data): , LLC.


IEEE 802.3 .
, IEEE 802.3:
Ethernet_802.3 ( , , Novell) LLC Data 0xFFFF;
Ethernet_SNAP ( IEEE 802.2 SNAP , , TCP/IP)
LLC Data 0xAA;
Ethernet_802.2 ( IEEE 802.2 , Novell NetWare 4.0) LLC Data 0xFF (11111111), 0xAA (10101010).

(pad ) , , 64 . .

(FCS, frame check sequence): 4- ,


,
, SDF FCS.

Ethernet_II
SFD

DA

SA

LLC Data

Pad

FCS

SFD

DA

SA

LLC Data

Pad

FCS

7 + 1

2/6

IEEE 802.3

2/6

2
0 / 1500

64 min / 1518 max

. 7.2. MAC Ethernet


CSMA/CD
. . ,
.
. , .
, (, , Token Ring FDDI),
,
( Arcnet, 100VG AnyLAN).
, ,
, , .
, , . , .

155

:
,
, (collision domain).
- () , ( , > 20-25), (> 2 ).
.
, , , Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
(. 7.3): , 1- - [5].

(nonpersistent)
, .

t
T

1- (1-persistent)
,

p- (p-persistent)
p,

T ,
,

. 7.3. (CSMA)
(collision backoff)
(nonpersistent) . , , .
1.

, , (..
), , 2.

2.

, ( c ) 1.

. , , , , .
( , ), ,
,
, . ,
.
. , , , ,
, ,
, , . - ,
.
1- (1-persistent) . , ,
1- . , , .

156

..

1.

, , , ,
2;

2.

, , , , , .

1- , , 1-
, , "". ,
(, ), ,
, . ,
.
- (p-persistent) . :
1.

, p (1-p) T. T
;

2.

, , , 1;

3.

T, 1.

p. , . ,
n , , .
, ,
,
np. np > 1, , . , , 1, . , , , n, , , , .
np . , , p.
, p , (1 p)/p T, . p=0,1,
, , 9T.

CSMA/CD
CSMA/CD [3] . , , () . ,
. . CSMA/CD .
(. 7.4 ):
1.

, , , , . (.. ), 2.

,
( 1);

2.

, ,
, ;

3.

, , , , , ,
jam-, ,
;

4.

jam-
, 1.

157

IFG (interframe gap) 9,6 (12 ). , ,


. , , , , .
Jam- (jamming ). jam- ,
, ,
, jam-,
. Jam- , SF (safety margin)
. jam- , CRC
(802.3), 62 1 0 1.

a)
1)
2)
0

.

?

IFG




:
,

jam ,

1

,
>16

FCS
?

. 7.4. CSMA/CD ( MAC):


) ; )

158

..

. 7.5 "" ( ( 10Base5


10Base2 ).
t 0 A (DTE A) ,
.

t1 ,

B (DTE B),

, , , .
t 2 = t 1 + , B ( ). B jam-
. t 3 A, A
jam- .

t 0= 0
A

t 1 = t p-

t 2= t p

t 3 = 2tp -

. 7.5.
CSMA/CD Ethernet

Ethernet , , , . , , , 64 .
ST (slot time) ,
, . , Ethernet IEEE 802.3. .
, ,
A B .
A B t p . A . B

t1 = t p

. A
t 3 = 2t p . , , A, , , A

, , , A
, , . , . ,
A , 2 t p
RTD (round-trip delay). , RTD
, - , ,

. :

159

BT (bit time). 1 BT , , .. 0,1 10 /.


Ethernet [4]:
1.

A , 512- , ;

2.

, 576 (512 SFD);

3.

A B , A A , B, , 575 BT.

Ethernet , . . RTD
: RTD < 575 .
, 1500 , , , , 64 ( , , , "" , ). jam ,
CSMA/CD ,
. . ,
, ,
. ( ) U RTD/ST, [5]:

U=

1
1

,
1 + (e 1) RDT ST 1 + 1,72 RDT ST

e .
. (
RDT = ST) 37%, ( RTD , ST)
1. , , , ,
, , , , 15.
. , IEEE
802.3 CSMA/CD, 1- ,
.
, . , MAC- .
.
( 51,2 ),
, N- (N 1 - ), R

0 R < 2K ,

K = min( N, BL) ,

BL

(backoff limit)

, 10.
16, 16 , .
CSMA/CD
, .

160

..

. -, 1, ( ), 2, , , 2
. ,
,
. -, . , 25 2 [6].
,
.
(. 7.4 ). , , ( ).
.
MAC , . , ,
, SDF FCS ,
FCS ( CRC-32). ,
. .

( ), ( ), . .
Ethernet . 7.1.

7.1. Ethernet IEEE 802.3


, /
, (BT)
, (BT)

10 ( )
51,2 (512)
9,6 (96)

16

10

jam-,

32

1518

64

Jabber-,

,

20-150

IEEE 802.3
1985 , IEEE 802.3, : ( 6 )
BNC (10Base-2), (
13 ) AUI (10Base-5, ). :
RJ-45 (10Base-T), 75 (10Broad36), ( ) ST (10Base-F).
.
10Base-F, , :

10Base-FP -
1 33. .

161

.
(), .
,
.

10Base-FB. 2
"-" . -, ( 15) .

10Base-FL 2 ,
"-" , . - ( 10Base-FB) . ( 100 , ), 10Base-FL.
Ethernet.

. 7.2 Ethernet ( 10Broad36, 10Base-FP 10Base-FB


).

7.2.
Ethernet IEEE 802.3

10Base5

10Base2

10Base-T

10Base-FL

AUI

BNC

RJ-45
(MDI MDI-X)

ST

(50 )

(50 )

UTP
cat.3

mm/sm*

/ onoff

**

500

185

100

mm 2000,
sm ***

100 (
)

30 (
)

(
"-")

(
"-")

10

0,4-0,6

62,5/125 ,
50/125

:
MDI ; MDI-X .
/ RJ-45 MDI.
*
850 (mm) 10Base-FL,
1310 (sm) .
** , .
***
Ethernet.
, 100 .

162

..

7.2. Ethernet
AUI Ethernet
AUI (attachment unit interface)
Ethernet,
PLS (physical signaling)
PMA (physical medium attachment), . 7.6. ( , 10Base-T, 10Base-FL), .
PMA MDI (transceiver)
MAU (media attachment unit, ).
, , .. PLS (
, , ) AUI , , , .. PMA MDI, MAU.
AUI 15 (), , MAU 15-
() , AUI . 1 , 50 .
, 4 . 12,5 . 15
10 4, 7,
8, 14 15 .
AUI.

OSI

Ethernet
7

LLC

MAC

:
LLC -
MAC -
PLS -
PMA -
MDI - ,

PLS
AUI ( )
MAU
PMA
MDI

Ethernet (MAU)



:
RJ-45 ( 10Base-T)
ST FO ( 10Base-FL)
BNC ( 10Base2)

. 7.6. Ethernet, AUI Ethernet

()
MAU: 10Base5 , , ""
; 10Base2 (BNC) - ; 10Base-T (RJ-45) ;
10Base-FL ( ST) (). .

Allied Telesyn [7], NBase [8], SVEC [9], Surecom [10], Transition Networks [11].
NBase ,
2 110 ( 7.3, . 7.7 ).

163

. 7.7. : ) Ethernet [8],


) 10Base-FL/10Base-T [11]
) Ethernet/Fast Ethernet [12]

7.3. -
NX300FO NBase
NX300FO/x

FO/M

FO/MX

FO/S

FO/SX

FO/SY

FO/SZ

, mm ,
sm

mm

mm

sm

sm

sm

sm

850

1300

1300

1300

1300

1550

28

28

28

28

28

28

10/0

0/6

0/2

,
, (min/max)
,
(min/max)

, /
,

19/14 19/14 19/14


9/14

9/14

9/14

18/28

28/34

28/30

0,4

0,4

0,4

0,2

02

05

0 18

15 35

30 60

40 110

Ethernet UTP (10Base-T/10Base-FL,


10Base2/10Base-FL)
,
. , , .
, . 7.7 , 19,
, . 7.7 .
. ,
, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet. ,
.
10Base-T/10Base-FL
,
(1-3 ). ,
, . , , , MDI.
Ethernet BNC (10Base2/10Base-FL), ,
. , - , 164

..

. ,
.


50 .
Ethernet
: Adaptec[13], IMC [14], LANCAST, NBase, NetOptics [15], FOCI
. , "-", , "--".

,
(-) NIC (network interface controller, network interface card). .
DTE (data termination equipment, ).
( ) BNC. , ,
. RJ-45 ( MDI). AUI
Ethernet. , ,
.
- Ethernet (. 7.8).

. 7.8. PCI
RJ-45/FO ST mm [7]

Ethernet MAC- 6 ,
, .
,
.

()
(repeater)2 ,
. , , . 7.9 . .
(12, 16 24 RJ-45), BNC AUI. , (4 x RJ-45,
8 x RJ-45). , Ethernet OSI
(. 7.9 ), 2

Ethernet (hub).

165

FDDI (DAC, SAC, NAC), MAC ( OSI)

AUI

MAU

PLS
PMA

PMA

PMA

MDI

MDI

MDI

MDI:
RJ-45 ( 10Base-T)
ST FO ( 10Base-FL)
BNC ( 10Base2)

AUI

:
PLS -
PMA -
MDI - ,

. 7.9. Ethernet: ) ;
) OSI

RJ-45 MDI MDI-X. RJ-45 8 . , 1-8 RJ-45 .


. ,
: 1 1, 2; 2 3, 6;
3 4, 5; 4 7, 8.
10Base-T : 1 2,
. MDI ( DTE) , 1 2. ,
MDI-X , 2
1. RJ-45 .
-, 1-3, 2-6, 3-1,
6-2, 4-4, 5-5, 7-7, 8-8.
RJ-45 MDI-X, . MDI. ,
. 7.10 1 2, 3 2 , RJ-45 1 3 MDI, ( 2 MDI-X).
Jabber-. Ethernet ,
. , , 1518 1,2 .
.
( , ) , , .

(jabber signal , ),
, . jabber-. ,
20 150 ,
"" . Jabber- , , , , , , , , [16].
, (10Base-T) (10Base-FL)
, ..
, Ethernet

166

..

. , . , , -
. -
10 /.
"" ( 10Base-T
10Base-FL) , "" ( 10Base2 10Base5).
, , , .
, . ""
. 7.10.

Rptr 2
Ta

Rptr - Ethernet
Tx - X
CP -
(collision presence)

Ta

Rptr 1

Rptr 3

Ta

Ta

Ta

Ta

Ta

)
A

Rptr 2
CP

CP

Rptr 1
Ta

Rptr 3
Tb

CP

CP

CP

CP

CP

A B

)
A

Rptr 2
CP

CP

CP

Rptr 1
CP

Ta

Rptr 3
CP

Tb

CP

CP

Te

CP

A, B E

)
A

. 7.10. ,
:
) A; ) A B; ) A, B

(A), (. 7.10 ).
, , , ( MAC- " "), , .
.
(, A B) , 1 (. 7.10 ),
CP (collision presence). A B
,
-

167

, , jam . 1 CP, . 2, CP 1,
. 3.
. 7.6 A, B E.
, 2 CD 1 E. 2 CP
. 1, , CP .
, (. 7.10):
1.

CP ,
CP ( , );

2.

CP , CP ( CP
, ).

.
OSI . .
(non-blocking),
Ethernet
, . . , , , . 7.11.

CD
Di
Do
FIFO

. 7.11. Ethernet [16]

168

..

-
.
, , ,
. ,
. , MAC-, , , , . ,
(broadcast), .. MAC 1, ( ), .. .
:
1.

(cut-through, on-the-fly );

2.

SAF (store-and-forward, buffered switching


).

, (. 7.12 ),
, MAC- ,
, .
, 140-150 BT (1,4-1,5 ). ,
( 64 , ),

, .
Ethernet , . Ethernet ,
,
, .
cut-through , ICS (interim cut-through switching
). , ..
64 (512 ). ,
512 , . , , .
512 BT (> 5,12 ), ICS cat-through, . ICS
, 64 .
ICS .
, , (. 7.12 ),
, , .
, (destination address, DA) FCS,
, (). , "" . ,
, Ethernet Fast Ethernet, - Ethernet-FDDI
. 1512 (1512x64= 96768 BT, 1 ). , , , . ,
.
-
.
. ,
.
. ,
1 2, 3 5.
,
2, 3

169

5. , (,
TCP/IP), .
, . (flow control) . Ethernet (BP, back pressure), . 7.13. 1 2, 3 5. BP , , , . , 2,
B, , .
,
. ,
Ethernet,
CSMA/CD.

MAC

. 7.12.
Ethernet

:
BP

BP
5

,


,

. 7.13.

170

..

RJ-45 MDI-X.
, : MAC-, , , 10Base-T/100Base-TX, .

7.3.
Ethernet
Ethernet, ( > 2,5 ),
(> 2), . 1 . , . 1.
, .
, 2.

Ethernet ( 1)
1 ,
Ethernet. 1 , [4, 17].
1.

. ( IEEE 802.3 9
, , .)

2.

, AUI (. 7.9 ),
, (DTE). ( Ethernet - . MAU )

3.

DTE 5 ,
4 (c AUI ), 2 ( MAU ) 2 (MAU , , ).

4.

25 (
50 , ).

5.

DTE ,
( 10Base2 / 10Base5)
("-", .
10Base-T / 10Base-FL). 10Base-FL
500 .

6.

DTE , :

(10Base-FL)
1000 ;

(10Base-FL) DTE 400 ;

(
, . / ).

Ethernet, . 7.14.

171

10Base-FL
(500 )

FO

Rptr 2
AUI 2
(25 )
MAU

FO

Rptr 3

MAU

10Base5

FO

AUI 3
MAU
(12 )

10Base-T
(100 )
1

MAU

Rptr 4

10Base2
(185 )

AUI 4
(2 )

10Base-FL
(500 )
FO

(25 ) (500 )
AUI 1
Rptr 1

10Base-FL
(500 )

Rptr - Ethernet
MAU - Ethernet
- -

AUI -

FO - -

. 7.14. Ethernet

1 2: 4, 5, 2, (AUI ) 2,
50 , 2, .. 3 ( -). , 1 2
1.
1 3 ,
4. .
, 3
, , AUI 3
). .
1 3 2.

Ethernet ( 2)
2, 1, , 1,
2.
1. 2 (DTE) Ethernet [4, 18]. : -, RTD
575 BT; -, IFG - 49 BT.
RTD. DTE , , . . 7.4 . DTE1 DTE2 , , RTD . DTE1 DTE2 , RTD ,
. 575 BT .
L RTD = Base+RTDML.
RTD 2 , . 7.14:
RTD(1,
RTD(2,
RTD(1,
RTD(3,
RTD(2,
RTD(3,

2)
1)
3)
1)
3)
2)

=
=
=
=
=
=

30,73+89,8+4,88+233,5+(500+500)0,1+176,3 = 468,71 BT
26,55+89,8+4,88+233,5+(500+500)0,1+188,48 = 476,71 BT
30,73+89,8+4,88+(122)0,1026+233,5+(500+500)0,1+156,5 = 449,936 BT
12,25+89,8+4,88+(122)0,1026+233,5+(500+500) 0,1+188,48 = 463,436 BT
26,55+233,5+(500+500)0,1+(122)0,1026+156,5 = 351,076 BT
12,25+233,5+(500+500)0,1+(122)0,1026+176,3 = 356,576 BT

SF (safety margin) 575-max (RTD).


Ethernet SF 0 5 BT. (. 7.14)
SF = 575 477 = 98 BT. 5 BT 50 -

172

..

, .

7.4. RTD (BT) [18]

.
,

Base**

Max***

Base

Max

Base

Max

10Base5

500

11,75

55,05

46,5

89,8

169,5

212,8

0,0866

10Base2

185

11,75

30,731

46,5

65,48

169,5

188,48

0,1026

10Base-T

100

15,25

26,55

42

53,3

165

176,3

0,113

10Base-FL

2000

12,25

212,25

33,5

233,5

156,5

356,5

0,1

48

4,88

4,88

4,88

0,1026

AUI****

RTDM*
(BT/)

*
**

RTDM 1 .
Base ,
(DTE ), .
*** Max .
**** AUI 2 .
. 2 , RTD .

7.1 (. 7.15 ). Ethernet, ,


- . . .
. L. SF = 5 BT :
RTD+SF = 26,55+33,5+L0,1+176,3+5=575 BT. L = 3336 .
, 2000 , , . , . 2000 ,
L = 3336 .
7.2 (. 7.15 ). , 7.1, , . .
. L1 L2. SF = 5 BT :
RTD+SF = 26,55+33,5+33,5+(L1+L2)0,1+176,3+5 = 575 BT. L1+L2 = 3001 .
7.3 (. 7.15 ). L
, ( ).
. .
. 1 2
:
(2 ): RTD = 12,25+156,5+33,5+L0,1
(1 ): RTD = 12,25+156,5+L0,1
, 33,5 BT. 33,5 BT ,
, ..:
(0 ) RTD+SF = 12,25+156,533,5+L0,1+5 = 575 BT. L = 4347 .
. IFG
96 BT , ,
, . . CSMA/CD. 96 BT, , , .
, -

173

. , - , ,
. , ,
SVV (segment variability value), , ,
, , .
, 49 BT.

10Base-T
(100 )

10Base-FL
(L = ?)

Rptr 1

Rptr 2

10Base-T
(100 )

10Base-FL
(L 1 )

10Base-FL
(L 2)

Rptr 1

Rptr 2

Rptr 3

(L 1 + L 2 = ?)
10Base-FL
(L = ?)

. 7.15. Ethernet -

IFG ,
, ,
IFG. SVV
, .
, IFG.

7.5. IFG (BT), SVV,




(10Base2, 10Base5)

16

11

(10Base-FL),
(10Base-T)

10,5

SVV , . 7.14:
SVV
SVV
SVV
SVV
SVV
SVV

(
(
(
(
(
(

1,
2,
1,
3,
2,
3,

2)
1)
3)
1)
3)
2)

=
=
=
=
=
=

16+11+8+8 = 43 BT
10,5+8+8+11 = 37,5 BT
16+11+8 = 35 BT
10,5+8+11 = 29,5 BT
10,5+8 = 18,5 BT
10,5+8 = 18,5 BT

, SVV 49 BT, 2.

174

..

1 , , ,
5 : SVV=16+11+11+11 = 49 BT.
7.4. N , ,
/ . L
.
. N2, SVV = 10,5+(N2)8. N = 6, SVV = 42,5 49 ( N = 7, SVV = 50,5>49). N = 6 (5 ). , 1. L ,
RTD ( ) ,
( 10Base-T 10Base-FL . 7.4).
, ( ):
RTD+SF = 15,25+(N2)42 +165+L0,113+5 = 575 BT.
N = 6 L = 1962 .
Ethernet, 7.4,
5, , , 10 .. ,
(n>20) , :
1/n 10 /,
1/n2. , .

7.4. Fast Ethernet


Ethernet
Fast Ethernet, IEEE 802.3u [19, 20]:

CSMA/CD, Ethernet;

, Ethernet;

, , 10/100 /,
Fast Ethernet, Ethernet Fast Ethernet,
.
Fast Ethernet.

Fast Ethernet
. 7.16 Fast Ethernet. 100Base-T IEEE 802.3u , , (TX,
FX, T4). Ethernet, ( ) PLS (. 7.6),
AUI. Fast Ethernet
PCS,
MII. ,
, , 4B/5B NRZI 100Base-FX.
MII Fast Ethernet. MII (medium independent interface) Fast Ethernet AUI Ethernet. MII
. . MII
Fast Ethernet.

175

40- . MII
0,5 .
(, RJ-45),

. , , .
OSI

Fast Ethernet
7

LLC -
MAC -
PCS -
PMA -
PMD - ,
AUTONEG -
MDI - ,

LLC

MAC

MII
( )
PCS
PMA
PMD

Fast Ethernet

MII ( )

:
RJ-45 ( 100Base-TX
100Base-T4)
Duplex SC ( 100Base-FX)

MDI

. 7.16. Fast Ethernet, MII


Fast Ethernet

Fast Ethernet
Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3u
(. 7.17, . 7.6): 100Base-FX, 100Base-TX 100Base-T4.

IEEE 802.3u CSMA/CD


100Base-X
100Base-FX

100Base-TX

2 UTP
Cat. 5

2 STP

100Base-T4

4 UTP
Cat. 3 ( )

. 7.17. Fast Ethernet

100Base-FX. -
FDDI PMD, 6. 100Base-FX Duplex SC. .

176

..

7.6.
Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3u [19]

100Base-FX

100Base-TX

100Base-T4

Duplex SC

RJ-45

RJ-45


UTP Cat. 5

UTP
Cat. 3, 4, 5

4B/5B

4B/5B

8B/6T

NRZI

MLT-3

NRZI

412 (mm)
2 (mm)*
100 (sm)*

100

100

: mm , sm
* .

100Base-TX. 5. FDDI
UTP PMD, 6. RJ-45,
10Base-T, : MDI ( , ) MDI-X
( Fast Ethernet, ). MDI
Fast Ethernet. 1 3. 2 4 . RJ-45 ,
100Base-TX, 10Base-T, .
RJ-45 , , .
100Base-T4.
UTP Cat. 3 .
Ethernet Fast Ethernet
UTP Cat. 3 .
100Base-TX,
, 100Base-T4 (. 7.18 ).

1, 3 4,
2, 3 4. 1 2 Ethernet.
3 4 , ,
, .
, 5. 33,33 /.
8B/6T. ,
33,33 /,
30 . , () (ternary) . 8B/6T [16]; , ,
, 8 ()
6 () . , .7.18 , : (100 6/8)/3 = 25 , .
100Base-T4 .
Fast Ethernet 100Base-TX
100Base-T4 ( ,
100 /), 100Base-T4 .
, 100Base-TX 100Base-FX.

177

PMD

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

2
3

1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0

PMD

40 = 25 MT/c
(MT - 106 )

. 7.18. 100Base-T4: ) ;
) 6B/8T

Fast Ethernet
, Fast Ethernet, Ethernet:
; ; ( / );
; .
( Ethernet) , PCS, PMA, PMD AUTONEG, , , MII , (100Base-FX, 100Base-TX
100Base-T4). ,
, , MII.
.
100Base-TX PCI. , , RJ-45 100/10 / . .
100Base-FX ( IMC, Adaptec,
Transition Networks .) SC ( ST) .
(media converter) , . , , , 100Base-T4. 100Base-TX/100Base-FX. - . , 100Base-TX/100Base-FX, - , RJ-45 (100Base-TX).
. Fast Ethernet :

I. RTD 130 BT.


, T4 TX/FX,
.

II. : RTD < 92 BT, TX/FX; RTD < 67 BT,


T4. (
T4
TX/FX. , T4
TX/FX, I.)

. Fast Ethernet 100/10 / RJ-45


( 100Base-T4). up-link .
Fast Ethernet 100Base-FX, FDDI , ATM (155 /), Gigabit

178

..

Ethernet . Fast Ethernet :


3Com, Bay Networks, Cabletron, DEC, Intel, NBase, Cisco .

7.5.
Fast Ethernet
Fast Ethernet ( Ethernet). 1 , . Ethernet, , , ,
.
1, 2. , , 1, 2.

1
1 . 7.19 [21].
1 .
, ( 1D) 5 .
, - ,
(. 7.7).

Switch

"-"

Rptr

100
100

( )

Switch

1A

:
Rptr -
Switch -

1B

II

II

Rptr

100

Rptr

100

II

100

Rptr

100
100

100

1C

1D

. 7.19. 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D:


(1A) "-",
.
( , -), . , 412 . , , , , ,
-

179

, (,
, ).

7.7. 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D: [22]

1B

FX



412

FX, ,

2000

FX, ,

110 *

TX/FX

160

UTP T4

131

1C

TX/FX

208

1D

TX/FX

111

: FX 100Base-FX, TX 100Base-TX, T4 100Base-T4, * NBase.

: 1B I ( I 1 ), 1C 1D II. , .

2
RTD
. Fast Ethernet RTD 512 BT.
Ethernet (575 BT),
, Fast Ethernet
DTE, .
, - Fast Ethernet ,
( Ethernet).
RTD
RTD , . . 7.8 Fast Ethernet
. , MII 0,5
DTE.
(. 7.7) (. 7.8)
2 A, B, C D 1
(. 7.19).
1A:
1B:
1B:
1C:
1D:
1D:

RTD = 100+4121,0 = 512 BT


RTD = 100+1001,112+140+1601,0 = 511,2 BT
RTD = 127+1001,112+140+1311,0 = 509,2 BT
RTD = 100+1001,112+92+2081,0 = 511,2 BT
RTD = 100+2051,112+292 = 511,96 BT
RTD = 100+1051,112+292+1111,0 = 511,76 BT

FX,
TX/FX
UTP T4
TX/FX
TX/FX ( 1 2)
TX/FX ( 2 3).

RTD 512 BT, 2.


Fast Ethernet
2 (. 7.20). 7.5-7.7 ,
10 . 7.8 : 100Base-TX 100Base-T4.

180

..

7.8. RTD Fast


Ethernet , [21]
/


RTD, (BT)*

DTE / ( TX / FX)

100**

DTE / ( T4)

138**

DTE / ( T4 c TX FX)

127**

140

II ( TX/FX)

92

II ( T4)

67

I (TX/FX )

130

II (TX/FX )

92

UTP Cat. 3***, 1

1,14

UTP Cat. 4***, 1

1,14

UTP Cat. 5, 1

1,112

, 1

1,0

UTP Cat. 5.
.
** .
*** 100Base-T4.

100Base-FX
(L = ?)

100Base-TX
(10 )

100Base-TX
(10 )
Rptr 2

Rptr 1

100Base-FX
(L = ?)

100Base-TX
(10 )

100Base-TX
(10 )
Rptr 2

Rptr 1

II

II

100Base-FX
(L = ?)

100Base-TX
(10 )
Rptr 1

Switch

II

100Base-T4
1

Rptr 1

L1

100Base-TX
100Base-T4

II

L2

Rptr 2

100Base-TX
L

Rptr 3

II
(L1 + L 2 + L3 + L4 = ?)

2
L4

. 7.20. Fast Ethernet


-

181

7.5.
I (TX/FX), 10 , (. 7.20 ).
. . 7.8 :
RTD = 100+201,112+2140+L1,0 = 512 BT. L = 109,76 .
7.6.
II (TX/FX), 10 ,
(. 7.20 ).
. RTD = 100+201,112+292+L1,0 = 512 BT. L = 205,76 .
7.7.
II (TX/FX) ,
10 , (. 7.20 ).
. RTD = 100+101,112+92+L1,0 = 512 BT. L = 308,88 .
7.8.
1 2 , . 7.20 .
. RTD = 127+(L1+ L2+ L3+ L4) 1,112+67+140+92 = 512 BT. L = 77,33 .
. , Fast Ethernet, SM = 5 BT,
5 , .. 10 , Ethernet 50 .

7.6. Ethernet
( )
.
. ( 100Base-T4) . "-". . Ethernet, "", , .
, MAC.
( /) .
. . .
MAC ,
.
CSMA/CD, (. 7.21).
(. 7.4 ).
, , MAC, ,
( 1995 ) ,
, .
Ethernet , 1997 , ,
IEEE 802.3x , [23].
. , :
1.

() , IFG, 96 BT, , .

2.

20 / Ethernet.

3.

- ( 98%) .

4.

, ,

182

..

100 ,
.
5.

,
( : , , ..).

1)
2)
0
IFG

. 7.21.

( MAC)

Ethernet/Fast Ethernet 10Base-T 10Base-FL, 100Base-TX 100Base-FX . AUI MII (, ) , ,


MAC.
- Ethernet/Fast Ethernet.

7.7. Gigabit Ethernet ( IEEE 802.3z 802.3ab)


1996 IEEE 802.3 Gigabit Ethernet
802.3z. 1996 11 (3Com, Bay Networks, Cisco, Compaq, Granite, Intel, LSI
Logic, Packet Engines, Sun, UB Networks VLSI Technology) Gigabit
Ethernet Alliance GEA [24].
, Gigabit
Ethernet, :

Ethernet Fast Ethernet


;

GEA 100 .
IEEE 802.3
.
802.3z [25].

Gigabit Ethernet
. 7.22 Gigabit Ethernet. Fast
Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet ,
, ,
1000Base-LX/SX/CX 8B/10B [26], , , 1000Base-T TX/T2 [27].
PCS, GMII (gigabit media independent interface).
GMII MAC
, MII 10, 100
1000 /. 8- -

183

, . , GMII
, ,
, ,
. ,
, , , Gigabit Ethernet GMII .
PCS.
1000Base-X PCS 8B/10B, ANSI X3T11 Fibre Channel. FDDI,
, 8 ,
, 10- . ,
10- , , ( Gigabit Ethernet
512 ).
1000Base-T PCS
UTP Cat.5 100 TX/T2, Level One Communications
[28, 29].

.
OSI

Gigabit Ethernet
7

:
LLC -
MAC -
PCS -
PMA -
PMD - ,
AUTONEG -
MDI - ,

LLC
MAC

GMII

PCS

Gigabit
Ethernet

PMA
PMD
MDI

:
RJ-45 ( 1000Base-X
1000Base-T);
Duplex SC ( 1000Base-LX
1000Base-SX)

. 7.22. Gigabit Ethernet, GMII


Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.3z

IEEE 802.3ab

1000Base-X
1000Base-LX
1300
MMF, SMF

1000Base-SX
850
MMF

1000Base-CX

1000Base-T

UTP Cat. 5
25

UTP Cat. 5
100

. 7.23. Gigabit Ethernet

184

..

PMA PMD. Gigabit Ethernet , 5, .


PMA PCS , () PMD.
PMD /
. 4
, 802.3z (1000Base-X) 802.3ab
(1000Base-T), (. 7.23).
1000Base-X. 1000Base-X Fibre Channel
, , . Fibre Channel 4- . FC-0
( ) FC-1 (/) Gigabit Ethernet.
Fibre Channel ,
Gigabit Ethernet.
8B/10B 4B/5B, FDDI.
4B/5B Fibre Channel, 3. ,
1 ( ), 0 ( ),
.
1000Base-X ,
[30]:

1000Base-SX 770-860 , 10 0 , ON/OFF ( / ) 9 .


17 , 0 ;

1000Base-LX 1270-1355 , 13,5 3 ,


ON/OFF ( / ) 9 . 19 , 3 ;

1000Base-CX (STP "twinax") .

. 7.9 , Hewlett Packard


1000Base-SX ( HFBR-5305, = 850) 1000Base-LX ( HFCT-5305, = 1300).

7.9. Gigabit Ethernet [31]


1000Base-SX
= 850

1000Base-LX
= 1300

min

max

min

max

70

70

4,75

5,25

4,75

5,25

10

13

17

20

/ ,

0,85

/ ,

0,26

0,45

, oC

4B/5B , FDDI ,
10%. 8B/10B ,
.

185

1000Base-X . 7.10.

7.10.

1000Base-LX
(9 )
( (50 )***
1300 )
(62,5 )***
1000Base-SX
(50 )
( (62,5 )
850 )
(62,5 )
1000Base-CX

: STP 150


( ), *,

5000 **

500

550

320

400

400

500

200

275

160

220

25

*
**

, (25 ),
, / 100 .
*** (. )

8B/10B 1250 /c.


,
625 . . 7.10 , 2-6 . -
Gigabit Ethernet
. , . . ,
NBase Gigabit Ethernet,
40 DFB, 1550 [32].

62,5/125 50/125. ,
Gigabit Ethernet
. 1000Base-SX 1000Base-LX ,
.
( 30-50 ).
. .
.
Gigabit Ethernet 1250 , 0,8 . , , 622,08 /c (STM-4, c 8B/10B, 777,6 ).
Gigabit Ethernet ,
. ,
. .
( ), .
, , ,
, ,
. DMD. -

186

..

,
(. 7.24 ). : ,
(, )
. DMD ,
,
. , ( 1300 ) [33, 34].

. 100 ,
DMD.
1000Base-LX. ,
Gigabit Ethernet - ,
. -
,
, (. 7.10). MCP (mode conditioning patch-cords), (
, )
. , Duplex SC
, Duplex SC, : MCP Duplex
SC-Duplex SC. , ,
Fast Ethernet, - MCP Duplex SC. MCP
.
. , . MCP ,
10-15 (. 7.24 ) [35, 36]. , 1000Base-LX ,
.

n1

50/125 62,5/125

n1

. 7.24. :
) (DMD)
;
)

187

1000Base-SX. 1000Base-SX
, , .
1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet
5 100 .
, 250 /c. ,
, (dual duplex)
1000Base-T. 1 / UTP cat.5
, , 100Base-TX.
, .

1000Base-T, : 5- - PAM-5; QAM-25, . [37]. PAM-5.
5- ? 4- . 4 00, 01, 10, 11.
, 2 4- , 125
250 , (. 7.25), , , . .
. 6 /.

P802.3ab. 1999 .

(250 )

1
0

11
10

01
00

1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1
11
10
00

10

01

. 7.25. 4-
PAM-4

MAC
MAC Gigabit Ethernet
CSMA/CD, Ethernet Fast Ethernet. ( ) .
Ethernet IEEE 802.3 64 .

( ). , 512 BT 51,2 .
Ethernet , RTD,
, 512 BT
( ).
Ethernet Fast Ethernet , 64 512 BT 5,12 (
Fast Ethernet 1 BT = 0,01 ). ,
, :
1.

, (, , );

2.

( ),
.

Fast Ethernet , Ethernet.


,
.
188

..

Gigabit Ethernet , Ethernet Fast Ethernet. , ,


.
, 20 , . Gigabit Ethernet
. Gigabit Ethernet 512 BT 8
Ethernet Fast Ethernet. , Ethernet Fast
Ethernet, , , " " (carrier extension).

, " ". .
( 512 ) , , 512 . . . LLC
. 512 ,
. . 7.26 Gigabit Ethernet
.

SFD

DA

SA

7 + 1

46 - 1500

FCS

64 (min) -1518 (max)


512 (min) - 1518 (max)
Gigabit Ethernet: 1 /

SDF: Start of frame Delimiter -


DA:

Destination Address -

SA:

Source Address -

L:

( 802.3 )

T:

( Ethernet_II)

FCS: Frame Check Sequence -

. 7.26. Gigabit Ethernet


, Fast Ethernet .
. 448 (512-64) . Gigabit
Ethernet NBase Communications
. , (packet bursting), . /
, 512 , . 96 ,

189

(. 7.27 ). , ,
.
, 1518.
, , , ,
(. 7.27 ).

, (%)

100

Fast Ethernet
80

Gigabit Ethernet

60
40

Gigabit Ethernet

20

200

400

600

800

1000 1200 1400

, ()

. 7.27. : ) ;
)


Gigabit Ethernet:
, , , .
(1000Base-FL, 1000Base-SX) Duplex SC.
1000Base-T UTP cat.5 100
1999 .
Gigabit Ethernet. PCI, SBus .
G-NIC,
Packet Engines [38]:
1.

64/32- PCI- 33
2 /.

2.

, , .

3.

IEEE 802.3x IEEE 802.3z


.
: Windows 95 (NDIS3); Windows NT
(NDIS4, NDIS5, Intel DEC Alpha ); Novell NetWare (ODI 3.12 ); Solaris
(2.5x, PCI SBus); DEC UNIX (4.3 BSD); SGI IRIX (5.3 6.2); HP-UX (10.20); Linux; FreeBSD.
. Ethernet
, MAC. RJ-45
(10Base-T, 100Base-TX), , - , . Gigabit
Ethernet , . CSMA/CD
, . (. 7.28).

190

..

. , , MAC . ,
, ( ). CSMA/CD,
.
,
- .
, , 100 .

RX

RX

TX


CSMA/CD

TX

(FIFO)

(FIFO)


RX
TX

. 7.28. Gigabit Ethernet

, ,
, . , 802.3x. MAC
.
, , .
. Gigabit Ethernet:

, IEEE 802.3x;

Ethernet, Fast Ethernet;

3;

QoS RSVP;

IEEE 802.1q .

Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet : 3Com, Acacia Networks, Alteon Networks, ANCOR, Cabletron, Cisco Systems, Essential Communications, Foundry Networks, GigaLabs, Hewlett
Packard, NBase Communications, Packet Engines, Rapid City Communications, XLNT Corp. [39].

7.8. Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet.
: Gigabit Ethernet,
Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet, Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet.
Gigabit Ethernet. , Gigabit Ethernet (. 7.29). -

191

550 , , UTP Cat.5


100 (. 7.10). 802.3x -.

Fast Ethernet
100 /
Switch

100 /

Switch

Switch

Switch

10 /

10 /

10 /

Rptr

100 /

Gigabit Ethernet
1000 /
Switch

100 /

Switch

10 /

Switch

10 /

Switch

10 /

Rptr

100 /

. 7.29. Gigabit Ethernet

Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet.


Gigabit Ethernet (. 7.30). 802.1Q, .
Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet. , N 10/100 / (N=8-16), M 1000 / (M = 4-8). ( ) Gigabit Ethernet up-link . , Fast Ethernet,
Gigabit Ethernet
(. 7.31).

: , (IEEE 802.3x); ;
- (IEEE 802.1Q); RSVP .

192

..

100 /

Fast Ethernet
Switch

Switch

100 /

Switch

100 /

Rptr

Switch

10 /

Switch

10 /
100 /

Switch

10 /

100 /

Switch

10 /

Switch

Gigabit Ethernet

100 /

100 /

Rptr

Switch

Rptr

10 /
100 /

Gigabit Ethernet
Switch

100 /

100 /

Switch

10 /
100 /

Switch

10 /

Rptr

10 /
100 /

. 7.30. Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

Switch

Fast Ethernet
100 /

Switch

10 /

Switch

Switch

10 /

10 /

Rptr

100 /

Switch

Gigabit Ethernet
1000 / ()

Fast Ethernet
100 / ()

Switch

Switch

Switch

10 /

10 /

10 /

Rptr

100 /

. 7.31. Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

. . 7.32 Ethernet. (, ) ,
: -,

193

RTD, -, , 15-25,
50-100 . Ethernet MAC,
. ,
.

10 /
Rptr

Switch

4
2

10 /

100 /
()

100 /

10 /

Switch

4
1

10 /
) ()

4
3

100 /
()

. 7.32. : ) ;
) (
); )
( 802.3x)


(. 7.32 ). ,
, ; Fast Ethernet
Ethernet, - , , " " . .
(
) , , . .
. , , . , , Ethernet,
. , (
).
(. . 7.2). , CSMA/CD, .
Ethernet
(. 7.32 ).
"-"
( IEEE 802.3x) , MAC. Gigabit Ethernet
,
. 802.3x
Fast Ethernet Ethernet.
, ,
, .
. VLAN (virtual LAN) , ,
194

..

. VLAN , . ,
.
. , , , ,
.

. ( MAC-).

IP, IPX .. ,
, , , . , ,
.
, ,
,
.
IEEE 802.1Q, . - (tag switching) [40]. ( , )
, 2 :
(12 ); (3 ) TR
(1 ). A B 1
(. 7.33). 2 , V1,

MAC- V1 B.

1
V1
V2

Tag = V1

2
V1
V2

V1

V1

V1

V2

V2

V2

V1

V1

V1

V2

V2

V2

. 7.33.

IEEE 802.1Q
:

MAC Address Tagging - MAC- ;

Frame Type Tagging (, IP IPX);

Layer 3 Tagging IP ;

Policy-based Tagging , , .
IEEE 802.1Q Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet, IEEE 802.1Q.
RSVP. . ,
, .
.
-

195

Internet. RSVP (Resource ReserVation Protocol) . RSVP TCP/IP, Internet.


RSVP
QoS (Quality of Service), . , RSVP , , .
/ RSVP :
(. 7.34 ). , , QoS.
, . ,
RSVP ,
. , RSVP QoS . QoS , ,
.
RSVP , , .
, ,
-.
, ,
(. 7.34 ). RSVP ,
, .
RSVP
Internet. RSVP ,
, , . ,
, RSVP ,
.
-

RSVP

. 7.34. ) RSVP , QoS;


)

Ethernet ATM .
OSI, RSVP IEEE 802.1Q Ethernet, -

196

..

,
Gigabit Ethernet . QoS RSVP QoS, ATM, , RSVP
.
ATM QoS . QoS,
ATM, , . 10G Ethernet ( 10 /),
2001 [41]. , Ethernet c 10/100/1000/... , ATM
, .

7
1.

N. Abramson. "Development of the ALOHANET"//IEEE Transactions on Information Theory,


Vol. IT-31, March, 1985

2.

Digital Equipment Corp., Intel Corp., and Xerox Corp. The Ethernet: A Local Area Network,
Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications, Version 1.0, Sept., 1980.; Version 2.0,
Nov., 1980

3.

ISO/IEC Standard 8802-3. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications [ISO publication of IEEE Standard 802.3],
1996

4.

B.1.5.2 Maximum Collision Fragment Size, Annex B. ISO/IEC Standard 8802-3, 1996 (E)

5.

W. Stallings. Local & Metropolitan Area Networks. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New
Jersey 07458, 1997. 605 p.

6.

D. Boggs, J. Mogul, Ch. Kent. "Measured Capacity of an Ethernet: Myth and Reality". Digital,
Western Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, 1988, pp. 1-20

7.

Media Converter and Media Conversion Kits. Allied Telesyn, 1997,


http://www.alliedtelesyn.com/prod12t.htm

8.

PDF Documents: Enterprise Switches, Switches, Expansion Modules, Hub Data Sheets, GigaHUB Modules, Transceiver and Adapter Data Sheets, Miscellaneous Manuals. White Papers,
NBase Advertisements. NBase Communications, 1998, http://www.nbase.com/pdf/

9.

Products and Ordering. SVEC's complete product list, 1997,


http://www.svec.com.tw/Products/producte.htm

10.

Ethernet Transceiver / Repeater. SURECOM Technology, 1998,


http://www.surecom-net.com/product/pro-8.htm

11.

Media Conversion Products - Go the Distance with Fiber. Transition Networks, 1998,
http://www.transition.com/products/converter_index.html

12.

10& 100Mbps "twister" Media Translators in Standard Rackmount Chassis. Lancast, 1998,
http://www.lancast.com/7000.html

13.

Networking Products. Adaptec, 1998,


http://www.adaptec.com/support/overview/networking.html

14.

Products: Media Conversion, Media Conversion, Media Conversion Switches, Bridges/LAN


Extenders, Hubs/Repeaters, Transceivers & Network Interface Cards. IMC Networks, 1998,
http://www.imcnetworks.com/

15.

Welcome to Net Optics Global Source. NetOptics 1998, http://www.netoptics.com/

16.

F. Halsall, Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems. Addison-Wesley,


1996. 907 p.

17.

7.4 10-Mbps Configuration Guidelines: Model 1, Quick Reference Guide to Ethernet. Charles
Spurgeon, 1995, http://wwwhost.ots.utexas.edu/ethernet/10quickref/ch7qr_5.html

18.

7.5 10-Mbps Configuration Guidelines: Model 2, Quick Reference Guide to Ethernet. Charles
Spurgeon, 1995, http://wwwhost.ots.utexas.edu/ethernet/10quickref/ch7qr_6.html

197

19.

IEEE Standard 803.3u. Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, Medium Attachment Units, and Repeater for 100Mb/s Operation, Type 100Base-T, 1995

20.

. , . . Fast Ethernet: , , . BHV, 1998. 444 .

21.

System consideration for multi-segment 100Base-T networks. IEEE Standard 802.3u, 1995.
pp. 281-287

22.

H. Johnson. Fast Ethernet: Dawn of a New Network. Prentice Hall PRT, 1996. 310 p.

23.

IEEE Standard 802.3x. Specification for 802.3 Full Duplex Operation, 1997

24.

Gigabit Ethernet Alliance 1998, http://www.gigabit-ethernet.org/

25.

"Gigabit Ethernet Standard Makes Considerable Progress To Meet June Ratification Date."
Gigabit Ethernet Task Force Resolves All Comments To Gigabit Ethernet Draft Standard,
1998, http://www.gigabit-ethernet.org/news/releases/031698.html

26.

Draft Standard IEEE 802.3z. Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, Repeater and Management Parameters for 1000Mb/s Operation, 1998

27.

Gigabit Ethernet over Category 5. 1997, http://www.bicsi.org/gigabit.html

28.

ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A. "Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard", October


6, 1995

29.

H. Koeman, A. Bennett. "Relationship [Between] Near End and Far End Crosstalk in Modular
RJ-45 Connectors". Contribution to TIA TR41.8.1-97-08-46, 8/1997

30.

R. Seifert. Gigabit Ethernet: Technology and Applications for High-Speed LANs. AddissonWesley, 1998. 411 p.

31.

HP 850 nm Gb/s (Gigabit) Ethernet Fiber Optic VCSEL 1X9 Transceiver. Hewlett Packard,
1997, http://www.hp.com/HP-COMP/fiber/gigabit/prelim/hfbr5305_p.html; HP 1300 nm Gb/s
(Gigabit) Ethernet Fiber Optic Laser 1X9 Transceiver, Hewlett Packard, 1997,
http://www.hp.com/HP-COMP/fiber/gigabit/prelim/hfct5305_p.html

32.

Backbone/Enterprise Switching Solutions. NBase, 1998, http://www.nbase.co.il/

33.

D. Cunningham. "Modal Bandwidth Investigation: Examination of the Fundamentals of Multimode Fiber Behavior with Laser Sources". Presented to IEEE 802.3z, November 1997.

34.

H. Frazier. "Results of Field Measurements of Optical Fibers". presented to IEEE 802.3z, November 1997

35.

Differential Mode Delay Gigabit Ethernet Transmission Distances, 1998,


http://www.computer-crafts.com/White%20Papers/differential_mode_delay_info.htm

36.

Differential Mode Delay Q&A, Gigabit Ethernet Alliance, 1998,


http://www.gigabit-ethernet.org/technology/overview/dmd.html

37.

Gigabit Ethernet Over Category 5: Part I Proposed Signaling Schemes, Part II Channel
Environment and SNR Margin. Scope Communications, 1998, http://scope.com/white15.htm;
http://scope.com/white19.htm

38.

G-NIC Network Interface Card. Packet Engines, 1998,


http://www.packetengines.com/products/gnic/default.htm

39.

Vendors of Gigabit Ethernet equipment, 1998, http://www.infotech.tu-chemnitz.de/~paetz/ge/

40.

An Introduction to VLAN Tagging, 1997, http://www.lanoptics.co.uk/tagging.htm

41.

High Performance Network Buying Decisions: A Walk-Trough the Evaluation Parameters of


Gigabit Ethernet and ATM Networks. Packet Engines, 1998. 13 p.

198

..

8.
(1 / ) . :
, , .
5-8 ,
, .
AON (All-optical Networks) ,
, , (), .
,
, .
,
( , WDM, EDFA, ),
, . ,
, : Lucent Technologies, Alcatel, Ericsson, Fujitsu, Hewlett
Packard, NEC, NTT, Nortel, Siemens [1-4].

8.1.
,
AON, , 1 , 0
. , EDFA . , AON.
. . ( ), . 20 100 ,
1 5
0,1 . 10 , 1 . pin- InGaAsP, 1300 100 /,
(DFB),
1550 10 /.
. : ( , standard fiber, SF), (dispersion shifted fiber, DSF), (non-zero dispersion shifted fiber, NZDSF), 50/125 62,5/125.
- . NZDSF, DSF.

2 . , , ,
.
, , .

199

. - , FDDI, Fast Ethernet (


100 /c, 125 ), ATM (STM-1 155/c, 194 ),
STM-4 622 / ( 778 ) Gigabit Ethernet
(1000 /, 1250 ), , STM-16 (2,5 /), , , STM-64 (10 /).
/ (. . 8.2). , WDM, , / (DWDM) c 40 .

, .
, .
(. . 8.4)
. EDFA, 980 1480 . 1535 1560 ,
30-38 . EDFA , WDM , .
(. . 8.5)
, , .
2x2 4x4, 8x8 16x16.
, . , , () . , , .
.
(. . 8.6)
. , 1
, 2, 1 2 2 ,
.

. 8.1.

8.2.
DWDM
DWDM ( WDM) :

1550 ,
EDFA (1530-1560 );

(3,2 / 1,6 / 0,8 0,4 ).

, DWDM ( 32- ), DWDM, () , , WDM


/ ,
. / -

200

..

, , . -
, DWDM c WDM (
1310 , 1550 1650 ). (
) () DWDM .
DWDM WDM.

8.1. AON

EDFA

(MUX),
(DEMUX)

1+...+N

1+...+k+...+N

1
2

1+...+N

1+...+N

WDM MUX

1
,

1
2

...

...

1+...+N

WDM DEMUX

1+...+N

1+...+N

1+...+N
1+...+N

DWDM
. 8.1 . . . ,
AWG (arrayed waveguide grating). - , ( 1 , 2 ,... ) . , , , -,
, . -, , , AWG
, .
.
, - (. 8.1 ). , .
DWDM , , . , (. 8.1 ), 10-12 , <20 , 1 , ( Oki Electric Industry [5]). -
/
DWDM .
-

201

. 8.1. DWDM : ) [5]);


) - [6]

DWDM

. , , .
ITU-T DWDM 100 ( 0,8 ), (. 8.2).
50 ( 0,4 ). , , , ,
.
100 . . 8.2 100 . , 500/400, .
, , .
: (
-); 2,4 / (STM-16) 10 /
(STM-64); ,
.
EDFA 1540 (. 4.19, . 4), / . , . / , STM-64 4-7 ,
STM-16. , EDFA
STM-64 (1540-1560 ),
STM-16 ( EDFA, ).

202

..

8.2. ITU-T [7]

,
100
(8

)
196,1
196,0
195,9
195,8
195,7
195,6
195,5
195,4
195,3
195,2
195,1
195,0
194.9
194,8
194,7
194,6
194,5
194,4
194,3
194,2
194,1
194,0
193,9
193,8
193,7
193,6
193,5
193,4
193,3
193,2
193,1
193,0
192,9
192,8
192,7
192,6
192,5
194,4
192,3
192,2
192,1

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

200
(4
)

400
(
4 )

500/400

(
8 )

600
(
4 )

1000
(
4 )

*
*
*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*
*
*

*
*

1528.77
1529,55
1530,33
1531,12
1531,90
1532,68
1533,47
1534,25
1535,04
1535,82
1536,61
1537,40
1538,19
1538,98
1539,77
1540,56
1541,35
1542,14
1542,94
1543,73
1544,53
1545,32
1546,12
1546,92
1547,72
1548,51
1549,32
1550,12
1550,92
1551,72
1552,52
1553,33
1554,13
1554,94
1555,75
1556,55
1557,36
1558,17
1558,98
1559,79
1560.61

50 . , , 50 1540-1560 ,
EDFA. . , ,
( ). -,
0,4 STM-64
(. 8.2). , STM-64 c 50
, [7].
(STM-4 ), . -, 50 ,

203

, , .
- EDFA, ( 1530-1560 ) . EDFA
40 STM-64 100 400
.
STM-64 100

STM-16 100

STM-64 50

STM-16 50

. 8.2.
. 8.3 , 100/50 , Ciena Corp.

8.3. DWDM
MultiWave Sentry 4000 ( Ciena Corp. [8])

, /c

100 (40 2,5 /)


OC-48/(STM-16)/OC-48c/STM-16c
50
5 25 (500 )
2 33 (240 )
(BER) < 1015

/ STM-16/G.957
I-16 & S.16.1
,
18 3
,
5 0,5
,
1250-1600


WaveWatch CIENA SNMP
TMN

VT100 (TM), RS-232,
Telnet, ITU TMN, TL-1, SNMP

B1 SDH,


RS-422/X.25 (TL-1 ), IP/802.3
10Base-T

2,048 / 1625

,
48 58
40 , 800 , 925 () 1
1000 , 1250 () 2

204

..

8.3. EDFA
EDFA - . -,
(. 8.3 ). , .
, ,
, , , ,
. , , ,
.
EDFA
(. 8.3 ). , "" ,
, , .
EDFA WDM ,
.
, , , ,
,
. EDFA, , .

. 8.3. : )
; ) EDFA

, , . , ,
EDFA .

EDFA
, EDFA: , , -.

Pout sut

(saturation output power) -

205

. . EDFA 36 (4 ).
G (gain)

G = PS out PS in

PS in PS out

(8-1)

() , -

g = 10 lg G ().


. , EAU-200/350,
IRE POLUSE-GROUP, 42
(. 8.4).
ASE (amplified spontaneous emission).
EDFA .

. , EDFA, , , ,
. (. 8.4). 1 /. , , , , . , , ASE (. 8.4).
ASE
. .
, , . , ,

( =

c
,
2

),

,
ASE = ASE . , EDFA -

, ()

, . , , .

10
0

ASE

-10
-20
-30
ASE

-40
-50
1500

1520

1540

1560

1580

1600

, ()

. 8.4. EDFA,
(ASE )

206

..

EDFA
~1 , ~10 [9] - ASE .
[10]

ASE = h

n sp

(G 1) ,

(8-2)

(),
= c , c ,
, .

, 6,6252 x 1034 2 ,

2,9979 x 108 /),


n sp

1530-1560

n sp = = 1

G >> 1 ,

ASE id

h ,

= 1550 1,28 x 1019 / 1 .


0,8 100 ,
1,28 x 108 48,9 ).
-

NF

(noise figure) /

( SNR in ) / ( SNR out ):

NF =

PS in

PS out

PN in

PN out

(8-3)

, - PN in = h .
ASE ,
:

PN out = ASE + h .

PS out PS in = G ,

NF =

1 ASE
1 +
.
G
h

(8-4)

nf = 10 lg NF . G = 1 . -

EDFA - :
- 1 (0 )

n sp = 1

, , . 3 ( 10 lg 2 ) nf , ( ),

n sp = 2 ,

5,5 .
1 -, . . - NF ,

G1

G2

NF1

NF2 .

PN out = h [NF1G 1G 2 + (NF2 1)G 2 ] ,

(8-5)

, ,

PS out = G 1G 2 PS in ,
-

(8-6)

207

NF = NF1 + (NF2 1) G 1 .

(8-7)

, ,

. .
- (8-4), G
ASE . . 8.5 [11].

. 8.5. EDFA

,
EFDA . , ASE
. (, 100 , 50
) 1 . ( ),
, ASE , ( ).
, . . ASE II = ASE .

ASE = ASE II + ASE = 2ASE

. -

Pout = Ptot ASE .

Ptot

, ( ). Pin ,
( ). (8-4) G .
. 8.4
EDFA,
(. ) IPG Laser, IP Fibre Devices IPC
IRE-POLUS [12].

208

..

8.4. EDFA EAU-200 EAU-350 [12]

, DWDM

1530

1570

Pout sat (Pin= 3), :


EAU-200
EAU-350
g
, (=1545)

23,0
25,5

23,5
26,0

42

g
1553-1567 (Pin= 3 ),

0,3

0,2

nf
1545-1565 , Pin= 4
Pin= +4

5,5
6,0

0,2

/,

50

/
/

SMF-28

FC/PC, FC/SPC, FC/APC

pig-tail-,

1,5

965

1x100

500000

1000000


, ( )
20

oC,

12


, oC

30

+65

, oC

30

+80

, .
, %
,
,

3
0

95
115x21x165
0,3

Bellcore

EDFA
, , , (. 8.6).
()
/
.

209


.
, - - , , WDM. , .
() ,
. , ,
- .

. 8.6.

. 8.5 EDFA .

8.5. EFDA

NF

Pout sut

**

* ;
** : G Pin ,
, PMD ,

EDFA
. 8.7 , EDFA. ( g ()

N 0 ( )

( )

(). -

210

..

40

10

35
30

25

-10

20

-20

15

-30

10

-40

-50

2
3
4
5
6
EDFA

/ SNR ()

()

20

:



()

. 8.7.
EDFA
(/), L
() EDFA L . , EDFA :

L = 10 lg(Pout i 1 Pin i ) ,

g = 10 lg(Pout i Pin i ) ,

L = 10 lg(N out i 1 N in i ) ,

N out i N 0
,
g = 10 lg
N in i

Pin i , Pout i , N in i , N out i

(8-8) / (8-9)

(8-10) / (8-11)

, i .
Pout sat . , ( ) , (, ) . ,
Pout i 1 = Pout i = Pout sat . L = g . , (8-10) (8-11),

N out i = N out i 1 + N 0 .

N out 0

, ..
/ k- :

N out 0 = 0 ,

snrk = 10 lg(Pout sat N out k ) = 10 lg(Pout sat kN 0 ) .

, , :

snrk = pout sat n out 10 lg k (),

n out = 10 lg N out = n out id + nf = 134,1 + 10 lg + g + nf

(),

(8-12)

.
(8-12), SNR EDFA.
SNR / .
,
,
. ,
:

211

ATM/STM-1, ATM/STM-4, Gigabit Ethernet, STM-16, SNR, , , STM-16.

8.4. WDM/TDM

SDH 2,5 / 1
0 /.
80 , 32 STM-16 8
STM-64.
32 x STM-16
8 x STM-64:

(1,5/2/6/8/34/45/140 /);

SDH ;


/. . 8.6 STM-16 STM-64. , STM-64
/, 5-10
STM-16, EDFA
STM-64.

8.6.
STM-16 STM-64 [13]

STM-16 (2,5 /) STM-64 (10 /)

/,

18-21

27-31

, /

10500

1600

< 400

- PMD

. STM-16
, STM-64, , . , - ,
. 8.7 ( SF NZDSF 20 5,5 /(),
). , , , .

8.7. -


SF,
NZDSF,

STM-16

STM-64

525

80

1909

291

. PMD STM-16 STM-64. , PMD


1 10 . 40 10 STM-16 STM-64 . PMD

T
212

. = 0,5 /

pmd (L) = T L ,

( NZDSF
..

TrueWave SMF-LS, . . 2.7, . 2) STM-16 STM-64 6400 400 . , . ,


, .
, NZDSF LEAF, 0,08 / .
. 8.8 32 x STM-16
8 x STM-64, 496 . , 32 x STM-16

. 8 x STM-64 ,
EDFA.
DWDM

DWDM

STM-16

....

STM-16

STM-16

1
STM-16
2

STM-16

32

32

EDFA

....

STM-16

STM-64

STM-64
STM-64

STM-64

STM-64
STM-64

STM-64

STM-64
STM-64

....

....

....

STM-64

....

STM-64

STM-64

. 8.8.
SDH 496 : ) 32 x STM-16; ) 8 x STM-64


, . STM-64
: STM-4 STM-16.
, STM-1
E1, E2, E3 . ., STM-64 , STM-64
STM-4 STM-16. STM-16 .

8.8.
STM-16 STM-64

STM-16

STM-64 (9953,280 /)

STM-4 (622,488 /)

STM-1 (155,520 /)

E3 (34,368 /)

E1 (2,048 /)

STM-16 (2488,320 /)

213

SDH
STM-64 , STM-16. Release 1.0 STM-64,
, . ( - 4- ) STM-16. ,

.
Release 1.0 STM-64 .


, , . 8 x STM-64
10 /, , 32 x STM-16
2,5 /. , WDM- , - , STM-16 STM-64
SDH.

8.5.
, .3.6.
( 20 50 ). .
, . , , .
: , ,
, . ,
.
(Pockels),
. , .
/ WDM,

.
-.

- 2x2 ( 2x2)
- . 8.9 . , , . k ,
g .

= 2 (N1 N 2 )

, (

) L. , , , .

214

..

I0 / I1

1,0

0,75

0,50

kL= / 2
0,25

kL= 3/ 2

. 8.9.
) -; )
,

, [10]:

iR = R + kS ,

iS = S + kR ,

(8-13)/(8-14)

= 2 , R S ,
x . ,
, . . R (0) = 1, S(0) = 0 , , (8-13) (8-14),

S(L)

1
sin 2 kL 1 + ( k ) 2
2
1 + ( k )

, , . .

12

(8-15)


(. 8.9 ) (

= 0)

= sin 2 kL .

kL = (2n + 1) 2 , n , L = 2k .

(8-13) (8-14), .
, , ( = 0 L = 2 k), () , , , k , , , L . , 0 kL .
( = 0) ,

= 3 L.

100% (
, ),
0. (8-13) (8-14) -

215

, , ,
. , - 2 2
.
- 2 2 , -, . 8.10.
.
, , .

. 8.10. -

,
, [14, 15].
2 2
. , [16, 17].

nxn
- 2 2 -
n n . 2 2 , n n
. , ,
. n n , (. 8.11).
4 4 (. 8.11 ) c 16
. ,

1 ( 1.1) 7 ( 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 3.4, 2.4,
1.4). ,
, ,
, . ,
, (
). .
4 4 (. 8.11 ) c 6 . ,
4 4 , 4
- (1-i), (2-j), (3-k), (4-l), (i, j, k, l)
(1, 2, 3, 4). . .1-.1 (11.1-1.2 -1.3-1), .2 .2
(2-1.1-2.2-1.3-2), , , (4-2.1-2.2-2.3-4) (3-2.1-1.22.3-3). .1-.1 .4-.4, . . .1, 4
. 1, 4 ( ). , , .1 .4. - -

216

..

.
.

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4


2x2

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

.
.
.

.
.
.

32

32

. 8.11. : ) 4x4 (
, 16 ); ) 4x4
( , 6 ); ) Delta
32x32 (, 90 )
32 32 (. 8.11 ) c 90 Delta.
.
, . , , 1, 2 31, 32.

1.1 2.2.

2 2 (

X 2, 2 ),

a, b c, d, : a-c, b-d, a-d, b-c. n n


, 2 2 , n n ,
, . n C n L

217

.
(strictly non-blocking),
- (i, k)
i-k,
( ) .
n n ,

n C = n 2 n L = 2n 1

(. 8.12, . 8.9).

. ,
,
,
. n n , , (. 8.12), i-k i.k. ,
, i k i.k
, , .
n n
.
n C n L n .

....

1.1

1.2

1.j

1.n

2.1

2.2

2.j

2.n

i.1

i.2

i.j

i.n

n.1

n.2

n.j

n.n

1
2

....

2x2 (X 2,2 )

. 8.12. n x n
n n (blocking),
( i1 , i 2 , ..., i n ) (1, 2, ..., n), n
, ( 1, i1 ), ( 2, i 2 ), ( n , i n ).
: Delta

D n,2 ,

Banyan

Yn , 2

Omega

n,2 ,

(. 8.13) [18, 19]. Delta :

D 2, 2 = X 2, 2 ,

D n , 2 = X 2 , 2 D n 2, 2 .

Delta, Banyan Omega ,


n C n L n n
(. 8.9), . .
n n (rearrangeable nonblocking), ( i1 , i 2 , ..., i n ) (1, 2, ..., n), n , ( 1, i1 ),
( 2, i 2 ), ( n , i n ). , . ,
218

..

,
,
.
Dn,2

D16,2
X2,2
....

Dn/2,2

X2,2
n
....

X2,2

Dn/2,2

....

Y16,2

16,2

. 8.13. : ) Delta ;
) Delta 16x16; ) Banyan 16x16;
) Omega 16x16

. , Banyan Batcher [20].


(Batcher + Banyan, S n Yn , 2 ) ATM,
ATM. (~ n log 2 ( n

) , . . 8.9)

. Batcher
() , . S n Yn , 2
, ,
ATM .

Bene B n , 2 . 8.14 . ,
Delta , :

B 2 , 2 = X 2 , 2 , B n , 2 = X 2 , 2 B n 2, 2 X 2 , 2 .

(. 8.14 ,

. 8.9),

K n , 2,m = X1,m B n , 2 X m,1 .

B n ,2

Cantor ,

nC

n L

m = log 2 n .

219

n Cantor

nL

B n,2

K n,2,m

....
X 2,2

X m,1

B n/2,2

....
....

X 1,m

....

....

....

B n/2,2

....

X 2,2

....

....
....

....

....

n
X 2,2

B n/2,2

X m,1

....

X 1,m

B n/2,2

....

X 2,2

....

X 2,2

X 2,2
n

X 2,2

....

X 1,m

....

X 2,2

....

B n/2,2

....

X 2,2
....

X 2,2

....

nC

X m,1

. 8.14. :
) Bene ;
) Cantor

8.9.

D n,2 *

Banyan

Yn , 2

Omega

n ,2

Delta

nC

nL

n
log 2 n
2

log 2 n

S n Yn , 2

n
log 2 n (3 + log 2 n )
4

1
log 2 n (3 + log 2 n )
2

Bene

B n ,2

n
(2 log 2 n 1)
2

2 log 2 n 1

Cantor

K n , 2, m

X n,2

Batcher +
Banyan

Crossbar

n (log 2 n ) +
2

3n
2 log 2 (log 2 n ) + log 2 n
log 2 n 2n
2
n2

2n 1

* n / (2 2x2)

220

..

8.6.

.
, -, , .
(10 /c ). ,
, .

,
(. 8.15 ).
. ,
, ..
: 1 C = 1 P 1 S .
( S

. 8.15 )
( C = 1545 ) P = 770 ,

= 1536 )

. : 10 ; 100 ; 10 .
200

770

P
S

LiNbO3

150

100

50

S
: C
:

x 1000

0
1530

1535

1540

1545

1550

. 8.15. : )
;
) (
OKI Electric Industry [21])

[22].
DSF 2 . , , , : 2 P = 1 S + 1 C ( ). ,
, . DSF.

221

8.7.
.
. -
, 1 /, 2,5 / 10 /
ATM/SDH, Gigabit Ethernet ..,
"" . ,
"" ? , , . AON, ,
, , , .
AON. AON [23, 29]: , () ,
(. 8.10).

8.10. AON

()

AON. AON .
AON
(ATM, FDDI, ..). ( , ) WDM
- - . WDM , .
(, , ), AON , ,
, , .
, . ( ) , , , WDM , , .
AON
: (tunable-laser transmitters) / (tunable filters heterodynes).

( ),
, . 222

..

.
,
AON .
. , AON
.

SMWL
AON (
, . 8.16).
"-" ,
, ,
. : ,
;
(
); (ATM, Gigabit Ethernet, SDH/PDH ..) .
.
,
.

1
2

STM-16 N

1 ATM/STM-4
2

DWDM

...

...

ATM/STM-4

N STM-16
DWDM

. 8.16.

,
" c ".

SDH "-", .
.


( ),
. , , [24].
/. ,
/, EDFA, ,
. . 8.3, EDFA , . , 18 EDFA 622 / STM-4 /, 11 2,5 / /. -

223

EDFA - .
EDFA. EDFA
- EDFA, 2
30 . 50 30 10 . (DWDM) . , EDFA, ,
, , .
. , . , . . . ,
. ,
, 20 , . .
. - , .
. , NZDSF 5-6 / 1 . .
EDFA. ,
( ), , . EDFA, , ,
, , /.
(PMD). -
. PMD
(10 /). PMD

1 10

[25, 26]. PMD

L1 2 ),

.
. ,
, . ,
, (
), : ( -

) (

+ ),

, , . - , 0 4 , 8 1000 , 4 8000 [27].


FWM. FWM , i , j

l ,

i + j = k + l ,

.
. - FWM
-

224

..

. FWM
DSF
EDFA.
, ,
, , .
.
:

( ,
DSF - FWM
);


EDFA;

, (
Corning LEAF MFD
, , ;

, , .

8.8. AON
AON (
) PON (passive
optical network). PON AON, :
, , , , .
PON , , "--" (fiber-to-the-home) "--" (fiber-in-the-loop). , ( the "bury it and forget it") , . PON ,
,
EFDA, .

AON
AON , . ,
, ,
, , . 8.17.

1 , . . ., N

1 , . . ., N
2

1 , . . ., N

...

. 8.17. AON

225

, ,
, WDM. , .
, WDM c , .
- AON
IBM: Rainbow-1 (1991 ) Rainbow-2 (1995 ) [28].
Rainbow-1 32 IBM PS/2. Micro Channel .
:

1505 1545 ;

-
50 . 10 /,
250 ;

200 /
SF 8/125.
:

A B, :
1. B.
A .
2.

B B.

B (, ),
A
B.

B ,
, , .

B (
A), A , A. ,
B B , A .

, ,
.

Rainbow-2 Rainbow-1.
, Rainbow-2 :

Rainbow-1 ,
. Rainbow-2
;

Rainbow-1 PS/2 Micro


Channel, Rainbow-2 ,
-;

Rainbow-2 1 /
15 32.

AON, , , , , -

226

..

[29].
CSMA.
AON , .
, AON . -,
, . , . -, AON , , . , DWDM 200. , , 20 , 4000 ,
.

.

AON
AON , . 8.18. ( ) , . - , .

1
1

2
1

...

. 8.18. AON

, WDM .

AON

.
. , , .

227

. 8.19 AON , AON,


( , ), () .

2
1

. 8.19. AON

. , AON
. , ,
, , .
.
ATM, ATM VCI (Virtual
Circuit Identifier).
,
, . 8.20. , ()
, , ,
, .
(. 8.20 ). A E (
1 ). D H.

2 , S 2

1 .

(. 8.20 ). B F G. .
(. 8.20 ). A E D H, A H. , . .
( 1 2 ), ,

S2 ,

S1 .

, F G
1 2 , A H 1 ( , . 8.5). .
, . 8.20 .

228

..

S1

S2

S3

)
A

E
1

. 8.20. AON :
)-) , ;
)

1000

100

10

0,1
10

,
(. 8.21), [29].


( )

100

1000

. 8.21. AON .
AON AON c

229

.
8.22. , , ( ) . . , ,
.

.
- .
. C A,
:

C A,
;

(A) , , , A ;

, C,
A;

A C.


. , Rainbow-1/2, , .
, , :

. ,
;

,
;
;

, (
1 / ) , .

0
0
0

1 2 3...
1 2 3...
1 2 3...
1 2 3...

. 8.22. AON :

230

..

8.9. AON

, . ,
" "
.
, - .
AON

AON . , , , AON.


AON .
, , .


.
, (cut through).


, .

AON:
.


BSPS (bit-sequential packet switching)
, , . BSPS p
( 1 , 0 ).
, .
,
.

2p

,
. , , , .
SWANET (Self-routed Wavelength-Addressable NETwork) BSPS [30]. SWANET
BSPS WDM, , (. 8.23).
SWANET BSPS . , , p , . .
k , ( )
, k 1 . ,
( )
p

k . . "" ,
. , ,
.
, -

231

. SWANET .

2
3

4
5

....

1 2

....

. 8.23. SWANET [30]



BPPS (bit-parallel packet switching): SCM (sub-carrier multiplexing) BPPS. , . ,
, , .
SCM (. 8.24 ). SCM
,
, . , SCM
, . . .
SCM .

,
. .
, , ,
,
.
SCM , , .
. , / , -
. 2,5 / 40 /, 3 [31].
, [32].
,
, ( )
(. 8.24 ).
SCM
. -,
, . , ,
,
. , , , , .

232

..

f d
f h

fh

fd

1
2
3
4
5
6

....

1 2 . . . .

. 8.24. : ) ;
)

8.10. AON
: , , , , ,
. , , , [2].
. 8.25. , , , ,
-0, -1 -2 (. 8.26).

( )


SDH (ATM, Gigabit Ethernet, . . . )



. 8.25.

233

-2

OT

OT

OT OT

OT OT

. 8.26.
OT , AON.
, .
.
1 OT: 100Base-TX Fast Ethernet
1,55 .
2: ATM
(622 /c) 1,33 ,
.
.
, ,
, .
-0. AON
( ) .
,

/, . -0
, -1, .
Rainbow-1. -0 . 8.27.
-1

-1

-0

1+...+N

...

...

1+...+N

1+...+N

1+...+N

Rx
Tx
1 MUX/DEMUX

Tx Rx
MUX/DEMUX N

:
ATM, SDH,
Gigabit Ethernet, FDDI,
Fibre Channel,

. 8.27. 0

234

..

-1. AON .
. -1
. 8.28.
-2
-1
WDM DEMUX

-2

g,1

WDM MUX

g,2
g,3
g,4

. 8.28. 1

-2. AON, . , . (AON


), (AON ). -2
. -2 . 8.29. -2.
( ) 1 , 2 ,...
. (WDM DEMUX)
, , .

- ( ), ,
. ,
. , , .
,
EDFA.

8.11. AON
,
, : IBM, AON (All-Optical Networking), AT&T, DEC, MIT Campus, MIT Lincoln Lab (); ACTS Photonic
Technologies Area, Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de
Lausanne, France Telecom-(CNET), Royal Institute of Technology, University College of London,

235

University of Athens, University of Ghent, University of Ulm, Ericsson, Siemens (),


Oki R&D Group .
-2

WDM DEMUX

WDM MUX

1+...+n

1+...+n

1+...+n

1+...+n

1+...+n

1+...+n

n
2
1

j
k

. 8.29. 2

AON,
[18, 29]:

VERTICAL (VERtical cavity laser Technology for InterConnection and AccessLinks),


1,3 / 1,55 ,
.

WOTAN (Wavelength-agile Optical Transport and Access Network),


, "-" .
.

BROADBAND (Broadband Loop),


.

PLATO (Photonic Links in Atm and Optical systems).

KEOPS (KEys to Optical Packet Switching), .

UPGRADE (High Bitrate 1300nm Upgrade of the European Standard Single-Mode Fibre Network).

PHOTOS (PHOtosensitive Technology for Optical Systems).

CAPITAL (Customer Access Photonics and Integrated Technology for Active Low cost
Devices).

PLANET (Photonic Local Access NETwork).

MIDAS (Multigigabit Interconnection and Advanced techniques).

236

..

HORIZON (Horizontal action transport networks).

FAST (Fluoroaluminate Amplifiers for Second Telecom window).

ESTHER (Exploitation of Soliton Transmission Highways for European Ring).

BLISS (Broadband Lightwave Sources and Systems).

OPEN (Optical Pan-European Network) , . .


,
.

HIGHWAY (Photonic Technologies for Ultra High Speed Information).

COBNET (Corporate Optical Backbone Network), () .

METON (Metropolitan Optical Network), SDH ,


.

FOTON (Paneuropean Photonic Transport Overlay), - . "-"


, SDH .

MEPHISTO (Management of PhotonIc Systems and Networks)


(TMN) , (WDM) , .

MOON (Management of Optical Networks)


- .

8
1.

All-Optical Networking Consortium: WDM Description, 1996,


http://www.ll.mit.edu/aon/aonwdm.html

2.

T. Krause. "Migration to All-Optical Networks". Alcatel Network Systems, 1998,


http://www.usa.alcatel.com/telecom/transpt/optical/techpaps/migration/

3.

Photonic Technologies Area: BillBoard, 1998,


http://www.intec.rug.ac.be/horizon/billboard.htm

4.

WDM Cross-Connect Technology, Oki Electric Industry, 1996,


http://www.oki.co.jp/OKI/RDG/English/kikaku/okayama/main.html

5.

Optical wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer (Wavelength router). Oki Electric Industry Co.,


1996, http://www.oki.co.jp/OKI/RDG/English/kikaku/okayama/eWAG.html

6.

S. Cortez and M. Dickerson. "Enabling the all-optical network". Americas Networks, 1998,
http://www.americasnetwork.com/issues/98issues/980201/980201_optical.html

7.

DWDM Channel Spacing: Do You Know How Much Capacity Youre Realy Getting? Alcatel
Network Systems, 1998,
http://www.usa.alcatel.com/telecom/transpt/optical/techpaps/ad9804/

8.

MultiWave Sentry 4000: DWDM transport system. CIENA Corporation, 1998,


http://www.ciena.com/products/mwsentry4000.html

9.

Technical Application Note, No. OA1-001: Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers in Networks. 1998,
http://www.ditechcorp.com/notes/An0a1.htm

10.

, . . . .: , 1991. 575 .

237

11.

Testing Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Article 12, Hewlett-Packard Journal, December 1997,
http://hpcc923.external.hp.com/hpj/97dec/de97a12.htm

12.

Fiber Amplifiers for Telecommunications, Catalogue IRE-POLUS Group, 1997,


http://ire-polusgroup.com

13.

8-Channel OC-192 or 32-Channel OC-48? Optimizing the WDM/TDM Solution. Alcatel, 1998,
http://www.usa.alcatel.com/telecom/transpt/optical/techpaps/ad9801/

14.

K. M. Kissa, D. J. Fritz, "AOTFs Route Traffic in WDM Networks". Lightwave, June 1996 (pp.
64-66).

15.

Acousto-Optic Tunable Filters. Brimrose, 1998, http://www.brimrose.com/aotf.htm

16.

Space Packet Switch. Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering University
of Maryland Baltimore Country, Baltimore MD-21250, 1998,
http://coe1.engr.umbc.edu/~choa/switch.htm

17.

Optical Loop Memories. Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering University of Maryland Baltimore Country, Baltimore MD-21250, 1998,
http://coe1.engr.umbc.edu/~choa/loopmem.htm

18.

. . , . . . ATM: . .: , 1997. 232 .

19.

J. Turner. Design and Analysis of Switching Systems. 1997. 220 .


http://www.arl.wustl.edu/~jst/cs/577/intro.html

20.

F. Halsall, Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems, Addison-Wesley,


1996. 907 p.

21.

Wavelength converter. Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd., 1996,


http://www.oki.co.jp/OKI/RDG/English/kikaku/vol.1/okayama/eWC.html

22.

All-Optical Frequency Conversion. All-Optical Networking Consortium: WDM Slide Presentation, 1996, http://www.ll.mit.edu/aon/WDMSlide20.html

23.

Three All-Optical Network Types. IBM, 1995,


http://www.research.ibm.com/wdm/motive/roadmap.html

24.

J. Yoo., S. Banerjee. "Design, Analysis, and Implementation of Wavelength-Routed All-Optical


Networks: Routing and Wavelength Assisgnment Approach". 1997, http://boni.eecs.stevenstech.edu/homepage/papers/ieee_survey1/survey.html

25.

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD). Alcatel, 1998,


http://www.ans.alcatel.com/cc/techprs/fnlpmd2.htm

26.

What is PMD? Understanding Polarization Mode Dispersion, Corning TPD -Library,


1994-1998, http://pro.corningfiber.com/library/nv1072.html

27.

M. OMahony, et. al. "The Design of a Eropean Optical Network". Lightwave Technology,
Vol. 13, No. 5, 1995, pp. 251-256

28.

H. Dutton, P. Lenhard. High-Speed Networking Technologies: An Introductory Survey (Fiber


optics, SDH/Sonet, High-speed LAN principles). IBM Corp., Prentice Hall PRT, 1995. 600 p.

29.

J. Hudgings & J. Nee. "WDM All-Optical Networks EE228A Project Report", EE228A Project
Report, 1996, http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/~jnee/ee228a/

30.

L.A Backman. "Applications in Optical Communications: Optical Transmission of MillimeterWave Signals; and, An All-Optical Wavelength-Routed Switching Network". Ph.D. thesis,
University of California, Berkeley, 1996

31.

A. Budman, E. Eichen, J.Schalafer, R. Olshansky, and F, McAleavey. "Multigigabit Optical


Packet Switch for Self-routing Network with Subcarrier Addressing". in OFC92 (San JOse,
CA) 1192, paper TuO4, pp. 90-91

32.

D.J. Blumenthal, P.R. Prucnal, and J.R. Sauer. " Photonic Packet Switches: Architecture and
Experimental Implementations". Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.82, no.11, November, 1994,
pp.1650-1665

33.

T. Fuerst. "Optical Layer Planning Requires Flexibility". Lightwave, October 1997 (pp.50-52).

238

..

9.

. - , , . ,
. , -, , .
, ,
, . ,
, ,
. , , . , , , , ATM
, , .

, , . , . - , . : - (HFC), " " (FTTC)
" " (FTTH).
, 1998 - 2/3 , , , 12 . .; 2003
3/4 30 . . [1].

9.1.
, , , .
5-10 . . 9.1
,
-. , , , .. . , , , , .
, . .
(, ), (..
, ,
..).
, : , , , ,
, .

239

9.1. -

64 /

8-32 /

128 /

48-64 /

8 / 8 /*

16 / 8 /*

CD-

44,1 / 16 /*

705,6 /

128 /

SVGA

640 / x 480 /c
x 8 /

2,458 /

24-245 /

JPEG

720 / x 576 /c
x 16 /

6,636 / 104-830 /

- VCR

1280 / x 1024 /c 31,46 /


x 24 /

300 /3 /

QCIF
(H.261)

176 / x 144 /
x 12 / x 30 /**

9,115 /

p x 64 /
(p = 1, 2)

MPEG-4
(H.320)

176 / x 144 /
x 12 / x 10 /

3,04 /

64 /

CIF
(H.261)

352 / x 288 /
x 12 / x 30 /***

MPEG-1
(PAL)

352 / x 288 /
x 12 / x 25 /***

30,4 /

1,15-3 /

MPEG-1
(NTSC)

352 / x 240 /
x 12 / x 30 /***

30,4 /

1,15-3 /

CIF
(MPEG-2)

352 / x 240 /
x 12 / x 30 /***

30,4 /

4 /

MPEG-2
(PAL)

720 / x 576 /
x 12 / x 25 /***

124,4 /

15 /

MPEG-2
(NTSC)

720 / x 480 /
x 12 / x 30 /***

124,3 /

15 /

36,45 / m x 368 /
(m = 1, 2, 3, 4,
5)

HDTV

1920 / x 1080 / 994,3 /


x 16 / x 30 /***

135 /

MPEG-3

1920 / x 1080 / 745,8 /


x 12 / x 30 /***

20-40 /

* , **
*** 30, 15, 10
7,5 /


CIF (common intermediate format)

QCIF (quarter common intermediate format)



MPEG (moving pictures expert group) ,
JPEG (joint photographic expert group) ,

, ,
:

, ( , ISDN);

(), .
:


Internet ( , ).

240

..

,
, ,
, . :

( );

(), ;

( MPEG-2,
MPEG-3);

"" ;

Internet , (, ..).


. 9.1 . ,
,
(trunk coax)
. (tap)
(feeder coax)
. , , (drop
coax).
, , . , -,
. , , .
, HFC,
.
10-15 .
35, ,
, 125000.

(TAP)

. 9.1.

241


(, ..).
, , . 33,6 /. 56 / (
V.90), 128 / ISDN (BRI)
: , - , , - , ISDN .
Internet HDSL.
.

-
- HFC (hybrid fiber/coax) -
(. 9.2). HFC , ( FTTH)
. HFC ,
. : , , ,
. [2].
HFC , , . HFC 80 .
(
DFB ) ,
ODN (optical distribution node). , ODN,
.
4 10
. 500 3000.

(TAP)

Internet

ODN

ODN

. 9.2. - (HFC)

242

..

( , - ) , .

" "
" " FTTC (fiber to the curb)

(. 9.3). FTTC - (
, ) (curb). ,
, ( , , ),
. . , ( 100 ), ( 100 / ).
, : Internet, ,
MPEG-2/MPEG-3 ..
, .

Curb

(TAP)

Curb

Internet

. 9.3. " " (FTTC)

" "
" " FTTH (fiber to the home) . ,
- , , . FTTH [1], HFC
FTTC.
(. 9.4).
, "" , , .

243

. 9.4. " " (FTTH)

9.2. HFC
HFC (HC, headend controller, ),
(ODN) (ISU, integrated service unit, ). IEEE 802.14, MAC ( HFC),
,
[5]. ,
, ,
,
, HFC. : ADC Telecommunications, Motorola, Nortel, NTT, Scientific Atlanta, Warner Cable [4, 5]. HFC . -, ,
. -, , ,
1 .

802.14
802.14 HFC. HFC "- " , " -" .
HC , .. . ISU HC
.
, 802.14
MAC . ,
HFC [1, 6]:

(CBR);

(VBR);

(ABR).

244

..

, , ,
"" . , . , , :
, .
.


. 9.5. , 5 862 ,
862 1 .
50 550 . 8
. 550 862 ,
MPEG-2/MPEG-3, , " " VOD (video on demand) .


1 2

...

1 2 3


( )

...
5

...
...

50

550

()
862

1000

. 9.5.

fc

R
R

f min + (1 + ) s < (f c = n (40 )) < f max (1 + ) s ,


2
2

(roll-off factor)
,

f min

= 0,25 , n , R s -

f max . 9.2.

9.2. "sub-split"

f min

()

f max

()

42

65

55

"mid-split"
"high-split" 5 108 5 174 .

, ,
.
(1 + ) R s . -

245

R s2

f c1

f c 2 ( f c 2 > f c1 )

R s1

R
R

f c1 + (1 + ) s1 = f c 2 (1 + ) s 2 .
2
2

(, , , ) 802.14.


, ,
(. 9.3). , . , ,
.

9.3.

f min

()

f max

()

88

860

110

862

90

770


QAM64 QAM-256 30-40 /c,
. QAM-16 / - QPSK,
, , . QPSK 2-10 /c.
(5-45 )? , . ( ) , .
, ,
, , .
,
ODN
.
PHY A,
802.14 (. 9.4). C A , A
8 (PAL/SECAM), C 6 (NTSC).
A C B .

246

..

9.4.
: A, B, C

RS-
(RS Reed-Solomon)
RS-

QAM-64

(n 250) 30

f c ,

QAM-256

R s , /c

0,15
6,0-6,95

QAM-64

QAM-256 QAM-64

(n 250) 30
0,18
5,057-5,064

RS
QAM-256

(n 250) 30

0,12

0,13

5,19-5,36

5,0-5,31

, , HFC , .

: -
. FTTH .

: .
.

: . , ,
1 .

:
, .
.

, : , ,
. IEEE 802.14
ATM.

, , ,
.
.

: ""
. . .

, HFC : " "; " "; " "; " "; " ". , HFC , .

9.3. Homeworx
,
. HFC. Homeworx ADC Telecommunications, [4].


, Homeworx, . 9.5.
-

247

9.5. , Homeworx

60 ,

200 " " ( , - ..

, , ,
,
2- /c
..)

Internet


-
, ..


Homeworx
:
1. :
, . , , , . (HDT).
. . .
2. (ODN):
. , ,
.
3. , :
(ISU, , , ,
). Set-top-unit . - .
4. - :
. 50-750
(862) . 1,3 1,55 10 . ,
. 1,55 .
HWX (. 9.6 ) . ,
, HWX, .

. 9.6. : ) HIU ,
, ) ODN [7]

248

..

. .
50-750 (862) , 5-42
.
. . , , Internet,
. . (,
, )
. ""
. HFC ,
TV
. , , , - .
(HDT).
Homeworx . HDT 28 T1
24 E1.
TR-008 TR-303 ( ) CAS V.5 (). HDT
- DS0 (64) - (TST) - - . ISDN.
(ODN) , ,
ODN, , . ODN
, / . ODN
, . . ODN ,
/ , (. 9.6 ). , , ODN
, , , .
FTTH.
STU (set top unit)
(MPEG-2/3) .
STU , . -
, . , .
, STU ,
, , .

, (. 9.1).
MPEG-2 1,5 / ( ) 60 / (HDTV) 15 /, NTSC,
PAL SECAM. -.
.
HFC
.

(RAD);
.

. .

. E1 (T1), HFC.

249

. ISU (.
). 64 (RS232) 512 ( Ethernet 10Base-T), Internet.
(Home ISU).
, .

HFC.
, . CATV ( ).
, Ethernet,
ISDN, .
(MISU). ( ,
. .) HFC : , -, Ehernet /Internet ( 512 /), E1 , ISDN
BRI, E&M, .
MISU 12 96 , HISU MISU . MISU
, , ,
. . .

Homeworx.

( EML).
, , .
(NMCS),
- , ISU. , EML .

Homeworx
( ) 5-42 .
( )
50-750 (862) . 750-1 ( .).
OFDM (orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing), 4,2 . 6 ,
480 (). (BER= 109 ) 2 /. 6 240 DS0 (64 /).
18 (12-30 ),
720 (3240).
5-12 , -
.
54-550 .
60 PAL, SECAM 110 NTSC.
625-750 , , (2880 DS0 64 /).
550-750
400 , MPEG-2,MPEG-3 3 /, VSB-16 QAM-256.

250

..

OFDM? . ( ) , . ()
, , , . , . . HFC , ,
, . , , ,
, ,
.
HFC . .
. , TDM QPSK QAM-16 . , DS0
(RF) . , , . TDM,
.
RF ,
. , ,
RF .
.
FDM ( , OFDM)
. DS0 RF , . 9.7.
RF , , DS0 ( TDM/QPSK), DS0 , . , , DS0, . .

6
5

0,5

DS0

0,5

. 9.7.
TDM (OFDM)


ODN
,
5-42 . ; , , -

251

,
.
, ODN
, (
). ODN (. 9.8).
, ODN 5 42 2, 3 4,

, 5 200
.
5 42 ,
. 5 42 .

5-40

2
50-85

3
100-135

4
150-185

200

150-185

100-135

50-85

5-40

ODN

862

. 9.8. - ODN,

Homeworx

. (, ).
,
.
, ,
: ; ; .
. Homeworx :

- ( , , ;

252

..

Homeworx :
( ODN
);

(
);

(
STU, , );

-
. ( 16
). :
, , , .
CATV .
. , Homeworx .
.
HDT , ISU, ODN ,
. HDT , (Internet).
. -
Homeworx . , . .
, .
Homeworx . 9.9.
DV6000

DV6000

DV6300

DV6000

HDT

HWX

Internet

Internet

DV6000

ISX

MISU-12

12

ISX

HISU

. 9.9. DV6000
-

253

9.4. DV6000
DV6000 ADC Telecommunications
,

. DV6000
, ( DAP, drop/add/pass)
. 120 . , ( D1, 270 /), MPEG, (E1, E3),
( Ethernet). . 9.10. DV6000 . 9.6.

. 9.10. DV6000

DV6000 , . (10 8 ) . DV6000 ,


.
, , , . . DV6000 DV.
: DV6010 DV6300. TDM, 16
2,4 /. WDM,
1550 , .. 64 .
DV6000 , , . , , , , .
DV6000 . 9.11 .
(MUX) clock, (DEMUX), . (. 9.11 ). (DAP) / . . 9.11 ) ( MUX DAP), . 2x1, DAP, . , . 9.11. ). DAP , .

254

..

9.6. DV6000 [8]



2.38 /c

1310, 1550, 1546.1, 1549.3, 1552.5, 1555.7

FC/PC SC/PC

DFB

0-3

InGaP

30 BER < 109

NTSC, PAL, SECAM,

10.1

75 ,

13,524

10

59

67

0,10
+0,3/1,0
+0,3/3,0

0,10
+0,3/1,0
+0,3/3,0

, %

2,5

1,5

15

15

, %

, %

1,5

, %

3.5

1,5

2,0

1,0

, %

/ ( )
( )
4,2
6,1
6,2

5-18

600 , .

41,88

16

1 , %

0,05

, ,
30-125
125-10000
10000-15000
,

0,6/+0,17
0,17
0,6/+0,17
70

255


MUX

T
X

R
X

16

MUX

64

16

DAP

DAP

64

DEMUX

DAP
DAP

MUX

)
DAP

2x1

1x2

. 9.11. DV6000:
) ;
) ;
) c
-

9
1. P.W. Shumate. Ch.2 Telecommunications, Cable Television, and Data Link Systems: (Broadband Access), in Optoelectronics in Japan and the United States. 1997,
http://itri.loyola.edu/opto/c2_s4.htm
2. The Cable Connection: The Role of Cable Television in the National Information infrastructure.
CableLabs, 1995, http://www.cablelabs.com/WPapers/cableNII.html
3. IEEE Project 802.14/a Draft 3 Revision 1: Cable-TV access method and physical layer specification. Edited by Ivan Reede, Matt Brandt, and Jeyhan Karaoguz. IEEE 1998. 216 pp.
4. Hybrid Fiber/Coax (HFC) Telephony. ADC Telecommunications, 1998,
http://www.webproforum.com/adc/tp01.html
5. Components of the HFC Network. Scientific Atlanta, 1998, http://www.webproforum.com/sciatlanta/tp01.html

256

..

6. H. Nguyen, F. Yao. Hybrid-Fiber Coax. Project 1 EE 4984: Telecommunication Networks,


1996, http://fiddle.ee.vt.edu/courses/ee4984/Projects1996/nguyen_yao/nguyen_yao.html
7. Homeworx Hybrid Fiber/Coaxial Access Platform. ADC Telecommunications, 1997,
http://www.adc.com/Products/BCDproducts/Hwx-Home.html
8. DV6000 Universal Digital Transport. ADC Telecommunications, 1998,
http://www.adc.com/Products/DV6000/

257

/
(bare fiber adapter) 45
1- (1-persistent) 156
CSMA/CD 157
p- (p-persistent) 157
(nonpersistent) 156
(numerical aperture) 15
(attenuator) 59


(DC balance) 135
(BT) 160
MAC 122
(elasticity buffer) 139
(line badget) *********

(jitter) 86
(passband) 52
(laser diode) 74, 75
(light emitting diode) 74
(dispersion) 22
(wave-guide
dispersion) 22, 23
(material dispersion)
22, 23
(mode dispersion) 22, 23

(polarization mode dispersion) 26, 224
(chromatic
dispersion) 23-25

(differential mode delay) 186
(zero
dispersion wavelength) 24

(cutoff wavelength) 17


(segment variability value) 174

(fiber cutoff
wavelength) 18

(insertion loss) 37

(cable cutoff
wavelength) 18

(wavelength
division multiplexing) 21, 53

(full-duplex link) 182


(dense wavelength division multiplexing) 200
(wavelength converter)
200, 221, 228
(multi mode fiber)
11, 12, 28-30
(single mode fiber)
11, 13, 30-34
(optical fiber) 11

(dispersion-compensating fiber) 33

(round-trip
delay) 159, 172, 178
(Snells law) 14
(safety margin) 172
(loss) 19
(passband) 87, 91, 209

/ (rise/folling time) 82

(token rotation time)


142

(isolator) 57


(target token rotation time) 142

AUI 163

(token holding time) 117

GMII 183

(interconnect) 66

MDI 163
MII 175

258

..

213

(gain) 206
- (cross-connect) 66

- (fiber optic
cable) 7, 61

(light guiding rays) 14

Ethernet 154
FDDI 140
(quantum efficiency) 81
4B/5B 135
8B/10B 183-186
8B/6T 177
MLT-3 138
NRZI (non return to zero with inversion on ones) 134
PAM-5 188

FDDI 140
(interframe gap) 158
(mode) 15
(chirp modulation) 27
(equivalent nose
power) 82
(multiplexing) 96

QAM-25 188


(synchronous TDM) 96-98

(Manchester
code)134

(asynchronous TDM) 101-103

(collision domain) 156


(collision) 156, 159

(inverse
multiplexing) 103

(dual ring) 123

(FDM) 96

(logical ring) 117

(closure) 61

(token ring) 117


(switch) 168, 178

(blocking switch) 218

(saturation) 83

(optical switch) 214



(rearrangeable non-blocking switch) 218

(strictly
non-blocking switch) 218

(back pressure) 169

(circuit switching) 105


(cut-through) 169

(fiber cladding) 11, 12


(optical distribution box) 63

(packet switching) 106

(optical
distribution panel) 64

(store-andforward) 169

(optical
cross) 65

Ethernet 164

(OBS) 125

FDDI 150

(optical layer) 233

(flow control) 110, 196

(back reflection) 29

, (frame
based flow control) 182, 191, 194
(DAC) 120
(NAC) 120
(SAC) 120
(directivity) 51

(packet bursting) 189


(mechanical switch) 60
(repeater) 86, 165

259

Fast Ethernet 178

(scrambler) 138

(buffer repeater) 190


(four-wave mixing) 224

(all-optical network)
199

FC (FC connector) 42

(input/output channel) 50

MIC (MIC connector) 44, 131

NEXT
(near-end crosstalk/directivity ) 54

SC (SC connector) 42

FEXT
(far-end crosstalk/isolation) 54
(crosstalk) 224
(cable loss) 21
(back loss) 40
(absorption loss) 20
(splitting loss) 52
(scattering loss) 20
(loss) 19
RSVP 195

(workstation) 165
(coupler, splitter) 49
(tree coupler) 49
(star coupler) 50
(tap) 50
(carrier extension) 189
(dual homing) 125

ST (ST connector) 43
(connector) 36
(splitting ratio) 52
/ (signal/nose ratio) 83
(downstream neighbor) 117
(upstream neighbor) 117
(mechanical splice) 45
(interfacility fiber cable) 62
(DAS) 120
(SAS) 120

- (tag switching) 195


(termination) 62
(shot nose current) 82
(dark current) 82
(current sensitivity) 81
Ethernet (transceiver) 163
Fast Ethernet 178

(Rayleigh scattering ) 20

(fusing splicing ) 46-49

(truncated binary exponential delay) 160

(WRAP) 117, 125

(amplified
spontaneous emission) 206

(fiber core) 11, 12

(line amplifier) 210

(network interface card)

(booster) 210

Ethernet 165

EDFA 90-94,
205

Fast Ethernet 178


FDDI 150
Gigabit Ethernet 190
(virtual LAN) 194
(datagram network) 108
(virtual channel
network) 108

EDFA (silica based EDFA) 93


EDFA - (fluoride based EDFA) 94

(semiconductor amplifier) 89
(pre-amplifier) 209

Jam 158

260

..


WDM (narrowband WDM
filter) 56

(sensitivity) 83

WDM (broadband WDM


filter) 56

pig-tail 62

(repeater filter) 140

(patch-cord) 44

Jabber 165

- (noise figure) 207

(smoother) 139

(Pockels effect) 214

15

57

(bit-error rate) 83

261



ADSL

Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line

AM

Amplitude Modulation

ANSI

American Nation Standards Institute

AON

All-Optical Networks

APC

Angled Physical Contact

(
)

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASE

Amplified Spontaneous Emission

ASK

Amplitude Shift Keying

( )

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

(
)

AUI

Attachment Unit Interface

()

AWG

Arrayed Waveguide Grating

BER

Bit-Error Rate

BNC

Bayonet Nut Connector

( N)

BPPS

Bit-Parallel Packet Switching

BRI

Basic Rate Interface

(
144 / ISDN)

BSPS

Bit-Sequential Packet Switching

BT

Bit Time

(, )

CATV

Community Antenna Television or Cable Television

CCITT

International Telegraph and Telephone


Consultative Committee


( ITU-T)

CDDI

Copper Distributed Data Interface

( FDDI)

CF

Fiber Cutoff (Wavelength)

( )

CO

Central Office

CP

Collision Presence

CRC

Cyclic Redundancy Check

CSMA/CD

Carrier-Sense Multiple Access with


Collision Detection


()

CF

Cabled Fiber Cutoff (Wavelength)

( )

DA

Destination Address

DAC

Dual Attachment Concentrator


FDDI

DAS

Dual Attachment Station

FDDI

DBS

Direct Broadcast Satellite (service)

262

..

DCF

Dispersion-Compensating Fiber

DEMUX

DeMultiplexor

DFB

Distributed FeedBack (Laser)

DMD

Differential Mode Delay

DQDB

Distributed Queue Dual Bus

.
IEEE 802.6

DSF

Dispersion-Shifted (single mode) Fiber

()

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line

DTE

Data Terminal Equipment

DWDM

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

, WDM, 2

E1

E1

2,048 /, PHD

E2

E2

8,448 /, PHD

E3

E3

34,368 /, PDH

EC laser

External Cavity laser

EDFA

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier

EIA

Electronic Industries Association

FCS

Frame Check Sequence

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface

- .
, ANSI
X3T9.5

FDF

Fiber Distribution Frame

FDM

Frequency Division Multiplexing

FEXT

Far-End CrossTalk ( isolation)

FITL

Fiber In The Loop

FM

Frequency Modulation

FMDF

Fiber Main Distribution Frame

FOIRL

Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Link

- Ethernet

FP laser

Fabry-Perot laser

FSK

Frequency Shift Keying

( )

FTB

Fiber Terminal Block

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

FTTC

Fiber To The Curb

FTTH

Fiber To The Home

( )

FWM

Four-Wave Mixing

GEA

Gigabit Ethernet Alliance

Ethernet

GMII

Gigabit Media Independent Interface

263

HDLC

High-Level Data Link Control

HDT

Host Digital Terminal

HFC

Hybrid Fiber Coax (architecture)

- ()

ICS

Interim Cut-through Switching

IEC

International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronic


Engineers

IFG

Inter-Frame Gap

ILD

Injection Laser Diode

IP

Internet Protocol

IPX

Internetwork Packet Exchange

(
Novell NetWare)

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISO

International Standards Organisation

ISU

Integrated Service Unit

ITU

International Telecommunication Union


( )

ITU-T

, ITU-TSS

ITU-TSS

International Telecommunication Union/ Telecommunication Standardization Sector


ITU

LD

Laser Diode

LED

Light-Emitting Diode

LLC

Logical Link Control

(
OSI)

LSA

LAN Security Architecture

MAC

Media Access Control

( OSI)

MAU

Media Attachment Unit

MCP

Mode conditioning Patch-cord

,
DMD

MDI

Medium Dependent Interface

MFD

Mode Field Diameter

MIC

Media Interface Connector

,
FDDI

MII

Medium Independent Interface

MMF

Multi Mode Fiber

MMF-PMD

Multi Mode Fiber Physical Medium


Dependent interface

MUX

Multiplexor

NA

Numerical Aperture

NA

Null Attachment Concentrator

FDDI,

NEXT

Near-End CrossTalk ( directivity)

264

..

NF

Noise Figure

NIC

Network Interface Card

NMCS

Numerical Integrated Service Unit

NRZ

Non Return to Zero

NRZI

Non Return to Zero Invert on ones

NZDSF

Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted (single


mode) Fiber

()

OBS

Optical Bypass Switch

ODN

Optical Distribution Node

OSI

Open Systems Interconnection (model)

OT

Optical Terminal

PAM

Pulse Amplitude Modulation

PAS

Profile Alignment System

PC

Physical Contact

( )

PCS

Physical Coding Sublayer

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

PHY

Physical Layer Protocol

( FDDI)

PLS

Physical Layer Signaling

PMA

Physical Medium Attachment

PMD

Physical Medium Dependent


(
FDDI)

PON

Passive Optical Network

PRI

Primary Rate Interface

(
1,544 2,048 / ISDN
)

QAM

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

QoS

Quality of Service

QPSK

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

RSVP

Resource Reservation Protocol

RTD

Round-Trip Delay

SA

Source Address

SAS

Single Attachment Station

FDDI ( )

SA

Single Attachment Concentrator


FDDI ( )

SCM

Sub-Carrier Multiplexing

SDDI

Shielded Distributed Data Interface

FDDI
(STP IBM Type 1)

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

. ( - )

SDV

Switch Digital Video

SF

Standard Fiber

( )

SFD

Start Frame Delimiter

265

SFM

Self-Phase Modulation

SMDS

Switched Multimegabit Data Service

SMF

Single Mode Fiber

SMF-PMD

Single Mode Fiber Physical Medium


Dependent


FDDI,

SMT

Station Management

. FDDI, ( , PHY, PMD)

SMWL

Simple Multi-Wavelength Link

SNA

System Network Architecture

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

SNR

Signal to Nose Ratio

SONET

Synchronous Optical NETwork

( , )

SPC

Super Physical Contact

( )

SPM

Self-phase modulation

STM-1

Synchronous Transport Module of


level 1


SDH 155,520 /

STM-16

Synchronous Transport Module of


level 16

16
SDH 2488,320 /

STM-4

Synchronous Transport Module of


level 4

4
SDH 622,080 /

STM-64

Synchronous Transport Module of


level 64

64
SDH 9953,280 /

STP

Shielded Twisted Pair

SVV

Segment Variability Value

T1

T1


1,544 /, (PHD)

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet


Protocol

TDM

Time Division Multiplexing

()/

THT

Token Holding Time

( FDDI)

TIA

Telecommunication Industry Association

TMN

Telecommunications Management
Network

TP-PMD

Twisted Pair Physical Medium Dependent interface

TTRP

Timed Token Rotation Protocol

TTRT

Target Token Rotation Time

UPC

Ultra Physical Contact

(
)

UTP

Unshielded Twisted Pair

VCI

Virtual Circuit Identifier

VSB

Vestigial Side-Band

WDM

Wavelength Division Multiplexing

WWW

World Wide Web

( Internet)

266

..

267