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A GUIDEBOOK TO THE

CHANGES IN BUILDING CONTROL

2007/2008

Building and Construction Authority

For reference, this is the version as of 31 Mar 2009

Copyright @ 2009 Building and Construction Authority, Singapore. All rights reserved. This document or any part of it may not be reproduced for any reason whatsoever or in any form or means whatsoever and howsoever without the prior written consent and approval of the Building and Construction Authority, Singapore. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this publication, the Building and Construction Authority, its employees and its agents shall not be responsible for any mistake or inaccuracy found in this Guidebook and expressly disclaim all such liability and responsibility. This Guidebook is not an exhaustive attempt to explain every detail and provision in the Building Control Act and its Regulations. Where appropriate and necessary, users are advised to seek and obtain independent legal or professional advice on interpreting the provisions in the Building Control Act and its Regulations.

ISBN 978-981-08-0341-4

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CONTENTS
CHAPTER TOPIC Page

What this book is about Read This First 1 2 3 4 5 6 Appointments Supervision of Building Works Duties of Project Parties On Accredited Checkers Underground Building Works Licensing of Builders Glossary Schedules

01 03 11 27 37 49 57 81 103 113

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WHAT THIS BOOK IS ABOUT

The Building Control (Amendment) Act 2007 introduced new provisions to the building control system in Singapore and updated some existing ones. Some of the new provisions, like builders licensing, brought in fundamental changes to the existing system while others, such as supervision teams for structural works, strengthened the existing requirements. Subsequently, in 2008, the Building Control Regulations and the Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations have been amended and the Building Control (Builders Licensing) Regulations were introduced. All these changes are to enhance building safety and to raise professionalism in the construction industry. As the changes are wide-ranging, there will be impact on the way things are to be done and rules that are to be followed. Why this Guidebook? The main purpose of this Guidebook is, first of all, to provide a comprehensive and easy reference to anyone interested in finding out about the changes in the Building Control Act and its Regulations. Secondly, the Building Control Act prescribes provisions in a broad manner. Similar to any other Act, this is necessary to make the fundamental purpose of each provision clear without it being cluttered with details. The details of implementation are always provided in regulations, of which there are several under the Building Control Act. This Guidebook makes it easy for the reader to have a grasp of any particular provision of the Act by bringing together the related details found in the regulations under the same section of discussion. Thirdly, the Act and the regulations cannot cover and prescribe implementation solutions to every conceivable situation in real life. There could be situations where some explanation is required. With useful feedback received from the industry during

the consultation exercise, explanation to some of such situations have been included in this Guidebook so that everyone is clear about the requirements under those situations. While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of information presented in this Guidebook, neither BCA nor its employees can accept responsibility for any loss or damage incurred in connection with the use of the contents. This Guidebook is not an exhaustive attempt to explain every detail and provision in the Building Control Act and its Regulations. Where appropriate and necessary, users are advised to seek and obtain independent legal or professional advice on interpreting the provisions in the Building Control Act and its Regulations. Nothing in this Guidebook shall be taken as being legally binding and none of the terms and explanations shall be deemed to be an interpretation of the provisions of the Act and its regulations. How this Guidebook is organised The Guidebook summarizes the main changes under six chapters. Each of the chapters deals with an important topic under the building control system where there are significant changes. The provisions related to each topic are collated within the respective chapter. Where useful, the Guidebook has included elaboration or interpretation to some of the provisions under each chapter. To give a more complete picture, related details from the building regulations are discussed under the same section where each provision is found. A glossary is provided at the back of the Guidebook. The glossary explains in greater detail the meaning of new definitions that have been introduced into the Building Control Act and its Regulations. Before you read any chapter of the Guidebook, please first read the next section. It explains some of the terms and abbreviations used to simplify the writing and reading of this Guidebook.

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READ THIS FIRST

Industry stakeholders commonly use certain terms and abbreviations to refer to some parties, matters or things associated with the construction industry, and for a good reason. Since the Act and its Regulations have to be precise in describing these parties, matters or things, some of the expressions used in the Act and its Regulations could be unwieldy. Take for example the expression the qualified person appointed under section 8 or 11 to supervise the building works, which is used in many parts of the Act and its Regulations. The industry calls this person the supervision QP. To make this Guidebook easier to write and to read, some of these simpler terms and expressions are used. But just to be sure that these terms and expressions mean the same thing to everyone, this section of the Guidebook lists the terms and expressions used and their meanings. The reader should not ascribe any other meaning to these terms and expressions.

MEANINGS OF TERMS AND EXPRESSIONS USED IN THIS GUIDEBOOK AC This means accredited checker, and refers to an accredited checker who is registered to check the structural works of a project. AC(Geo) or Specialist AC There is another class of AC called specialist accredited checker or AC(Geo). An AC(Geo) is registered to check the geotechnical aspects of underground building works. His registration is distinct from that of an AC and he cannot perform the duties of the AC, unless he is also registered as an AC. Act Unless specified, the use of the term Act by itself in this Guidebook refers to the Building Control Act.

Building Plans This refers to the plans that relate to the architectural elements of the building works. They are also called the architectural plans. Building Regulations There are several sets of Regulations associated with the Building Control Act. Where the term building regulations is used in this Guidebook, it refers to any or all of the sets of Building Control Regulations made under the Building Control Act. CBC CBC means the Commissioner of Building Control. Design QP This term refers to the qualified person appointed to prepare the plans of the particular building works being discussed. Design QP(Arch) This term refers to the qualified person appointed to prepare the architectural plans of the building works. Design QP(Geo) This term refers to the qualified person appointed to prepare the plans of the geotechnical aspects of underground building works. Design QP(Struct) This term refers to the qualified person appointed to prepare the structural plans of the building works. Developer This is a new term in the amended Act. It means the person for whom or on whose behalf the building works are carried out. Readers should note that when used in this Guidebook, the term means more than a commercial or housing developer as defined in the Housing Developers (Control and Licensing) Act (Cap. 130). In this Guidebook, a developer includes any person who builds any house, building or structure (or part of it), or engages others to build it for him. It does not matter why he is building it, whether for his own use or for any other purposes. So, a home owner who gets a contractor to build his new house or to do additions or alterations to his existing house is a developer.

To illustrate further: A contractor who decides to execute building works to build his own house is both developer and builder in that particular project. Under a design-and-build project, the owner (i.e. the one who commissions the project) is the developer. This is so even if the person chooses to let the builder take over every aspect of the project right up to the point of completion. General Building Works This term is used in the Act only for the purposes of builders licensing. General building works must be carried out only by a licensed general builder. Geotechnical engineer or PE(Geo) Geotechnical engineer means a specialist professional engineer who is registered in the branch of geotechnical engineering under the Professional Engineers Act (Cap. 253) and has in force a practising certificate under that Act to practise in the specialised branch of geotechnical engineering. Another term commonly used for the geotechnical engineer by the industry is PE(Geo). Geotechnical Report This term refers to any calculations, plans or report, prepared in respect of underground building works by a qualified person who is a geotechnical engineer, showing a) the results of the findings, evaluation and interpretation of the site investigation and laboratory tests; b) assessment of and recommendations on the geotechnical aspects for the design and construction of the underground building works; and c) plans showing those elements of building works designed by the person who is a geotechnical engineer. Major building works The Act uses this term to refer to those works that require an AC to check the structural plans and design calculations. Minor building works The Act uses this term to refer to those works that do not require an AC to check the structural plans and design calculations. Minor building works are given in the Fourth Schedule of the Building Control Regulations (see Schedule B in this Guidebook).

PE This means professional engineer. The relevant professional engineer applicable to this Act is registered either in (i) the branch of civil or structural engineering, or (ii) the specialised branch of geotechnical engineering. For the former, the PE is commonly called the PE(Civil) while the latter is referred to as the PE(Geo). Plans of building works The Act requires different sets of plans to be submitted for approval. In most cases, there would be the architectural plans and the structural plans. All the different types of plans are referred to as the plans of building works. The term plans under the Act also refers to drawings, details, diagrams, structural details and calculations showing or relating to the building works and if prepared in electronic form, includes the medium in which the plans of building works have been stored. QP, QP(Arch), QP(Geo), QP(Struct) QP means qualified person. A QP would either be an architect or a PE who is registered with the Board of Architects or the Professional Engineers Board respectively. All QPs must have in force a practising certificate from the respective Board. There are professional duties under the Act and Regulations that must be performed by QPs. In most building projects, there would be a number of qualified persons, namely: QP(Arch) who is a registered architect appointed to undertake the architectural works. QP(Geo) who is a geotechnical engineer appointed to undertake the geotechnical aspects of building works. QP(Struct) who is a professional engineer or PE appointed to undertake the structural works. In some projects, a PE is appointed to prepare the plans of and supervise specific structural works, for example those associated with the fixtures to support the buildings cladding system. This PE may be appointed in addition to the QP(Struct), who has been appointed for the main structural system of the building. The PE is then the QP(Struct) for those works associated with the fixtures for the cladding system. Also, for the same aspects of the building works, there could be two QPs appointed one to prepare the plans relating to those

aspects of the building works and another to supervise the carrying out of the same aspects of the building works. To differentiate between these two QPs, the terms Design and Supervision are prefixed to them, for example, Design QP(Struct) and Supervision QP(Struct). In short, anyone who is appointed to perform the mandatory professional duties related any part of the whole building works is the QP for that part of the works. QSS When used in any part of this Guidebook, QSS means the qualified site supervisor who is required to be appointed under Section 10 of the Building Control Act by the QP to supervise the structural or geotechnical aspects of the building works. There are 2 categories of QSS, namely resident engineer and resident technical officer. RE This means resident engineer. RTO This means resident technical officer. This is a new term to replace what we used to call clerk-of-works. Specialist Building Works This term is used in the Act only for the purposes of builders licensing. Specialist building works can only be carried out by licensed specialist builders and the term means the following types of building works: a) piling works comprising installation and testing of pre-cast reinforced concrete or pre-stressed concrete piles, steel piles, bored cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles, caissons and special pile types like micro-piles, barrettes piles and composite piles, embedded retaining wall piles like diaphragm walls, contiguous bored piles or secant piles; b) ground support and stabilization works, including installation and testing of ground anchors, soil nails, rock bolts, ground treatment like chemical grouting and jetgrouting, reinforced-earth, shotcreting and tunnel supports;

c) site investigation work comprising field investigations, exploratory drilling or boring, logging, sampling, coring, insitu plate-loading tests, pressure meter tests, penetration tests, vane shear tests, probing tests, permeability tests, geological mapping and geophysical surveys, and installation and monitoring of instruments measuring forces, deformation, displacements, pore and earth pressures, and ground-water levels; d) structural steelwork comprising (i) fabrication of structural elements; (ii) erection work like site cutting, site welding and site bolting; and (iii) installation of steel supports for underground building works; e) pre-cast concrete work comprising fabrication of pre-cast structural elements; and f) in-situ post-tensioning work comprising setting out of tendon profiles, laying of conduits, anchorages and bursting reinforcement, pulling or stressing of cables, pressure grouting of conduits. Structural Plans This refers to the plans that relates to the structural elements of the building works. It includes the piling plans, the substructure plans, the superstructure plans and all other plans showing details of structural works. Supervision QP This term refers to the qualified person appointed to supervise the particular building works being discussed. Supervision QP(Arch) This term refers to the qualified person appointed to supervise the architectural works. Supervision QP(Geo) This term refers to the qualified person appointed to supervise the geotechnical aspects of underground building works. Supervision QP(Struct) This term refers to the qualified person appointed to supervise the structural works.

Underground Building Works The term underground building works has been defined in the Act and building regulations as any of the following building works: a) any excavation or other building works to make i. a tunnel with a diameter, width or height of more than 2 metres; ii. a caisson, cofferdam, trench, ditch, shaft or well with a depth of more than 6 metres; any building works for constructing, altering or repairing any earth retaining structure in or for a trench, ditch, shaft or well with a depth or height of more than 6 metres; or foundation works for buildings of 30 or more storeys high.

b)

c)

See Chapter 5 for details on the requirements on underground building works.

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CHAPTER 1 APPOINTMENTS

1.1 The Act requires various persons to be appointed when any building works are to be carried out. These persons are appointed to perform, and be responsible for, their respective duties prescribed in the Building Control Act and its Regulations. This chapter explains who is to be appointed for different types of building works, who can make such appointments and what are the special requirements related to some of the appointments.

DEVELOPER
1.2 Every building project begins with a developer. Under the Act, the developer is any person for whom building works are to be carried out. This would include the commercial developer who builds a condominium for sales after completion. It also includes a government agency that builds a public building; say, a sports complex or a public bridge. A home owner who intends to build his own private bungalow is also a developer. 1.3 To start the process of building, a developer is required to appoint people who are qualified to perform specific duties under the Act. Normally, he would first appoint the respective QPs to prepare the plans for approval. In design-and-build projects, he may first appoint a builder, who would in turn appoint the respective QPs to prepare the plans for approval. In design-and-build projects, the builder is not the developer of the project. The person who appoints the builder remains as the developer under the Act, regardless of his involvement or the type of procurement that he chooses. 1.4 The developer is the only one who can appoint an accredited checker, and a specialist accredited checker if one is needed.

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QUALIFIED PERSONS
1.5 Qualified Persons or QPs are required to prepare the plans of building works and to supervise the construction of those works. There are three types of QPs a) the QP for architectural works or QP(Arch) for short to prepare building plans for approval and to supervise the architectural works during construction. The QP(Arch) is usually an architect registered under the Architects Act (Cap. 12) and has in force a practising certificate under that Act. For building works listed in Part II of the Third Schedule in the Building Control Regulations (see Schedule C in this Guidebook), the QP(Arch) who prepares the building plans can be an architect or a PE; the QP for structural works or QP(Struct) for short to prepare structural plans for approval and to supervise the structural works during construction. The QP(Struct) is a PE registered in the branch of civil or structural engineering under the Professional Engineers Act (Cap. 253) and has in force a practising certificate under that Act; and the QP for geotechnical aspects or QP(Geo) for short to prepare the underground building works plans relating to the geotechnical aspects for approval and to supervise the geotechnical aspects of the works during construction. The QP(Geo) is a specialist PE registered in the branch of geotechnical engineering under the Professional Engineers Act (Cap. 253) and has in force a practising certificate under that Act. While the QP(Geo) is needed only when there are underground building works, a developer or builder should consider appointing a QP(Geo) for geotechnical aspects of any works if the site has difficult ground conditions.

b)

c)

Scope of Professional Practice


BCR R6 Third Schedule

1.6 The QPs to be appointed depends on the type of project. The scope of professional practice is prescribed in the Third Schedule of the Building Control Regulations (see Schedule C in this Guidebook).

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1.7 For building works that are named in Part I of the Third Schedule, only a PE can act as a QP to prepare and sign for all the plans (both the building and structural plans). Generally these building works have very little architectural content and the PE can prepare and sign for such content. 1.8 For building works that are named in Part II of the Third Schedule, either an architect or a PE, or both, can be appointed as the QP to prepare and sign for the building plans. However, the structural plans of these projects have to be prepared and signed by a PE. 1.9 For all other building works not named in Part I or Part II, an architect has to be appointed to act as the QP to prepare and sign for the building (architectural) plans and to supervise the architectural works, whereas the QP appointed for structural works has to be a PE. QP(Arch) Qualified Person for Architectural Works
Act S8 S11

1.10 A QP(Arch) has to be appointed by either the developer, or the builder to a) b) prepare the plans of the architectural works, or building plans; in this case he will be the Design QP(Arch). supervise the carrying out of those architectural works; in this case he will be the Supervision QP(Arch).

1.11 The developer or builder may appoint either the same person or different persons to be the Design QP(Arch) and Supervision QP(Arch). QP(Struct) Qualified Person for Structural Works
Act S8 S11

1.12 A QP(Struct) has to be appointed by either the developer, or the builder in the case of a design-and-build project, to a) b) prepare the plans of the structural works; in this case he will be the Design QP(Struct). supervise the carrying out of those structural works; in this case he will be the Supervision QP(Struct).

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1.13 The developer or builder may appoint either the same person or different persons to be the Design QP(Struct) and Supervision QP(Struct). However, the appointments have to comply with mandatory requirements on independence see the section on Independence of Project Parties later in this chapter. 1.14 All structural works are classified as either large building works or small-scale building works. Generally, large building works are those that require the Supervision QP(Struct) to appoint a minimum number of qualified site supervisors to help him in his supervision duties. This team of qualified site supervisors has to be stationed full-time at the site. On the other hand, small-scale building works only require the critical structural works to be carried out under the immediate supervision of either the Supervision QP (Struct) or a qualified site supervisor (who need not have to be stationed full-time at the site), working under the Supervision QP (Struct)s control and direction. 1.15 For details, see the section on Qualified Site Supervisors later in this chapter. Qualified Person for Geotechnical Aspects
Act S8 S11

1.16 Where the building works comprise wholly or partly of any underground building works, qualified persons for the geotechnical aspects have to be appointed by either the developer, or the builder in the case of a design-and-build project, to a) prepare the plans relating to the geotechnical aspects of those underground building works; in this case he will be the Design QP(Geo). supervise the geotechnical aspects of those underground building works; in this case he will be the Supervision QP(Geo).

b)

1.17 The QP for the geotechnical aspects has to be a geotechnical engineer or QP(Geo). The developer or builder may appoint either the same person or different persons to be the Design QP(Geo) and Supervision QP(Geo). However, the appointments have to comply with mandatory requirements on independence see the section on Independence of Project Parties later in this chapter.

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1.18 For underground building works, the Supervision QP(Geo) has to appoint a minimum number of qualified site supervisors to help him in his supervision duties. For details, see the section on Qualified Site Supervisors later in this chapter. General Notes on Appointment of Qualified Site Supervisors 1.19 The requirement on appointment of qualified site supervisors is prescribed under the Building Control Regulations, details of which are at the section on Qualified Site Supervisors later in this chapter. 1.20 The appointment of qualified site supervisors is done by the Supervision QP (Struct) for the main building works. However, in some projects, there may be other qualified persons appointed for specific parts of the building works, such as for the geotechnical works, cladding works and specialised space frames. These works will still need to be carried out under the supervision of qualified site supervisors. However, the CBC will not require additional qualified site supervisors to be appointed if the supervision of these works is to be carried out by the supervision team already appointed by the QP(Struct) for the main structural works. However, the CBC will also allow arrangement for these specific works to be supervised by other additional qualified site supervisors appointed by the respective qualified persons. Where appropriate, these works may be carried out under full-time or part-time supervision by these other additional qualified site supervisors, depending on the nature of the work as determined by the qualified person who appointed them.

ACCREDITED CHECKERS
Accredited Checker
Act S8

1.21 For major building works, the developer has to appoint an AC. The duty of the AC is to check the detailed structural plans and design calculations of the building works in accordance with the building regulations and to carry out such other duties as may be prescribed by those regulations (see Chapter 4 for more details). The appointment of an AC has to comply with mandatory requirements on independence see the section on Independence of Project Parties later in this chapter.

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Act S8 S13(3)

1.22 The AC to be appointed is determined by the value of the building works as follows: a) If the value of the building works exceeds $15 million, the AC has to be a director, partner, member or an employee of an accredited checking organisation. If the value of the building works does not exceed $15 million, any AC could be appointed, that is, the AC may or may not be affiliated with an accredited checking organisation.

b)

Specialist Accredited Checker


Act S8

1.23 For major building works that comprise wholly or partly of any underground building works, the developer has to appoint a specialist accredited checker or AC(Geo) for the geotechnical aspects of those building works. 1.24 Currently, the specialist AC appointed does not have to be affiliated with any accredited checking organisation, regardless of the value of the building works. 1.25 The specialist AC has to check the geotechnical aspects of underground building works in accordance with the building regulations and carry out such other duties as may be prescribed by those regulations (see Chapter 4 for more details). 1.26 The appointment of any specialist AC has to comply with mandatory requirements on independence see the section on Independence of Project Parties later in this chapter.

QUALIFIED SITE SUPERVISORS


Act S10

1.27 Qualified site supervisors or QSS have to be appointed by the qualified person appointed to supervise the structural or geotechnical aspects of the building works unless the Supervision QP(Struct) or Supervision QP(Geo) personally supervises the works for which he is responsible for (in the case of small-scale building works). This appointment is made by:

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a) b)

the QP appointed to supervise the carrying out of structural works, and where there are underground building works, the QP appointed to supervise the geotechnical aspects of those underground building works.

BCR R24 Fifth Schedule

1.28 Each QSS works under the charge and direction of the QP who appoints him. The minimum number of qualified site supervisors to be appointed by each QP and the type of supervision to be provided depends on the value of the building works, as follows: a) Small-scale building works are those works where the value does not exceed $7.5 million. For this type of works, the QP has to appoint at least one QSS for immediate supervision of works related to the critical structural elements, unless he personally supervises all the critical structural works in the project. Large building works have a value that exceeds $7.5 million. For this type of works, the QP has to appoint a team of qualified site supervisors comprising not less than a minimum prescribed number of persons. This minimum number varies with the value of the building works.

b)

General Notes on Value of Building Works 1.29 The requirements for QSS are determined by the value of building works. When determining the value of building works, it is not confined to structural works alone. The term value is defined as: a) for any underground building works, the total cost to be expended in carrying out those building works estimated at the time of, and contained in, the application under section 5 for approval of the plans of those building works, including any goods and services tax payable in relation to the supply of the work; or b) for any other building works, the total cost to be expended in carrying out the building works (including the foundations, basements, structural frame, finishes and the installation of building services) estimated at the time of, and contained in, the application under section 5 for approval of the plans of the building works, including any

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goods and services tax payable in relation to the supply of the work. Equipment and Machinery 1.30 In some industrial projects, the contractual costs may include the costs of various equipment or machinery to be installed for the operational purpose of the building. While these equipment or machinery are part and parcel of the building contract, they are not relevant in so far as the design and construction processes of the building are concerned. In computing the value of building works, the cost of such equipment or machinery need not be included.
Act S10(3)

1.31 There are two classes of QSS the RE and the RTO. More details on requirements for QSS can be found in Chapter 2. To qualify as a QSS under either of the two classes, a person must: a) b) have the qualifications and practical experience prescribed for his respective class; remain accredited with the Joint Accreditation Committee of the Institution of Engineers Singapore (IES) and the Association of Consulting Engineers Singapore (ACES) from 15 February 2009 onwards, and comply with mandatory independence requirements see the section on Independence of Project Parties later in this chapter.

c)

BUILDERS
Act S8 S11

1.32 The developer has to appoint a main builder to carry out the building works. In some building works, the developer may appoint more than one main builder in a project. As an example, different builders may be appointed for each building in a project where there is more than one building. 1.33 Except for sub-contractors carrying out specialist building works, other sub-contractors who work under the control and direction of the main builder do not need to be licensed as their engagement by the main builder is not a requirement under the Act. In so far as the Act and its Regulations are concerned, the main builder is responsible for works that are done by his subcontractors.

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1.34 The builders main duty is to carry out the building works in accordance with the Act and its Regulations, and the relevant plans approved by the CBC, that are supplied to him by the qualified persons. The builders other duties are explained in detail in Chapter 3: Duties of Project Parties. Specialist Builders
Act S11(2) S8

1.35 Specialist builders have to be appointed to carry out specialist building works. There is no restriction on who may appoint a specialist builder. However, the appointed specialist builder for monitoring instruments that measure ground properties and movements has to comply with mandatory independence requirements (see the section on Independence of Project Parties later in this chapter). 1.36 The specialist builders main duty is to carry out the relevant specialist building works in accordance with the Act and its Regulations, and the relevant plans approved by the CBC. The specialist builders other duties are explained in detail in Chapter 3: Duties of Project Parties. Licensing
Act Part VA

1.37 All builders and specialist builders have to be licensed under Part VA of the Act (see Chapter 6: Licensing of Builders).

EXCAVATION WORKS
1.38 Works that involve ground excavations require special care in structural and geotechnical design and supervision. This is because they have great impact on the safety of surrounding properties. As the complexity of such works increases with the depth of excavation, the requirements on appointments vary with the depth (except for appointments for architectural works). The following table (next page) summarizes the requirements.

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TABLE 1.1 TABLE ON APPOINTMENTS OF QPs AND ACs FOR BUILDING WORKS INVOLVING GROUND EXCAVATION Appointments Required Qualified Person Accredited Checker

All permanent or temporary building works that involve Excavation not more than 1.5 m** deep Excavation more than 1.5 m** deep but not exceeding 4 m deep Excavation more than 4 m deep but not exceeding 6 m deep Excavation more than 6 m deep and all underground building works

Plan approval is not required

Any professional engineer can act as the qualified person for structural works

No accredited checker required An accredited checker to check structural works An accredited checker to check structural works (and a specialist accredited checker is needed for the geotechnical aspects)

Any professional engineer can act as qualified person for structural works (and if he is not a geotechnical engineer, then a geotechnical engineer is needed for the geotechnical aspects)

** If the structure that retains earth (either as a retaining wall or for excavation) is not constructed of reinforced concrete or steel, then the applicable depth is 1 m instead of 1.5 m. 1.39 The appointments shown in the preceding table apply to both the QP to prepare the structural plans and the QP to supervise the works in those plans. The requirements are relevant for all building works with excavations, regardless of whether the structure to be constructed is for permanent use (such as foundations and basements) or only for temporary use (such as the temporary earth-retaining structures for holding back the faces of an excavation during the construction of an underground structure).

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INDEPENDENCE OF PROJECT PARTIES


1.40 The Act restricts certain relationships and associations between some project parties. These provisions are necessary to protect the public interest by keeping critical functions free from potential conflicting interest situations. This section summarizes the independence required of project parties under the Act. Independence of Qualified Persons
Act S9(7)

1.41 A qualified person who is appointed to supervise the carrying out of any building works, or the geotechnical aspects of any underground building works, shall not supervise a) b) any works relating to the structural elements of any major building works; or the geotechnical aspects of the underground building works,

if he, or any nominee of his, is a partner, an officer or an employee of i. ii. iii. the developer of those building works; the builder of those building works; or an associate of the developer or builder referred to in paragraph (i) or (ii).

1.42 Where minor building works are concerned, the Commissioner of Building Control encourages project parties to adopt a similar arrangement as a means to avoid potential conflicting interest situations. Developer/Supervision QP Relationship 1.43 Can a PE supervise the construction of his own house since he is also the developer of the project? The construction of any detached house, semi-detached house, terraced or linked house not exceeding 3 storeys for residential purposes is not classified as major building works. For these works, a PE can therefore act as the Supervision QP for the structural works even if he is also the developer.

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Independence of Qualified Site Supervisors


Act S10(4)

1.44 No qualified site supervisor or QSS shall supervise any structural works of any major building works if he, or any nominee of his, is a partner, an officer or an employee of (a) the developer or builder of those building works; or (b) any associate of the developer or builder of those building works. General Notes on Independence of QSS 1.45 While the QSS has to be appointed by the Supervision QP (Struct), there may be cases where the developer or builder may choose to help the QP in the procurement of the QSS. This may be done in the form of a procurement contract between the developer or builder and the QSS. 1.46 Where such procurement takes place, the contract must be clear that the QSS is procured to fulfil his statutory requirements under the Act and that he works under the direction and control of the QP. The QSS cannot be made to work for the developer or the builder, otherwise it will be taken that the QSS is an employee of the developer or builder respectively. Independence of Accredited Checkers
Act S18(4)

1.47 An accredited checker shall not issue any certificate for any building works if he has any professional or financial interest in those building works. 1.48 In the case where the accredited checker is acting on behalf of an accredited checking organisation, he shall not issue any certificate for any building works if any of the directors or partners of the accredited checking organisation or the organisation itself has a professional or financial interest in those building works. Independence of Specialist Accredited Checkers
Act S18(5)

1.49 Similarly, a specialist accredited checker shall not issue any certificate for any underground building works if he has any

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professional or financial interest in those underground building works. Meaning of professional or financial interest
Act S18(6)

1.50 The Act explains what is meant by professional or financial interest. An AC or a specialist AC shall be regarded as having a professional or financial interest in any building works if (a) he is or has been responsible for the design or construction of the building or any of the building works in any capacity except building works relating to the alterations of the building which i. ii. do not affect any key structural element, or affect any structural element but the effects are localized in nature and do not require any strengthening of any key structural element;

(b) he or any nominee of his is a member or an officer or employee of a company or other body which has a professional or financial interest in the building works, or (c) he is a partner or is in the employment of a person who has a professional or financial interest in the building works.
Act S18(7)

1.51 Similarly, an accredited checking organisation shall be regarded as having a professional or financial interest in any building works if (a) any of its directors, partners, members or employees is or has been responsible for the design or construction of the building or any of the building works in any capacity except building works relating to the alterations of the building which i. ii. do not affect any key structural element, or affect any structural element but the effects are localized in nature and do not require any strengthening of any key structural element;

(b) any nominee of the organisation is a member or an officer or employee of a company or other body which has a professional or financial interest in the building works, or

23

(c) the organisation or any of its directors or partners is a partner or is in the employment of a person who has a professional or financial interest in the building works. Clarifications on professional and financial interest
Act S18(8) S18(9)

1.52 The Act clarifies the meaning of professional and financial interest further with the following clauses: (a) A person shall be treated as having a professional or financial interest in the building works even if he has that interest only as trustee for the benefit of some other person. (b) In the case of married people living together, the interest of one spouse shall, if known to the other, be deemed to be also an interest of the other. (c) Involvement in the building works as an accredited checker or a specialist accredited checker and entitlement to any fee paid for his function as an accredited checker or a specialist accredited checker shall not be regarded as constituting a professional or financial interest. General Notes on Independence of AC 1.53 Would an AC or specialist AC be regarded as having a professional or financial interest in the building works of a project if he is from a multi-disciplinary consultant firm which has been appointed for the architectural or M&E works for the same project? Since an AC or specialist AC shall be regarded as having a professional or financial interest in any building works if he is a member or an officer or employee of a company or other body which has a professional or financial interest in the building works in any capacity (except for certain alterations works), it follows that the answer to the question above is yes. Independence of Specialist Builders
Act S11(3)

1.54 The Act prescribes independence requirements on one category of specialist builders, i.e. the specialist builder monitoring instruments that measure ground properties and movements, as follows:

24

Any specialist builder who is appointed in respect of any building works shall not: (a) carry out any work that monitors instruments measuring pore pressures for saturated and unsaturated levels, ground-water levels, ground movements or building movements; and (b) measure forces, deformations or displacements in connection with those building works. if he, or any nominee of his, is a partner, an officer or an employee of i. the developer or builder of those building works; or ii. any associate of the developer or builder of those building works. Associate
Act S2(4)

1.55 In the Act, the word associate is used in several of the provisions on independence of project parties. A reference to a person being an associate of a developer or builder is a reference to any of the following persons: a) b) any partner of the developer or builder. any body corporate in which the developer or builder is a substantial shareholder as defined in section 81 of the Companies Act (Cap. 50). if the developer or builder is a body corporate i. a person who is a substantial shareholder of that body corporate as defined in section 81 of the Companies Act, or ii. a director, secretary or similar executive officer of the body corporate.

c)

d) e) f)

any body corporate of which the developer or builder is a director, secretary or similar executive officer. where the developer or builder is a trustee a beneficiary or an object of the discretionary trust. any employer or employee of the developer or builder.

25

1.56 A relevant extract from the Companies Act is reproduced below for reference:

EXTRACT FROM THE COMPANIES ACT (CAP 50)


Section 81 of the Companies Act (Chapter 50) 81. (1) For the purposes of this Division, a person has a substantial shareholding in a company if a) b) he has an interest or interests in one or more voting shares in the company; and the total votes attached to that share, or those shares, is not less than 5% of the total votes attached to all the voting shares in the company.

(2) For the purposes of this Division, a person has a substantial shareholding in a company, being a company the share capital of which is divided into 2 or more classes of shares, if (a) he has an interest or interests in one or more voting shares included in one of those classes; and (b) the total votes attached to that share, or those shares, is not less than 5% of the total votes attached to all the voting shares included in that class. (3) For the purposes of this Division, a person who has a substantial shareholding in a company is a substantial shareholder in that company. (4) In this section and section 83, voting shares exclude treasury shares.

***

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CHAPTER 2 SUPERVISION OF BUILDING WORKS

Act S7

2.1 The provisions in the Act stress the importance of building works being carried out under the supervision of appropriately trained persons. Generally, it is an offence to carry out any building works unless the works are done under the supervision of an architect or a professional engineer. For the structural elements of building works, there are additional requirements for qualified site supervisors (QSS). This chapter summarizes the various requirements for supervision of building works. Architectural Works
Act S7(1)(a)

2.2 All architectural works must be carried out under the supervision of the qualified person appointed to supervise the architectural works. He has to sign all the required certificates and will be responsible for ensuring that all the works under his charge are done in accordance with the requirements of the Act and the Regulations. 2.3 Please note that there is no mandatory requirement for the Supervision QP(Arch) to employ supervisors to help him in his supervision duties. Supervisors employed to help the Supervision QP(Arch) are not the same as the qualified site supervisors or QSS required to be appointed mandatorily by the Supervision QP(Struct) or the Supervision QP(Geo). The QSS is required to carry out his duties in supervision of structural works or geotechnical aspects of underground building works under the direction and control of the Supervision QP(Struct) or Supervision QP(Geo) respectively.

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Structural Works
Act S7(1)(a) S7(2)(a)

2.4 All structural works must be carried out under the supervision of the qualified person appointed to supervise the structural works, i.e. the Supervision QP(Struct). Where there are underground building works, the geotechnical aspects must be carried out under the supervision of the qualified person appointed to supervise the geotechnical aspects of those underground building works, i.e. the Supervision QP(Geo). 2.5 In each case, the Supervision QP has to sign all the required certificates and will be responsible for ensuring that all the works under his charge are done in accordance with the requirements of the Act and the Regulations. The Supervision QP is required to put in place a system that ensures compliance with the requirements. Qualified Site Supervisors for Structural Works
Act S7(1)(b) S7(2)(b)

2.6 Other than the qualified person, the Act also requires structural works and their geotechnical aspects to be carried out under the supervision of a qualified site supervisor (QSS). There are two classes of qualified site supervisors, namely: a) b) Resident Engineer (RE) Resident Technical Officer (RTO)

Resident Engineer
BCR Reg24(4)

2.7 A Supervision QP can appoint a person as an RE for the purposes of section 10 (1) or (2) of the Act if that person meets any one of the following requirements a) is a professional engineer in the civil or structural engineering discipline registered under the Professional Engineers Act (Cap. 253); possesses a university degree or any other professional qualification recognised by the Professional Engineers Board for registration as a professional engineer under the Professional Engineers Act in the civil or structural engineering discipline; possesses a postgraduate masters degree or doctoral

b)

c)

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d)

e)

degree in Civil Engineering or Structural Engineering from any university recognised by the Professional Engineers Board for registration as a professional engineer under the Professional Engineers Act; is a Chartered Engineer registered by the Engineering Council United Kingdom in the Civil Engineering or Structural Engineering discipline; possesses a university degree in Civil Engineering or Structural Engineering from any university that is specified by the Commissioner of Building Control in the list that is i. obtainable from his office at the Building and Construction Authority, 5 Maxwell Road, #02-00 Tower Block MND Complex, Singapore 069110; and available in the Internet website of the Building and Construction Authority at http://www.bca.gov.sg,

ii.

and has at least one year of relevant postgraduate practical experience in design or construction of structural works as may be acceptable to the Commissioner of Building Control; or f) possesses such other qualification and period of practical experience as the Commissioner of Building Control may determine, being a qualification and practical experience that is substantially equivalent to any qualification and practical experience referred to in subparagraphs (a) to (e).

Resident Technical Officer


BCR Reg24(4)

2.8 The RTO is previously called the clerk-of-works. A Supervision QP can appoint a person as an RTO for the purposes of section 10(1) or (2) of the Act if that person meets any one of the following requirements a) possesses a degree from any local university or a diploma from any local polytechnic in Civil Engineering or Structural Engineering; possesses a diploma in any construction-related field from any local polytechnic and has at least one year of such relevant practical experience in full-time supervision of structural works in construction sites in Singapore as may be acceptable to the Commissioner of Building Control;

b)

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c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

possesses a diploma or higher certificate from any foreign polytechnic in Civil Engineering or Structural Engineering and has at least one year of such relevant practical experience in full-time supervision of structural works in construction sites as may be acceptable to the Commissioner of Building Control; possesses a diploma in any construction-related field from any foreign polytechnic and has at least 4 years of such relevant practical experience in full-time supervision of structural works in construction sites in Singapore as may be acceptable to the Commissioner of Building Control; possesses a degree from any foreign university in Civil Engineering or Structural Engineering and has at least one year of such relevant practical experience in full-time supervision of structural works in construction sites as may be acceptable to the Commissioner of Building Control; possesses a degree related to Civil Engineering or Structural Engineering from any foreign university and has at least one year of such relevant practical experience in full-time supervision of structural works in construction sites in Singapore as may be acceptable to the Commissioner of Building Control; or possesses such other qualification and period of postgraduate practical experience in full-time supervision of structural works in construction sites as the Commissioner of Building Control may determine, being a qualification and practical experience that is substantially equivalent to any qualification and practical experience referred to in sub-paragraphs (a) to (f).

Accreditation of Qualified Site Supervisors


BCR R24(3)

2.9 All QSS are required to be accredited by the Joint Accreditation Committee of the Institution of Engineers Singapore (IES) and the Association of Consulting Engineers Singapore (ACES) from 15 February 2009 onwards.

Requirements for Appointment of Qualified Site Supervisors 2.10 The Supervision QP(Struct) who is supervising the carrying out of the structural works or the Supervision QP(Geo) who is supervising the carrying out of geotechnical aspects of underground building works has to appoint one or more QSS to

30

help him in the task. The requirements of such appointment depend on the scale of the building works. 2.11 Under the Act, building works are classified as either smallscale building works or large building works. The requirements of supervision of the structural elements for these two classes of works are as follows: Small-Scale Building Works
Act S7(1)(c)

2.12 Critical structural works like concreting, piling, pre-stressing, tightening of high-friction grip bolts or other critical structural works of small-scale building works shall be carried out under the immediate supervision of a) b) an appropriate qualified person; or a QSS working under the Supervision QPs control and direction.

Act S2(1)

2.13 The term "immediate supervision", in relation to any building works or part thereof, means personally and directly exercising oversight, control and inspection of the carrying out of the building works or part thereof. Where immediate supervision is required, the Supervision QP or the appointed QSS has to be present at the site to supervise the carrying out of critical structural works.
Act S10(2)

2.14 The Act requires the Supervision QP(Struct) appointed to supervise the carrying out of any small-scale building works to appoint at least one QSS to supervise the critical structural elements of the small-scale building works. Where appropriate, the Supervision QP(Struct) may personally carry out such supervision in the absence of a QSS. The details of this requirement are summarized as follows (next page):

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TABLE 2.1 SITE SUPERVISORS REQUIRED FOR IMMEDIATE SUPERVISION OF STRUCTURAL WORKS IN SMALL-SCALE BUILDING WORKS
Act S7(1)(c)

Value of building works Up to $7.5 million

Site supervisor Appropriate qualified person or resident engineer or resident technical officer

Large Building Works


Act S7(1)(b)

2.15 The structural elements or geotechnical aspects of all large building works shall be carried out under the full-time supervision of a QSS, or a team of QSS, working under the appropriate Supervision QPs control and direction.
BCR R24(1)

2.16 The number of QSS required for each project depends on the value of the building works. More resources in terms of qualified site supervisors are required as the value of the building works increases. This is based on the rationale that the value would in most cases be a good and simple indicator of the scope or complexity of works. More resources for supervision would be required as scope or complexity increases. The details are provided in the Building Control Regulations, and are summarized as follows (next page):

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TABLE 2.2 QUALIFIED SITE SUPERVISORS REQUIRED FOR FULL-TIME SUPERVISION OF STRUCTURAL WORKS OR GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS IN LARGE BUILDING WORKS Value of building works Minimum number of QSS for fulltime supervision of structural works or geotechnical aspects One (1) RTO

More than $7.5 million but not exceeding $15 million

More than $15 million but not One (1) RE exceeding $30 million More than $30 million but not One (1) RE and one (1) RTO exceeding $75 million More than $75 million but not One (1) RE and two (2) RTO exceeding $150 million More than $150 million Two (2) RE and three (3) RTO

Full-time supervision 2.17 The term full-time supervision, in relation to any building works, means that the QSS has to be stationed at the site throughout the duration of the project when structural or geotechnical works are in progress and cannot act as the QSS for any other project. The QSS has to personally and directly exercise oversight, control and inspection of the carrying out of critical structural works like concreting, piling, pre-stressing, tightening of high-friction grip bolts and other critical structural works, and carry out any other supervision duties as directed by the Supervision QP who appointed him. Where there is more than one QSS in a project, the Supervision QP has to direct how and by who each supervision duty is to be carried out. Site Records
BCR R22

2.18 All Supervision QPs appointed to supervise any building works are required to keep and maintain at the premises on which the building works are carried out the following books and records:

33

a) for major building works, a schedule of the structural works to be carried out every 3 months, specifying, in particular, the excavation, installation, testing, removal, construction or fabrication of the key structural elements; b) a record of attendance of the Supervision QP and QSS; c) a site record book; d) a copy of the approved structural plans including all amendments; e) a record of all the departures or deviations relating to the structural elements of the building works as provided by the Design QP(Struct); f) a record of inspection and approval for concreting; g) a record of repairs to defective structural works; h) a site investigation report; i) a record of piles installed; j) a record of pile load tests; k) a record of tests on cement, sand and aggregates; l) a record of concrete cube tests; m) a record of tests on steel reinforcements; n) a record of tests on pre-stressing steel; o) a record of pre-stressing works; p) a record of tests on welding works and all welders certificates; q) a record of ground anchor, soil nails or rock bolt tests and, where applicable, stressing loads; r) a record of inspection and approval at each of the following stages of the building works: excavation, installation, construction and removal stage of the building works; s) a record of inspection and approval for strut, soil nails, rock bolts, or anchor during installation and removal; t) a record of instrumentation and monitoring reports; u) a record of actions taken where monitoring results of earth-retaining wall deflection or adjacent ground settlements exceed the allowable limits or where damages occur in the neighbouring properties; v) a record and test results of earth or ground improvement or strengthening works; w) a record of tests on fixings of external claddings and safety barriers against falling from a height; x) the mill certificates and test results for structural steel sections, and y) a record of all other tests of or in connection with the building works.

34

Submission of Progress Reports and Certificates


BCR R23

2.19 The Act also requires all Supervision QPs appointed to supervise any building works to prepare and submit the following reports and certificates relating to the building works at the corresponding times or intervals, where applicable: a) a notice of completion of all piling works carried out, a record plan showing full details of the piling works and a certificate of supervision of those piling works within 28 days of completion of those piling works; on completion of all building works, his certificate stating that the building works have been carried out under his supervision, and within 14 days of his ceasing to carry out his duties under the Act, a summary report of all those building works which have been carried out under his supervision and a certificate of such supervision.

b)

c)

Quarterly Structural Reports 2.20 With effect from 1 Feb 2008, there is no need for submission of three-monthly (quarterly) structural reports detailing the schedule and progress of structural works at the site. This requirement has been removed. Tests of and in Connection with Building Works
Act S7A

2.21 It is important to ensure that materials used for the building works comply with requirements. The Act therefore requires the Supervision QP to carry out or cause to be carried out all necessary and appropriate tests in connection with the building works as prescribed in any of the building regulations or required by the CBC. The tests have to be carried out in such manner and at such places and times as prescribed in the respective building regulations. 2.22 If a Supervision QP fails to comply with the above requirements, the CBC may serve an order in writing to any of the project parties to cease the building works until the order is withdrawn. For special cases, however, the CBC may, on application, waive a requirement to carry out a prescribed test if he is satisfied that carrying out the particular test would be unreasonable.

35

Builders Supervision Duty


Act S11(1)(e)

2.23 The Act requires the builder to have an adequate number of construction supervisors working under his direction to help him ensure that the building works are carried out in compliance with all the requirements.

***

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CHAPTER 3 DUTIES OF PROJECT PARTIES

3.1 The Act and building regulations prescribes specific duties on the various parties who are involved in the building works. This chapter lists and explains these duties.

DEVELOPER
Act S8(1)

3.2 The developer has a set of duties under the Act. These duties are summarized as follows: (A) Appointments 3.3 For all building works, every developer shall appoint the following (no other person may make these appointments) a) b) a builder to carry out those building works; for major building works, i. an AC who is either a director, partner, member or an employee of an accredited checking organisation, if the value of the building works exceeds $15 million; or an AC (whether or not a director, partner, member or an employee of an accredited checking organisation), if the value of the building works is $15 million or less

ii.

c)

d)

where the building works comprise wholly or partly of any underground building works, an AC(Geo) for the geotechnical aspects of those building works; and where appropriate, a specialist builder to monitor instruments measuring pore pressures for saturated and unsaturated levels, ground-water levels, ground

37

movements or building movements and to measure forces, deformations or displacements. 3.4 Every developer shall also appoint the following (if no such person has been appointed by the builder) a) b) c) the appropriate Design QPs to prepare the plans of the building works (i.e. architectural plans and structural plans); the appropriate Supervision QPs to supervise the carrying out of those building works where the building works comprise wholly or partly of any underground building works, i. a QP(Geo) to prepare the plans relating to the geotechnical aspects of the building works, who may or may not be the same QP for structural works referred to in paragraph (a) above; and a QP(Geo) to supervise the geotechnical aspects of those building works, who may or may not be the same qualified person referred to in paragraph (i) above.

ii.

Act S8(2)

3.5 If any QP, builder, specialist builder, AC or AC(Geo) appointed by the developer becomes unwilling to act or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out his respective duties under this Act, then the developer shall a) without delay appoint another QP, builder, specialist builder, AC or AC(Geo), as the case may be, in his place, and within 7 days thereafter, notify the CBC of that substitute appointment.

b)

(B) Notification
Act S8(3)

3.6 The developer of any building works shall notify the CBC of any contravention of this Act or the building regulations relating to those building works of which the developer knows or ought reasonably to know.

38

Act S8(6)

3.7 The Act prescribes that it shall be a defence in any prosecution for a contravention of paragraph 3.6 above for the person charged to prove to the satisfaction of the court that he did not know and could not reasonably have discovered the contravention referred to in the charge. General Notes on Implementation Practices on Notification 3.8 Several parties (namely, the developer, QP, builder and specialist builder) have the similar duty of notifying the CBC when they are aware of any contravention under the Building Control Act. The CBC has received some feedback that had expressed concern on failing to comply with this requirement of notification under circumstances that may be beyond the control of the relevant party. While the CBC will consider all circumstances in each case, these general notes on implementation practices are included to address such concerns: a) Some contraventions may involve matters which are of a very technical nature, where specific knowledge in architecture or engineering is necessary to know that a contravention has occurred. For such cases, the CBC will not expect that a person who does not possess such knowledge could reasonably have discovered the contravention, provided that the person was not involved in any way in directing or instructing another party, who has such knowledge, not to notify the CBC. On this matter, there are already specific sections under the Act which allow it to be a defence for any person charged to prove to the satisfaction of the court that he did not know and could not reasonably have discovered the contravention referred to in the charge. Some contraventions may be easily and quickly rectified. Where a contravention has been rectified, the CBC may take that into consideration in deciding any enforcement action for that contravention. However, should the CBC discovers a contravention before notification by any party, subsequent rectification of the contravention cannot be used as an excuse to absolve any party of the failure to notify the CBC of the contravention. Several parties (namely, the developer, QP, builder and specialist builder) have the similar duty of notifying the

b)

c)

39

CBC when they are aware of any contravention. If one of these parties has notified the CBC of the contravention immediately or within a reasonable time of the occurrence of the contravention, and has also informed the other parties of the notification, it may not be necessary for the other parties to notify the CBC of the same contravention.

QUALIFIED PERSON
Act S9(1)

3.9 Each of the various QPs has similar duties under the Act, albeit in respect of their respective roles in the building works (i.e. architectural, structural or geotechnical aspects). The specific duties under the Act are as follows: Qualified Person to Prepare Plans 3.10 Every QP who is appointed to prepare the plans of any building works shall a) take all reasonable steps and exercise due diligence to ensure that the building works are designed in accordance with the provisions of the Act and the building regulations; notify the CBC of any contravention of this Act or the building regulations in relation to those building works of which he knows or ought reasonably to know (see the General Notes on Implementation Practices on Notification under the section on the developer in this chapter); supply a copy of every plan of the building works approved by the CBC to i. ii. iii. the QSS or the team of QSS that he has appointed; the builder of those building works; and the Supervision QP appointed to supervise those building works (if he is not that person).

b)

c)

Act S9(5)

3.11 Where the QP becomes unwilling or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out his duties under the Act, he shall, within 14 days of his ceasing to carry out his duties, notify the CBC and the builder of those building works of that fact.

40

Act S9(12)

3.12 For a contravention of sub-paragraph 3.10(b) above, the Act prescribes that it shall be a defence in any prosecution for the person charged to prove to the satisfaction of the court that he did not know and could not reasonably have discovered the contravention referred to in the charge. Qualified Person to Supervise Building Works
Act S9(4)

3.13 Every Supervision QP who is appointed to supervise the carrying out of any building works, or the geotechnical aspects of any underground building works, shall a) take all reasonable steps and exercise due diligence in supervising and inspecting the building works or underground building works, as the case may be, to ensure that those building works are being carried out in accordance with i. ii. iii. b) the provisions of the Act and the building regulations; the relevant plans approved by the CBC; and any terms and conditions imposed by the CBC;

in the absence of a QSS, take all reasonable steps and exercise due diligence in giving immediate supervision to the carrying out of concreting, piling, pre-stressing, tightening of high-friction grip bolts or other critical structural works of the building works to ensure that such critical structural works of the building works are being carried out in accordance with i. ii. iii. the provisions of this Act and the building regulations; the relevant plans approved by the CBC; and any terms and conditions imposed by the CBC;

c)

d)

notify the CBC of any contravention of this Act or the building regulations in relation to those building works of which he knows or ought reasonably to know (see the General Notes on Implementation Practices on Notification under the section on the developer in this chapter); keep and maintain at the premises on which building works are carried out such documents, books and records as may be prescribed in the building regulations;

41

e)

f)

submit to the CBC at the prescribed times such reports and certificates as may be prescribed in the building regulations; notify the CBC if the building works have been suspended for a period of more than 3 months;

Act S10(1)

g)

for any large building works, appoint the following QSS in respect of the structural elements of the large building works: i. a team of QSS comprising not less than such number of persons as prescribed in relation to the value of those large building works (see Chapter 2); or at least one QSS, in any other case;

ii.
Act S10(2)

h)

for any small-scale building works, appoint at least one QSS, in respect of the critical structural elements of the small-scale building works if any QSS he appointed under paragraph (g) or (h) above becomes unwilling or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out his (the qualified site supervisors) duties, appoint another QSS in his place and within 7 days thereafter, notify the CBC of that substitute appointment where the QP becomes unwilling or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out his duties under the Act, the QP shall, within 14 days of his ceasing to carry out his duties, notify the CBC and the builder of those building works of that fact.

Act S9(6)

i)

Act S9(5)

j)

Act S9(12)

3.14 For a contravention of sub-paragraph 3.13(c) above, the Act prescribes that it shall be a defence in any prosecution for the person charged to prove to the satisfaction of the court that he did not know and could not reasonably have discovered the contravention referred to in the charge.

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QUALIFIED SITE SUPERVISOR


Act S10(5)

3.15 Every QSS works under the control and direction of the Supervision QP who appointed him. The Act prescribes the following duties on the QSS: 3.16 Every QSS shall take all reasonable steps and exercise due diligence in giving a) in the case of large building works full-time supervision to the carrying out of the structural elements of the building works; and in the case of small-scale building works immediate supervision to the carrying out of the critical structural elements of the building works,

b)

to ensure that the structural elements or critical structural elements, as the case may be, of the building works in question are carried out in accordance with the plans of the building works supplied to him by the qualified person, and with any terms and conditions imposed by the CBC.
Act S10(6)

3.17 If a QSS appointed in respect of any building works becomes unwilling or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out his duties, the qualified site supervisor shall, within 7 days of his ceasing to carry out such duties, notify the CBC of that fact.

BUILDER
Act S2(1)

Meaning of Builder 3.18 Under the Act, a "builder" means any person who undertakes, whether exclusively or in conjunction with any other business, to carry out any building works for his own account or for or on behalf of another person (referred to in this definition as Party A), but does not include any person who contracts with a builder for the execution by that person of the whole or any part of any building works undertaken by the builder for or on behalf of Party A under a contract entered into by the builder with Party A.

43

3.19 Essentially, a builder is anyone who undertakes to carry out building works, either for his own purpose or for Party A (for example. the developer) by way of a contract. 3.20 The Act specifically states that another person who contracts directly with the builder to execute part or all of the building works (i.e. a sub-contractor) is not the builder. In some cases, the sub-contractor would be a specialist builder who executes specialist building works within the building project. 3.21 Some building works may comprise wholly of one type of specialist building works and the developer enters into a contract directly with a specialist builder to undertake the carrying out of those works. In this case, the specialist builder is the one who enters into a contract with Party A (the developer) and for this project, that specialist builder is the builder of the building works. Duties of Builder
Act S11(1)

3.22 The Act prescribes the following specific duties on the builder. A builder undertaking any building works shall a) ensure that the building works are carried out in accordance with i. ii. iii. b) the provisions of the Act and the building regulations; the relevant plans approved by the CBC and supplied to him by a QP; and any terms and conditions imposed by the CBC;

c)

d)

notify the CBC of any contravention of this Act or the building regulations relating to those building works of which the builder knows or ought reasonably to know (see the General Notes on Implementation Practices on Notification under the section on the developer in this chapter); keep at the premises on which the building works are carried out, and make available on request (at a reasonable time) by any specialist builder appointed in respect of specialist building works comprised in those same building works, all plans of those building works approved by the CBC and supplied to him by a QP; have an adequate number of construction supervisors

44

e)

f)

g)

working under his direction to assist him (the builder) to ensure that paragraph (a) above is complied with; within 7 days of the completion of the building works, certify that the building works have been carried out in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the building regulations and deliver that certificate to the CBC; notify the CBC of the appointment and termination of appointment of any specialist builder appointed by him (the builder) in respect of any specialist building works comprised in those same building works; comply with such other duties as may be prescribed in the building regulations; and where he becomes unwilling to act or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out his duties, within 14 days of his ceasing to carry out his duties, notify the CBC of that fact and his notification shall be accompanied by a summary report describing the building works completed by him and his certificate of completion in such form as the CBC may require.

Act S11(4) BCR R25

h)

Act S11(8)

3.23 For a contravention of sub-paragraph 3.22(b) above, the Act prescribes that it shall be a defence in any prosecution for the builder charged to prove to the satisfaction of the court that he did not know nor could reasonably have discovered the contravention or non-compliance referred to in the charge. Duties of Builder to Appoint QP
Act S11(1)

3.24 In some building works where the developer does not make the appointment of one or more of the QPs (for example in Design-and-Build projects), the builder has the duty to appoint a) the appropriate Design QP to prepare the plans of the building works (i.e. architectural and structural, where applicable); the appropriate Supervision QP person to supervise the carrying out of those building works; and where the building works comprise wholly or partly of any underground building works i. a Design QP(Geo) who may or may not be the same

b) c)

45

ii.

person referred to in (a) above, to prepare the plans relating to the geotechnical aspects of the underground building works and a Supervision QP(Geo) who may or may not be the same person referred to in (b) above, to supervise the geotechnical aspects of the underground building works.

Duty to Cease Works


Act S11(5)

3.25 If any QP becomes unwilling or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out the QPs duties under the Act, the builder shall cease or shall not commence carrying out the building works until another appropriate QP in respect of those building works is appointed. SPECIALIST BUILDERS
Act S11(2)

3.26 The Act also prescribes duties for specialist builders acting in the role of a sub-contractor for specialist building works. A specialist builder undertaking any specialist building works shall a) ensure that the specialist building works are carried out in accordance with i. ii. iii. b) the provisions of this Act and the building regulations; the relevant plans approved by the CBC; and any terms and conditions imposed by the CBC;

c)

notify the CBC of any contravention of this Act or the building regulations relating to those specialist building works, being a contravention which the specialist builder knows or ought reasonably to know (see the General Notes on Implementation Practices on Notification under the section on the developer in this chapter); comply with such other duties as may be prescribed in the building regulations; and where he becomes unwilling to act or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out his duties, within 14 days of his ceasing to carry out his duties, notify the CBC of that fact.

Act S11(4)

d)

46

Act S11(8)

3.27 For a contravention of paragraph (b) above, the Act prescribes that it shall be a defence in any prosecution for the specialist builder charged to prove to the satisfaction of the court that he did not know nor could reasonably have discovered the contravention or non-compliance referred to in the charge. Duty to Cease Works
Act S11(5)

3.28 If any QP becomes unwilling or unable, whether by reason of the termination of his appointment or for any other reason, to carry out the QPs duties under the Act, the specialist builder shall cease or shall not commence carrying out the building works until another appropriate QP in respect of those building works is appointed.

ACCREDITED CHECKER
Act S18(1)

3.29 The duties of the AC are given in detail in the Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations (see Chapter 4). Under the Act, the specific duties for an AC and AC(Geo) are as follows: Main Duty of Accredited Checker 3.30 Any AC who is appointed in respect of any major building works or who is acting on behalf of an accredited checking organisation shall check the detailed structural plans and design calculations of the building works in accordance with the building regulations and shall carry out such other duties as may be prescribed by those regulations. Main Duty of Specialist Accredited Checker 3.31 Any AC(Geo) appointed in respect of any underground building works shall check the geotechnical aspects of those building works in accordance with the building regulations and shall carry out such other duties as may be prescribed by those regulations.

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CHAPTER 4 ON ACCREDITED CHECKERS

4.1 ACs and AC(Geo)s are like privatized regulators under the building control system. They are registered under the Building Control Act and they have a duty to check respectively the structural and geotechnical design prepared by QPs. This chapter summarizes the provisions on ACs and AC(Geo)s under the Act and building regulations.

ACCREDITED CHECKERS AND SPECIALIST ACCREDITED CHECKERS


4.2 An AC has duties to check the structural elements of building works whereas an AC(Geo) has similar duties to check the geotechnical aspects of underground building works. 4.3 The registrations of the ACs and AC(Geo)s are separate and not connected. An AC cannot perform the duties of an AC(Geo) and vice versa, unless he is registered as both an AC and an AC(Geo). Registration is on an annual basis and has to be renewed. Who may register?
Act S15(1)

4.4 A person who applies to be registered, or to renew his registration, as an AC or AC(Geo), as the case may be, shall be eligible to be so registered or have his registration so renewed if, and only if a) b) he has paid the prescribed fee for such registration or renewal; he satisfies the CBC that he has the qualifications and the

49

c)

practical experience (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) prescribed for an AC, or the specialist qualifications and the specialist practical experience (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) prescribed for an AC(Geo), as the case may be; and he satisfies such other requirements as may be prescribed for such registration or renewal.

4.5 The applicant for registration to be an AC or AC(Geo) will be required to submit a professional report and attend an interview with a Board for reviewing such applications.
Act S15(1)

4.6 The CBC may refuse to register, or to renew the registration of, a person as an AC or AC(Geo) if, in the opinion of the CBC a) b) the person is not of good character and reputation; or there are reasonable grounds for believing that the person will not carry out the duties of an AC or AC(Geo), as the case may be, in accordance with this Act or the building regulations.

Requirements for Registration as an Accredited Checker


BCR (AC&ACO) R3(1)

4.7 The Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations prescribes the following requirements for registration of an AC. 4.8 No person shall be registered under the Act as an AC, or have his registration as an AC renewed, unless he can satisfy the CBC that a) he is a professional engineer registered under the Professional Engineers Act in the civil or structural engineering discipline; he has had, after such registration as a professional engineer, practical experience in the design or construction of buildings in Singapore at a professional level for a period of not less than 10 years; by virtue of his ability, standing in the profession or special knowledge or practical experience in civil or structural engineering he is deserving of such distinction; and he is insured against professional liability for a minimum sum of not less than $500,000.

b)

c)

d)

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BCR (AC&ACO) R3(2)

4.9 Paragraph (e) shall not apply if the AC undertakes work as an AC on behalf of an accredited checking organisation. In such cases, the accredited checking organisation is required to have the insurance coverage for professional liability. Requirements for Registration as a Specialist Accredited Checker
BCR (AC&ACO) R3A(1)

4.10 The Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations prescribes the following requirements for registration of an AC(Geo). 4.11 No person shall be registered under the Act as an AC(Geo), or have his registration as an AC(Geo) renewed, unless he can satisfy the CBC that a) he is a professional engineer registered under the Professional Engineers Act (Cap. 253) as a specialist professional engineer in the specialized branch of geotechnical engineering; he has i. after registration as a professional engineer under the Professional Engineers Act, practical experience in civil or structural engineering at a professional level for a period of not less than 10 years, of which at least 5 years shall be in geotechnical engineering in Singapore; or ii. practical experience in civil or structural engineering for a period of not less than 15 years, of which at least 5 years shall be in geotechnical engineering at a professional level in Singapore after registration as a professional engineer under the Professional Engineers Act; c) by virtue of his ability, standing in the profession or special knowledge or practical experience in geotechnical engineering he is deserving of such distinction; and he is insured against professional liability for a minimum sum of not less than $500,000.

b)

d)

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ACCREDITED CHECKING ORGANISATIONS


Act S13(3) S15(3)

4.12 Where the value of building works is more than $15 million, the Act prescribes that the role of checking shall only be undertaken by an AC who is a director, partner, member or an employee of an accredited checking organisation. 4.13 An accredited checking organisation is registered by the CBC. Any partnership or corporation may apply and be eligible for registration as an accredited checking organisation if and only if a) it is i. a partnership consisting wholly of professional engineers registered under the Professional Engineers Act (Cap. 253) or which is licensed under that Act to supply professional engineering services in Singapore; or it is a corporation licensed under the Professional Engineers Act to supply professional engineering services in Singapore; and

ii.

b)

it satisfies the CBC that it meets such requirements as may be prescribed for such registration.

Requirements for Registration as an Accredited Checking Organisation


BCR (AC&ACO) R4(1)

4.14 The Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations prescribes the following requirements for registration of an accredited checking organisation. 4.15 No firm shall be registered as an accredited checking organisation, or have its registration as an accredited checking organisation renewed, unless a) it consists of or has in its employ i. ii. an AC registered under the Act; 2 persons who are professional engineers registered under the Professional Engineers Act (Cap. 253) in the

52

iii.

civil or structural engineering discipline; and not less than 2 other persons who are professional engineers registered under the Professional Engineers Act in the civil or structural engineering discipline or who possess such qualifications as will entitle them to be registered as professional engineers under that Act in the civil or structural engineering discipline;

b)

c) d)

the AC referred to in paragraph (a)(i) does not undertake work as an AC on his own behalf or for any other accredited checking organisation; it has an ISO 9001 certification under the scope of Structural Design Services; and it is insured against professional liability for a sum of not less than $2 million.

DETAILED DUTIES
4.16 The Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations prescribes detailed duties for ACs, an AC(Geo)s and accredited checking organisations. This section collates these duties for easy reference. Duties of Accredited Checkers
BCR (AC&ACO) R7(1) R7(2)

4.17 The following duties are prescribed in the Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations for an AC. 4.18 a) An AC shall evaluate, analyse and review the structural design in the plans of any building works and perform such original calculations with a view to determining the adequacy of the key structural elements of the building to be erected or affected by building works carried out in accordance with those plans; verify that the key structural elements designed are consistent with the layout shown in the architectural plans and any amendments to those plans; and in relation to any plans of building works carry out the tasks listed in Schedule D.

b)

c)

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BCR (AC&ACO) R7(3)

d)

notify the CBC of any contravention or non-compliance with the provisions of the Act or any regulations in connection with the structural design of any plans of building works; without delay after performing his duty in relation to any plans of building works, prepare and submit to the CBC i. ii. a certificate in Form A set out in the First Schedule; and an evaluation report including the analysis and calculations performed by the AC.

BCR (AC&ACO) R8(1)

e)

BCR (AC&ACO) R9(1)

4.19 Where the AC has completed his duty in relation to any plans of building works, he shall without delay submit to the CBC a declaration that he has no professional or financial interest in the building works.
BCR (AC&ACO) R7(4)

4.20 For sub-paragraph 4.18(d) above, the Regulations prescribe that the duty does not apply in respect of any such contravention or non-compliance which the AC did not know and could not reasonably have discovered. Duties of Specialist Accredited Checkers
BCR (AC&ACO) R7A(1) R7A(2)

4.22 The following duties are prescribed in the Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations for an AC(Geo). 4.23 a) An AC(Geo) shall evaluate, analyse and review the geotechnical aspects of the underground building works and perform such original calculations with a view to determining the adequacy of the geotechnical aspects of those underground building works to be erected or carried out in accordance with the plans of those building works; verify that the geotechnical aspects of the underground building works are consistent with the plans of those underground building works and any amendments to

b)

54

c)

those plans; in relation to any plans of underground building works carry out the tasks set out in Schedule E; notify the CBC of any contravention or non-compliance with the provisions of the Act in connection with any of the geotechnical aspects of the underground building works; without delay after performing his duty in relation to any plans of building works which comprise wholly or partly of any underground building works, prepare and submit to the CBC i. ii. a certificate in the Form B set out in the First Schedule; and an evaluation report including the analysis and calculations performed by the AC(Geo).

BCR (AC&ACO) R7A(3)

d)

BCR (AC&ACO) R8(2)

e)

BCR (AC&ACO) R9(2)

4.24 Where an AC(Geo) has completed his duty in relation to any plans of underground building works, he shall without delay submit to the CBC a declaration that he has no professional or financial interest in those underground building works.
BCR (AC&ACO) R7A(4)

4.25 For sub-paragraph 4.23(d) above, the Regulations prescribe that the duty does not apply in respect of any such contravention or non-compliance which the specialist accredited checker did not know and could not reasonably have discovered. Duties of Accredited Checking Organisations
BCR (AC&ACO) R7(3)

4.26 The following duties are prescribed in the Building Control (Accredited Checkers and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations for an accredited checking organisation. 4.27 a) An accredited checking organisation shall notify the CBC of any contravention or non-compliance with the provisions of the Act or any regulations in connection with the structural design of any plans of building works; and

55

BCR (AC&ACO) R9

b)

with each of its directors where it is a corporation or with every partner if it is a partnership, without delay submit to the CBC a declaration that it has no professional or financial interest in the building works.

BCR (AC&ACO) R7(4)

4.28 For sub-paragraph 4.27(a) above, the Regulations prescribe that the duty does not apply in respect of any such contravention or non-compliance which the accredited checking organisation did not know and could not reasonably have discovered. Minor Building Works
BCR BCR 4th Schedule

4.29 The Fourth Schedule of the Building Control Regulations prescribes the list of minor building works. These are works that do not require the certification of an AC (see Schedule B of this Guidebook).

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CHAPTER 5 UNDERGROUND BUILDING WORKS

5.1 Underground building works are essentially critical building works that involve deep ground excavations, tunnelling and foundations for high-rise building (30 storeys or more). Compared to other types of building works, they have a greater impact on safety, in particular on the safety of surrounding properties and structures and the people working in it. To minimize the risks associated with underground building works, the Act has been amended to provide additional safeguards for such works. This chapter describes the additional requirements that have been introduced for underground building works and explains some of the details of application. What are underground building works?
Act S2(1)

5.2 The term underground building works has been defined in the Act and building regulations as any of the following building works: a) any excavation or other building works to make i. ii. a tunnel with a diameter, width or height of more than 2 metres; a caisson, cofferdam, trench, ditch, shaft or well with a depth of more than 6 metres;

b) any building works for constructing, altering or repairing any earth retaining structure in or for a trench, ditch, shaft or well with a depth or height of more than 6 metres; or c) foundation works for buildings of 30 or more storeys high.

57

Requirements for Underground Building Works 5.3 All requirements that apply to normal structural works apply as well to underground building works. The additional requirement for underground building works is that the geotechnical aspects of these works are to be determined by a geotechnical engineer, i.e. PE(Geo).
Act S8 S11

5.4 Where the building works comprise wholly or partly of any underground building works, the following QP must be appointed to undertake the following work: a) Design QP(Geo) to prepare the plans relating to the geotechnical aspects of those underground building works; and Supervision QP(Geo) to supervise the geotechnical aspects of those underground building works.

b)

5.5 Subject to requirements on independence of project parties, the Design QP(Geo) and Supervision QP(Geo) may either be the same person or different persons. See Chapter 2 for details. 5.6 In practice, a person who possesses all the appropriate qualifications, and subject to requirements on independence of project parties, may be appointed as the Design and Supervision QP for both the structural works and the geotechnical aspects of underground building works of the same project.
Act S8

5.7 Where the building works comprise wholly or partly of any underground building works, the developer has to appoint (in addition to the AC) an AC(Geo) in respect of the geotechnical aspects of those building works. 5.8 The AC(Geo) does not have to be affiliated with any accredited checking organisation, regardless of the value of the building works. 5.9 The AC(Geo) has to check the geotechnical aspects of underground building works and carry out such other duties as prescribed in the building regulations. See Chapter 4 for details on the duties of the AC(Geo).

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Duties of Qualified Person for Geotechnical Aspects


BCR R24A(1)

Design of Geotechnical Aspects 5.10 Every Design QP(Geo) appointed to prepare the plans of geotechnical aspects of underground building works shall carry out the following tasks: TABLE 5.1
BCR Seventh Schedule

DUTIES OF QUALIFIED PERSON PREPARING THE PLANS OF GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND BUILDING WORKS

1. In the preparation of plans relating to the geotechnical aspects of any excavation or other building works to construct a tunnel with a diameter, width or height of more than 2 metres, the qualified person shall a) determine the site investigation, namely type, extent (which shall include quantity, layout and depth), method of sampling, coring and laboratory tests results for the design and construction of the tunnel; analyse the site investigation results and determine the geotechnical parameters for the design, taking into consideration onerous water conditions, seepage pressures, and surcharge, earth, water, construction and accidental loadings; determine and adopt appropriate method or model for the analysis and design including the consideration of drained, undrained and consolidation analyses, and appropriate drainage conditions; determine suitability of tunnelling method, sequence of construction, and tunnel support system including face pressures and ground support system; determine allowable limits of ground deformation and changes in groundwater and piezometric levels, and measures to control groundwater where required; analyse the stability of excavation and determine the ground stabilization or improvement works as

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

59

g)

h)

i)

appropriate; design soil or rock reinforcement, where applicable, including the consideration of the structural and geotechnical capacity; determine the instrumentation and monitoring of geotechnical engineering parameters such as tunnel face pressures, pore pressures, water table level, ground deformation and stresses including the consideration of location, type and number of instruments, and frequency of monitoring and reporting; and assess monitoring results and site conditions to ensure that the geotechnical aspects during construction are within design assumptions and parameters at every critical stage of construction, and review or modify the design so as to ensure its adequacy as appropriate.

2. In the preparation of plans relating to the geotechnical aspects of any excavation or any building works for constructing, altering or repairing any earth retaining structure (including slope) in or for a caisson, cofferdam, trench, ditch, shaft or well for supporting earth which has a depth of more than 6 metres, the qualified person shall a) determine the site investigation, namely type, extent (which shall include quantity, layout and depth), method of sampling, coring and laboratory tests results for the design and construction of the earth retaining structure including earth slope; analyse the site investigation results and determine the geotechnical parameters for the design of the earth retaining structure including consideration of onerous water conditions, seepage pressures, and surcharge, earth, water, construction and accidental loadings; determine and adopt appropriate method or model for the analysis and design including the consideration of drained, undrained and consolidation analyses, and appropriate drainage conditions; determine suitability of earth retaining structure types and scheme, and the method and sequence of construction;

b)

c)

d)

60

e)

f)

g)

h)

i)

j)

analyse the stability of the excavation work, taking into consideration groundwater, drainage and seepage conditions, basal heave, hydraulic uplift and piping, and determine the ground stabilization or improvement works as appropriate; determine allowable limits of ground deformation and changes in groundwater and piezometric levels, and measures to control groundwater where required; design tie-backs, soil or rock reinforcement, where applicable, including the consideration of the structural and geotechnical capacity; ensure that drawings of the earth retaining structure, including earth slopes, are consistent with the calculations relating to the geotechnical aspects; determine the instrumentation and monitoring of geotechnical engineering parameters such as pore pressures, water table levels, ground deformation and stresses including the consideration of location, type and number of instruments, and frequency of monitoring and reporting; and assess monitoring results and site conditions to ensure that the geotechnical aspects during construction are within design assumptions and parameters at every critical stage of construction, and review or modify the design so as to ensure its adequacy as appropriate.

3. In the preparation of plans relating to the geotechnical aspects of such type of foundation works for buildings of 30 or more storeys, the qualified person shall (a) where a caisson, raft or piled-raft foundation is adopted (i) determine the site investigation, namely type, extent (which shall include quantity, layout and depth), method of sampling, coring and laboratory tests results for the design and construction of the caisson, raft or piled-raft foundation; (ii) analyse the site investigation results and determine the geotechnical parameters, such as soil strength and deformation characteristics, pile shaft friction, downdrag, pile base resistance or bearing pressures

61

(iii)

(iv) (v) (vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

and pile lateral geotechnical capacity, for the design of the foundation taking into consideration the onerous water conditions, seepage pressures, and loads from surcharge, earth, water and construction; determine and adopt appropriate method or model for the analysis and design including the consideration of drained, undrained and consolidation analyses, and appropriate drainage conditions; determine suitability of the foundation type and the method of construction; where applicable, determine and analyse the negative shaft friction; ensure that the drawings of the foundation are consistent with the calculations relating to the geotechnical aspects; analyse the stability of excavation for the caisson or raft during construction taking into consideration groundwater, drainage and seepage conditions, basal heave, hydraulic uplift and piping, and determine the ground stabilization or improvement works as appropriate; analyse the forces and deformation of the raft or pile-raft foundation and stability of the foundation including the consideration of short-term and longterm conditions; determine the number, location and types of load tests, analyse the results of load tests; or

(b) where jacked-in piles or driven piles or bored cast inplace piles or barrettes are adopted (i) determine the site investigation including the extent (which shall include the quantity, layout and depth), method of sampling, coring and laboratory tests results for the design and construction of the piled foundation; analyse the site investigation results and determine the geotechnical parameters such as soil strength and deformation characteristics, negative skin

(ii)

62

friction or downdrag, pile shaft friction, founding depth, pile base resistance, pile group effects, settlement, bearing capacity, and where applicable, lateral geotechnical capacity; and (iii) determine the load tests and analyse results of load tests to ensure that the pile shaft friction, founding depth, base resistance, pile movement, and other appropriate geotechnical parameters are within the design, and as appropriate, review or modify the design so as to ensure its adequacy.

Supervision of Geotechnical Aspects


BCR R24A(2)

5.11 Every Supervision QP(Geo) appointed to supervise the geotechnical aspects of underground building works shall carry out the following tasks: TABLE 5.2
BCR Eight Schedule

DUTIES OF QUALIFIED PERSON SUPERVISING THE GEOTECHNICAL ASPECTS OF UNDERGROUND BUILDING WORKS

1. In the supervision of geotechnical aspects of any excavation or other building works to make a tunnel with a diameter, width or height of more than 2 metres, the supervising qualified person shall a) supervise the implementation of instrumentation and monitoring of geotechnical parameters in accordance with the instrumentation and monitoring plan; and assess the ground conditions at the site and construction of the tunnel in relation to its impact on the geotechnical aspect of the design and review the performance and results of instrumentation and monitoring of the tunnelling works such that the geotechnical aspects are within the design at every

b)

63

critical stage. 2. In the supervision of geotechnical aspects of any excavation or any building works for constructing, altering or repairing any earth retaining structure including slope, in or for a caisson, trench, ditch, shaft or well with a depth or height of more than 6 metres, the supervising qualified person shall a) supervise the implementation of instrumentation and monitoring of geotechnical engineering parameters in accordance with the instrumentation and monitoring plan; determine adequacy of the founding or penetration depth of embedded earth-retaining wall on site; and assess the ground conditions at the site and construction of the earth retaining structure (including earth slope) in relation to its impact on the geotechnical aspect of the design and review the performance and results of instrumentation and monitoring of the earth retaining structure including earth slope such that the geotechnical aspects are within the design at every critical stage.

b) c)

3. In the supervision of geotechnical aspects of such type of foundation works for buildings of 30 or more storeys, the supervising qualified person shall (a) where a caisson, raft or piled-raft foundation is adopted (i) determine the founding or penetration depth of the caisson, raft or piles on site; and (ii) assess the ground conditions at the site and construction of the caisson, raft or piled-raft foundation in relation to its impact on the geotechnical aspect of the design, analyse the results of load tests, and review the performance and results of instrumentation and monitoring of the caisson, raft or piled-raft foundation to verify that the geotechnical aspects are within the design at every critical stage; or

64

(b) where jacked-in piles or driven piles or bored cast inplace piles or barrettes are adopted
(i) (ii)

determine the founding or penetration depth of the piles on site; and assess the ground conditions at the site, analyse the results of load tests, and review the performance and results of instrumentation and monitoring of the piles to verify that the geotechnical aspects are within the design at every critical stage.

Types of Plans for Underground Building Works


BCR R10A

5.12 The Building Control Regulations prescribe the types of plans that have to be submitted for underground building works. These are: a) b) c) d) 5.13 a) plans of tunnelling support system; plans of excavation and earth retaining structures; plans of foundation, and instrumentation and monitoring plans. All plans of underground building works shall be in accordance with the provisions of the Act and these Regulations and any other requirement of the Commissioner of Building Control; be signed and endorsed by the Design QP who prepared the plans and calculations, and by the appropriate AC; bear a certificate by the Design QP who prepared the plans on the first and last sheets of the calculations stating that, to the best of his knowledge and belief, the design calculations have been prepared in accordance with these Regulations and that he is the person who prepared the design calculations; state on the first page of the certificate by the Design QP referred to in sub-paragraph (c) the number of pages per book and a numbering of every page in the book; be accompanied by an Information Sheet giving a

BCR R10A(2)

b) c)

d)

e)

65

f) g)

summary of the key design and construction information including, where applicable, load conditions, codes of practice, assumptions, earth-retaining system, tunnel support system, foundation system, and other information relevant to the design and construction in question; be accompanied by impact assessment report on neighbouring structures and site investigation report; be accompanied by a geotechnical report which shall contain: i. ii. a summary to highlight the key elements of the design and the issues addressed; evaluation and interpretation of existing information and investigation and monitoring results; assessment of geotechnical parameters and groundwater conditions; geotechnical assumptions, analysis, design and calculations; geotechnical requirements relating to the design and construction of the underground building works including testing, validating, controlling, inspecting and monitoring; geotechnical reviews; any other details as the CBC may require; and

iii. iv. v.

vi. vii. h)

be accompanied by such other reports as the CBC may require.

Plans of Tunnel Support Systems


BCR R10A(3)

5.14 The plans of tunnel support system for the design and construction of tunnel with diameter, width or height of more than 2 metres, shall contain where applicable a) layout, sections and details of all excavation and tunnel support works showing i. subsurface information including plan showing layout of investigation boreholes and subsurface profile along each tunnel axis; maximum depth, and extent of excavation at each stage including heading, bench and invert; face pressure and other key performance indicators

ii. iii.

66

iv. v.

for ensuring stability of tunnel during construction; location of planned stoppages and necessary ground improvement and monitoring details, and profile and the nature of the site and its surrounds including ground topography, neighbouring structures, subsurface geological and geotechnical data, and groundwater conditions;

b)

c)

d) e) f)

g) h)

layout, sections, details and material specifications of tunnel support elements and structures, tunnel face support system and overall tunnel support system and other structural elements showing types, sizes and material specifications of members to be used and the connection details; layout, sections and details of earth or ground strengthening, improvement or protection works including layout, sections and sizes of all elements, material specifications, details of inspections and tests to be carried out; method and sequence of construction including duration and spatial limits of critical activities; details of inspections and tests to be carried out; details of any special precautions, groundwater control measures, control and protective measures required during excavation, installation and removal of any tunnel support element; other specifications and relevant particulars, and such other details as the CBC may require.

Excavation and Earth-Retaining System Plans


BCR R10A(4)

5.15 The excavation and earth retaining system plans for any excavation or any building works for constructing, altering or repairing any earth retaining structure (including slope) in or for a caisson, cofferdam, trench, ditch, shaft or well for supporting earth which has a depth of more than 6 metres shall contain where applicable a) layout, sections and details of all excavation and earth retaining works showing i. subsurface information including plan showing layout of investigation boreholes and surface profile along and across the excavation boundary;

67

ii. iii.

maximum depth, and extent of excavation at each stage, and profile and the nature of the site and its surrounds including ground topography, neighbouring structures, subsurface geological and geotechnical data, and groundwater conditions;

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g) h) i)

j) k)

layout, sections, details and material specifications of earth retaining elements and structures, wall elevation showing the wall founding depth or penetration depth or minimum wall embedment requirement, and overall retaining system; layout, sections and details of struts, anchors, soil nails, walers, king posts, bracings, corbels and other structural elements showing types, sizes and material specifications of members to be used, connection details, and where appropriate, inspections and tests to be carried out; layout and sections of earth berms or slope showing type of soils, size and location of berms, internal and external drainage provisions and protection measures including against surface weathering; layout, sections and details of earth or ground strengthening, improvement or protection works including layout, sections and sizes of all elements, material specifications, details of inspections and tests to be carried out; layout, sections and details of permanent support system to the earth retaining system showing details of lateral bracing element, and connection details; method and sequence of construction including duration and spatial limits of critical activities; details of inspections and tests to be carried out; details of any special precautions, groundwater control measures, control and protective measures required during excavation, and installation and removal of any earth retaining element; other specifications and relevant particulars, and such other details as the CBC may require.

Foundation Plans of Buildings with 30 Storeys or More


BCR R10A(5)

5.16 The foundation plans for the design and construction of foundation for buildings of 30 or more storeys shall contain, where applicable

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a) the layout, sections and details of all foundation works showing i. types of piles or foundation and specification of material to be used; ii. location of piles or foundation and site investigation boreholes; iii. pile or foundation founding depth or pile minimum embedment into competent stratum for each pile or foundation; iv. unit shaft friction, pile base resistance or foundation bearing pressure; v. allowable foundation capacity before and after accounting for negative skin friction where applicable, allowable tension, and lateral load; vi. details of pile reinforcements, pile joints, connection with pilecap, pile shops; vii. allowable total and differential foundation movement, and viii. allowable vibration limit, and

b) the number, type of pile or foundation tests, structural integrity tests and location of preliminary test pile or ultimate load tests and site investigation for the tests. Instrumentation and Monitoring Plans
BCR R10A(6)

5.17 The instrumentation and monitoring plans shall contain where applicable a) b) layout and location of neighbouring structures in relation to the underground building works; numbers, types, locations, details and other particulars of instruments for monitoring forces and movement of structural elements, building and ground movements, and variations in the groundwater or piezometric levels; frequency and duration of monitoring; allowable ground or building movement limits; allowable vibration limits; where applicable, long-term instrumentation, monitoring and maintenance requirements; other specifications and relevant particulars, and such other details as the CBC may require.

c) d) e) f) g) h)

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Examples of Underground Building Works 5.18 The following are examples to illustrate what are regarded as underground building works.

(A) EXCAVATION WORKS: SITE OR SLOPE FORMATION

FIGURE 5.1 Example A1

FIGURE 5.2 Example A2

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FIGURE 5.3 Example A3

FIGURE 5.4 Example A4

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(B) EXCAVATION WORKS: RETAINING WALLS

FIGURE 5.5 Example B1 (EARTH RETAINING SYSTEM)

FIGURE 5.6 Example B2 (BASEMENT IN SLOPING GROUND)

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FIGURE 5.7 Example B3 (BASEMENT CONSTRUCTION)

FIGURE 5.8 Example B4 (CONSTRUCTION OF BASEMENT STRUCTURES)

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FIGURE 5.9 Example B5: (CONSTRUCTION OF BASEMENT STRUCTURES)

(C) OTHER EXCAVATION WORKS


FIGURE 5.10 Example C1 (DRAINAGE WORKS)

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FIGURE 5.11 Example C2 (SEWER PIPE)

FIGURE 5.12 Example C3 (SEWER MANHOLE)

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(D) EARTH FILLING WORKS


FIGURE 5.13 Example D1(CAISSON RETAINING WALL)

(E) TUNNELING WORKS


FIGURE 5.14 Example E1 (BORED TUNNEL)

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FIGURE 5.15 Example E2 (CUT AND COVER TUNNEL)

FIGURE 5.16 Example E3 (MINED TUNNEL)

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(F) FOUNDATION WORKS

FIGURE 5.17 Example F1

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(G) MISCELLANEOUS

FIGURE 5.18 Example G1 (INSIGNIFICANT BUILDING WORKS WHERE SEWER PIPE < 1 M DIAMETER)

FIGURE 5.19 Example G2 (NON BUILDING WORKS)

Underground water pipes, gas pipes and electrical cables are not building works and excavations made for laying these pipes and cables do not require submission under the Building Control Act.

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CHAPTER 6 LICENSING OF BUILDERS

6.1 A major change in the Building Control (Amendment) Act 2007 concerns the licensing of builders. Under the amended Act, only licensed builders are allowed to carry out building works which require plan and permit approval under Part II of the Act. This chapter explains the requirements for the licensing of builders. New Definitions 6.2 There are new definitions introduced to the Act and Regulations solely for the provisions on licensing of builders. The following are the new definitions and their meanings: Definitions used in builders licensing applicant This term, when used in relation to an application for a licence, means the person who will be the holder of the licence if the application is granted approved person An approved person is the person who is appointed to be in charge of and directs the management of the business relating to the general building works or specialist building works of the builder builder The term can mean either a general builder or a specialist builder Commissioner The term Commissioner, when used, refers to the

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Definitions used in builders licensing Commissioner of Building Control construction-related field This term is used in describing qualifications that the builders key personnel have to possess. The following are considered as construction-related fields: architecture, civil, structural, mechanical or electrical engineering, construction or project management, quantity surveying, building science. facilities or estate management corporation The meaning of corporation does not include a limited liability partnership holder The holder of a licence means the person to whom the licence is granted licence The term refers to any of the following licences granted under Part VA of the Act: a) a Class 1 general builders licence to carry on the business of a general builder generally b) a Class 2 general builders licence to carry on the business of a general builder in a restricted manner (i.e. for building works that do not exceed $6 million in value) c) a specialist builders licence to carry on the business of a specialist builder for the class of specialist building works specified in the licence. minor specialist building works Specialist building works are to be carried out only by the appropriate licensed specialist builder. However, there are a few exceptions and these are called minor specialist building works. Such works can be carried out by the licensed general builder and they mean the following: a) all specialist building works associated with minor building works (i.e. those building works that are not

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Definitions used in builders licensing required to be checked by an accredited checker); b) structural steelwork comprising fabrication and erection work for structures with a cantilever length of not more than 3 metres, a clear span of less than 6 metres and a plan area not exceeding 150 square metres, and c) pre-cast concrete work comprising casting of precast reinforced concrete slabs or planks on site. partnership A partnership includes a limited liability partnership recognised institution This term, when used to describe the acceptable qualifications (degree) to be possessed by the builders key personnel for the purposes of licensing, refers to the following institutions a) the National University of Singapore b) the Nanyang Technological University c) any other university that is specified by the CBC in the website http:www.bca.gov register This term means the register of licensed builders required to be kept under section 29D of the Act technical controller A technical controller is the person who is appointed to personally supervise the execution and performance of any general building works or specialist building works undertaken by the builder

When is a Licence Applicable?


Act S29A(2)

6.3 a)

The Act provides the following explanation on licensing: a licence is applicable to any person who carries out, or undertakes to carry out, (whether exclusively or in conjunction with any other business) general building

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b)

c)

d)

e)

works for or on behalf of another person for a fixed sum, percentage, or valuable consideration, or reward other than wages, but not if the person carries out, or undertakes to carry out, general building works only as a subcontractor. It is not mandatory for a sub-contractor doing general building works for a licenced builder to have a licence. a licence is applicable to any person who carries on the business of a specialist builder if the person carries out, or undertakes to carry out, (whether exclusively or in conjunction with any other business) any specialist building works for or on behalf of another person for a fixed sum, percentage, or valuable consideration, or reward other than wages. Note that it is mandatory for a sub-contractor doing specialist building works for a licenced builder to have a specialist licence. where a licence is applicable, it is applicable regardless of whether the person who carries out the general building works or specialist building works carries it out personally, or directly or indirectly causes it to be carried out. a licence is applicable to any person carrying on the business of a general builder or specialist builder if he carries out general building works or specialist building works, as the case may be, on or in respect of a building for himself. a person undertakes to carry out general building works or specialist building works if that person enters into a contract to carry it out or submits a tender or makes an offer to carry it out.

Prohibition against Unlicensed Builders


Act S29B(1)

6.4 The Act makes the following prohibitions and any person who contravenes these prohibitions shall be guilty of an offence: a) No person shall advertise or hold himself out or conduct himself in any way or by any means as a person who is authorised to carry on the business of a general builder or a specialist builder in Singapore unless he is in possession of a general builders licence and a specialist builders licence, respectively No person shall assume, take or use (either alone or in combination with any other word, letter or device) the name or title of licensed general builder or, as the case

b)

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may be, licensed specialist builder, or any name, title or description calculated to lead others to believe he is so licensed, or by words or conduct hold himself out as being so licensed unless he is in possession of a general builders licence and a specialist builders licence, respectively. Need for Builders Licence
Act S29B(2)

6.5 a) b)

The Act states that no person shall carry on the business of a general builder unless he has a general builders licence; carry on a business that carries out, or undertakes to carry out, (whether exclusively or in conjunction with any other business) general building works and minor specialist building works or minor specialist building works only, unless he has a general builders licence; or carry on the business of a specialist builder unless he has a specialist builders licence.

c)

Non-Entitlement to Remuneration
Act S29B(4)

6.6 The Act prescribes prohibition against anyone who carries out building works without a builders licence from recovering any remuneration for doing the illegal works. Under the Act, any person who carries out any building works without an appropriate licence shall not be entitled to recover in any court any charge, fee or remuneration for the works so carried out. Winding Up
Act S29B(5)

6.7 In cases of builders that are required to cease building works because they cease to have a valid licence, the Act allows these builders to wind up their activities. The Act specifically allows for this by stating that nothing in the Act shall apply to prevent a corporation or limited liability partnership that ceases to have in force a builders licence from carrying on any activity necessary to the winding up of the corporation or limited liability partnership.

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Classes of Builders Licence


Act S29C(1)

6.8

The following are the classes of builders licence:

General Builders Licence Class 1 Can carry out all general building works of any value Permitted to carry out general building works that are restricted to contracts or engagements for an estimated final price each of not more than $6 million

Class 2

Specialist Builders Licence There are six classes of specialist builders licence (see section 6.10). Each class of licence allows the holder to carry out specialist building works of that class only. There is no restriction on the value of the works. Working out Estimated Final Price
Act S29C(2)

The general builder with a Class 2 licence is allowed to carry out works that are restricted to contracts with an estimated final price each of not more than $6 million. The Act prescribes provisions on how this estimated final price is to be considered, as follows: a) The estimated final price in relation to any building works shall be the total fee chargeable at practical completion for the building works, including any goods and services tax payable in relation to the supply of the work. Where a number of distinct contracts to perform building works are entered into in connection with the same building by the same person, the estimated final price shall be the moneys payable for the performance of all the contracts in the aggregate, notwithstanding that some or all of such contracts taken severally do not exceed the $6 million limit. (This provision essentially prohibits breaking up the various building works within a building into smaller contracts and taking each of the contracts as a separate

b)

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engagement in order to enable a Class 2 general builder to qualify himself for carrying out those building works). c) To prevent circumvention of the provision, the Act also provides that where the Commissioner is satisfied that the contracts are substantially for the same undertaking or that they were entered into in such a manner as to evade the provisions of the Act, the estimated final price shall be the moneys payable for the performance of such of the contracts in the aggregate as the Commissioner shall determine.

Specialist Building Works 6.10 There are six classes of specialist builders licence and each class allows the holder to carry out a specific type of specialist building works. The following Table summarises the provisions for specialist building works: TABLE ON LICENCES FOR SPECIALIST BUILDING WORKS
Act S2(1)

Class of Licence Piling Works

Description of Specialist Building Works Permitted To Be Carried Out By Holder Specialist building works comprising installation and testing of pre-cast reinforced concrete or pre-stressed concrete piles, steel piles, bored cast-in-place reinforced concrete piles, caissons and special pile types like micro-piles, barrettes piles and composite piles, embedded retaining wall piles like diaphragm walls, contiguous bored piles or secant piles. Specialist building works that include installation and testing of ground anchors, soil nails, rock bolts, ground treatment like chemical grouting and jet-grouting, reinforced-earth, shotcreting and tunnel supports. Specialist building works comprising field investigations, exploratory drilling or boring, logging, sampling, coring, in-situ plate-

Ground Support and Stabilization Works

Site Investigation Works

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Class of Licence

Description of Specialist Building Works Permitted To Be Carried Out By Holder loading tests, pressure meter tests, penetration tests, vane shear tests, probing tests, permeability tests, geological mapping and geophysical surveys, and installation and monitoring of instruments measuring forces, deformation, displacements, pore and earth pressures, and ground-water levels.

Structural Steelworks

Specialist building works comprising the fabrication of structural elements, erection work like site cutting, site welding and site bolting, and installation of steel supports for underground building works. Specialist building works comprising fabrication of pre-cast structural elements.

Pre-cast Concrete Works In-situ Posttensioning Works

Specialist building works comprising the setting out of tendon profiles, laying of conduits, anchorages and bursting reinforcement, pulling or stressing of cables, pressure grouting of conduits.

Who may be licensed as a general builder? 6.11 The Act allows three categories of businesses to be licensed as general builders, as follows: Natural Persons
Act S29F(1), S29F(5)

6.12 This refers to individuals or sole proprietors. A natural person is eligible for only a Class 2 general builders licence. 6.13 Any natural person who applies for a general builders licence shall be eligible to be granted such a licence if, and only if a) he has paid the prescribed fees for such licence

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b)

c)

he satisfies the Commissioner that he is a person of good character, and that he intends to carry on the business on his own account he i. has completed the prescribed course of training and has the prescribed practical experience (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) in the work of a general builder or as a supervisor of general building works or although not having complied with the requirements of sub-paragraph (i), he satisfies the Commissioner that he has nevertheless had such practical experience in the work of a general builder or as a supervisor of general building works, as to render him, in the opinion of the Commissioner, competent to carry on the business of a general builder in Singapore and

ii.

d)

he satisfies the Commissioner that the execution and performance of any general building works in Singapore that he undertakes shall be under i. ii. his personal supervision or the personal supervision of at least one of his employees, being an employee who satisfies the Commissioner that the employee has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience.

6.14 Paragraph (c) above refers to requirements for what is known as an approved person whereas paragraph (d) refers to requirements for the technical controller. For more details, see the respective sections later in this chapter on Approved Persons and Technical Controller. Partnerships
Act S29F(2), S29F(5)

6.15 This refers to partnerships formed by two or more individuals (natural persons) and it includes a limited liability partnership. A partnership is eligible for only a Class 2 general builders licence. 6.16 Any partnership who applies for a general builders licence shall be eligible to be granted such a licence if, and only if

89

a) b)

at least one partner satisfies the Commissioner that he meets the requirements stated above for a natural person the applicant satisfies the Commissioner that the management of the business of the partnership in so far it relates to general building works in Singapore shall at all times be under the charge and direction of a partner of the partnership who i. ii. has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience or although not having the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience, satisfies the Commissioner that he has nevertheless had such practical experience as to render him, in the opinion of the Commissioner, competent to manage the business of a general builder in Singapore; and

c)

the applicant satisfies the Commissioner that the execution and performance of any general building works in Singapore undertaken by the partnership shall be under the personal supervision of i. ii. at least one partner of the partnership or at least one of its employees, being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities as a partner

who satisfies the Commissioner that he has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience. 6.17 Paragraphs (b) and (c) above refer to requirements for the approved person and technical controller respectively. For more details, see the respective sections later in this chapter on Approved Persons and Technical Controller. Corporations
Act S29F(3)

6.18 Corporations do not include a limited liability partnership. A corporation may apply for either a Class 1 or Class 2 general builders licence. 6.19 Any corporation which applies for a general builders licence, shall be eligible to be granted such a licence if, and only if

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a) b) c)

it has paid the prescribed fees for such licence it is neither a company limited by guarantee nor a corporation sole the paid-up capital of the corporation is i. not less than $25,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) where it is applying for a Class 2 general builders licence or not less than $300,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) where it is applying for a Class 1 general builders licence

ii.

d) e)

it satisfies the Commissioner that it is duly authorized to carry on the business of a general builder it further satisfies the Commissioner that the management of the business of the corporation in so far it relates to general building works in Singapore shall at all times be under the charge and direction of a director of the corporation, or a member of the board of management of the corporation, or an employee (being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities of a director or member of its board of management) who i. ii. has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience or although not having the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience, satisfies the Commissioner that he has nevertheless had such practical experience as to render him, in the opinion of the Commissioner, competent to manage the business of a general builder in Singapore and

f)

the applicant satisfies the Commissioner that the execution and performance of any general building works in Singapore undertaken by the corporation shall be under the personal supervision of i. ii. at least one director of the corporation or a member of its board of management or at least one of its employees, being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities as a director or member of its board of management

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who satisfies the Commissioner that he has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience. 6.20 Paragraphs (e) and (f) above refer to requirements for the approved person and technical controller respectively. For more details, see the respective sections later in this chapter on Approved Persons and Technical Controller. Who may be licensed as a specialist builder? 6.21 The Act allows three categories of businesses to be licensed as specialist builders, as follows: Natural Persons
Act S29G(1)

6.22 This refers to individuals or sole proprietors. Any natural person who applies for a licence to be a specialist builder for any class of specialist building works shall be eligible to be granted such a specialist builders licence if, and only if a) b) he has paid the prescribed fees for such licence he satisfies the Commissioner that he is a person of good character, and that he intends to carry on business on his own account he i. has completed the prescribed course of training and has the prescribed practical experience (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) in the work of a specialist builder for that class of specialist building works or as a supervisor of such specialist building works for a specialist builders licence of that class or although not having complied with the requirements of sub-paragraph (i), satisfies the Commissioner that he has nevertheless had such practical experience in the work of a specialist builder for that class of specialist building works or as a supervisor of such specialist building works as to render him, in the opinion of the Commissioner, competent to carry on the business of a specialist builder of that class in Singapore and

c)

ii.

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d)

he satisfies the Commissioner that the execution and performance of any specialist building works in Singapore that he undertakes shall be under i. ii. his personal supervision or the personal supervision of at least one of his employees, being an employee who satisfies the Commissioner that the employee has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience.

6.23 Paragraphs (c) and (d) above refer to requirements for the approved person and technical controller respectively. For more details, see the respective sections later in this chapter on Approved Persons and Technical Controller. Partnerships
Act S29G(2)

6.24 This refers to partnerships formed by two or more individuals (natural persons) and it includes a limited liability partnership. Any partnership which applies for a licence to be a specialist builder for any class of specialist building works shall be eligible to be granted a specialist builders licence if, and only if a) b) at least one partner satisfies the Commissioner that he meets the requirements stated above for a natural person the applicant satisfies the Commissioner that the management of the business of the partnership in so far it relates to specialist building works of that class in Singapore shall at all times be under the charge and direction of a partner of the partnership who i. ii. has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience or although not having the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience, satisfies the Commissioner that he has nevertheless had such practical experience for that class of specialist building works as to render him, in the opinion of the Commissioner, competent to manage the business of a specialist builder in Singapore for that class of specialist building works and

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c)

the applicant satisfies the Commissioner that the execution and performance of that class of specialist building works in Singapore undertaken by the partnership shall be under the personal supervision of i. ii. at least one partner of the partnership or at least one of its employees, being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities as a partner

who satisfies the Commissioner that he has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience. 6.25 Paragraphs (b) and (c) above refer to requirements for the approved person and technical controller respectively. For more details, see the respective sections later in this chapter on Approved Persons and Technical Controller. Corporations
Act S29G(3)

6.26 Corporations do not include a limited liability partnership. Any corporation which applies for a specialist builders licence for any class of specialist building works shall be eligible to be granted such a licence if, and only if a) b) c) d) e) it has paid the prescribed fees for such licence it is neither a company limited by guarantee nor a corporation sole the paid-up capital of the corporation is not less than $25,000 (or its equivalent in a foreign currency) it satisfies the Commissioner that it is duly authorized to carry on the business of a specialist builder it further satisfies the Commissioner that the management of the business of the corporation in so far it relates to specialist building works of that class in Singapore shall at all times be under the charge and direction of a director of the corporation, or a member of the board of management of the corporation, or an employee (being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities of a director or member of its board of management) who i. has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience or

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ii.

although not having the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience, satisfies the Commissioner that he has nevertheless had such practical experience for that class of specialist building works as to render him, in the opinion of the Commissioner, competent to manage the business of a specialist builder in Singapore for that class of specialist building works and

f)

the applicant satisfies the Commissioner that the execution and performance of that class of specialist building works in Singapore undertaken by the corporation shall be under the personal supervision of i. ii. at least one director of the corporation or a member of its board of management or at least one of its employees, being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities as a director or member of its board of management

who satisfies the Commissioner that he has the prescribed qualifications and prescribed practical experience. 6.27 Paragraphs (e) and (f) above refer to requirements for the approved person and technical controller respectively. For more details, see the respective sections later in this chapter on Approved Persons and Technical Controller. Conditions of Licensing Relating to Construction Personnel
Act S29H

6.28 The Class 1 general builders licence carries a condition requiring certain types of construction personnel to be deployed in a prescribed manner for building works with value of $20 million or more. 6.29 Such deployment comes under a scheme called the Construction Registration of Tradesmen Scheme (or CoreTrade). The objective of CoreTrade is to build up a core group of local and experienced foreign workers in key construction trades to anchor and lead the workforce. CoreTrade requirements on deployment will begin on 16 June 2009.

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6.30 Details on CoreTrade can be obtained from a BCA publication called A Guidebook on CoreTrade: Registration and Deployment Requirements and Procedures.

APPROVED PERSON
6.31 Every licensed builder is required to have an approved person, who will take charge and direct the management of the business of the builder in so far as it relates to the building works in Singapore. The approved person is required to have the following training and practical experience. Appointment of Approved Person 6.32 Any approved person who is appointed has to be a) b) c) in the case of a builder who is a natural person, the builder himself in the case of a partnership, one of the partners or in the case of a corporation, a director of the corporation, or a member of the board of management of the corporation, or an employee (being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities of a director or member of its board of management).

Training and Practical Experience


BCR (LOB) R12, R14

6.33 An approved person must meet the prescribed training and practical experience summarized in the Table below:
BCR (LOB) Part I Second Schedule

License Class 1 General Builder

Training And Practical Experience The approved person is required to satisfy any one of the following sets of conditions: Set (A) a) he has a Bachelor or post-graduate degree in any field and b) he has obtained at least 3 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects (whether in

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License

Training And Practical Experience Singapore or elsewhere) after attaining the above qualifications Set (B) a) he has a diploma in a construction-related field and b) he has obtained at least 5 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) after attaining the above qualifications Set (C) a) he has attended the course conducted by the Building and Construction Authority known as Essential Knowledge in Construction Regulations and Management for Licensed Builders and b) he has obtained at least 10 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects in Singapore.

Class 2 General Builder

The approved person is required to satisfy any one of the following sets of conditions: Set (A) a) he has a diploma in a construction-related field or any Bachelor or higher degree in any field and b) he has obtained at least 3 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) after attaining the above qualifications Set (B) a) he has attended the course conducted by the Building and Construction Authority known as Essential Knowledge in Construction Regulations and Management for Licensed

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License

Training And Practical Experience Builders and b) he has obtained at least 8 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects in Singapore.

Specialist Builder

The approved person is required to satisfy any one of the following sets of conditions: Set (A) a) he has a diploma in a construction-related field or any Bachelor or higher degree in any field and b) he has obtained at least 3 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) after attaining the above qualifications Set (B) a) he has attended the course conducted by the Building and Construction Authority known as Essential Knowledge in Construction Regulations and Management for Licensed Builders and b) he has obtained at least 8 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects in Singapore.

Other Requirements for Approved Persons


BCR (LOB) R7, R8

6.34 A person who is to be appointed as the approved person of a licensed general builder or licensed specialist builder shall declare that he has not acted as an approved person or the technical controller of a builder whose licence has been revoked in the 12 months preceding the date of the application.

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Ceasing to be Approved Person


BCR (LOB) R16

6.35 If, for any reason, any approved person for a holder of a builders licence becomes unwilling or unable to carry out his duties, the holder of the licence concerned shall notify the Commissioner in writing of the person ceasing to carry out those duties within 28 days after such cessation. Failing to do so is prescribed as an offence under the Building Control (Licensing of Builders) Regulations.

TECHNICAL CONTROLLER
6.36 Every licensed builder is required to have no fewer than one technical controller, who is a person appointed to supervise the execution and performance of any building works undertaken by the builder. The builder has to appoint an adequate number of technical controllers to ensure that all the building works he undertakes are supervised by a technical controller. Appointment of Technical Controller 6.37 Any technical controller appointed has to be a) b) in the case of a builder who is a natural person, the builder himself or an employee of the builder in the case of a partnership, one of the partners or one of its employees, being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities as a partner or in the case of a corporation, a director of the corporation or a member of its board of management, or one of its employees, being a person employed in such a manner and with such similar duties and responsibilities as a director or member of its board of management.

c)

Qualification and Experience


BCR (LOB) R13, R15

6.38 A technical controller must meet the prescribed training and practical experience summarized in the Table below:

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BCR (LOB) Part II Second Schedule

License Class 1

Training And Practical Experience The technical controller is required to satisfy the following conditions: a) he has a Bachelor or higher degree in a construction-related field and b) he has obtained at least 5 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) after attaining the above qualifications.

Class 2

The technical controller is required to satisfy the following conditions: a) he has a diploma in a construction-related field or any Bachelor or higher degree in a construction-related field and b) he has obtained at least 5 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of construction projects (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) after attaining the above qualifications.

Specialist Builder

The technical controller is required to satisfy the following conditions: a) he has a Bachelor or higher degree in the field of civil or structural engineering from a recognised institution and b) he has obtained at least 5 years (in aggregate) of practical experience in the execution of specialist building works of that class (whether in Singapore or elsewhere) after attaining the above qualifications.

Other Requirements for Technical Controller


BCR (LOB) R7, R8

6.39 A person who is to be appointed as a technical controller of a licensed general builder or licensed specialist builder shall declare that he:

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a)

b)

has not acted as an approved person or the technical controller of a builder whose licence has been revoked in the 12 months preceding the date of the application and is not acting, and for so long as he is the technical controller for the applicant that he does not intend to act, as a technical controller for any other holder of a licence.

Ceasing to be Technical Controller


BCR (LOB) R16

6.40 If, for any reason, any technical controller for a holder of a builders licence becomes unwilling or unable to carry out his duties, the holder of the licence concerned shall notify the Commissioner in writing of the person ceasing to carry out those duties within 28 days after such cessation. Failing to do so is prescribed as an offence under the Building Control (Licensing of Builders) Regulations.

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GLOSSARY

Act S2(1)

There are new definitions in the Building Control (Amendment) Act 2007. Many of them are connected with the new provisions introduced in the Act, like licensing of builders and requirements for underground building works. Some are to make the meanings of the terms used in the Act clearer. This chapter elaborates on the meanings of these definitions. The following Table summarizes and explains all the new definitions, arranged alphabetically.

NEW DEFINITIONS IN THE BUILDING CONTROL ACT builders licence One of the new provisions in the Act is that builders have to be licensed to carry out building works. The builders license is granted under Part VA of the Act. There are two types of licence: the general builders licence and the specialist builders licence. Details on licensing of builders can be found in Chapter 6. building The Act elaborates on the term building because the provisions apply to more than the common meaning of a building. Under the Act, the term refers to any permanent or temporary building or structure and it includes the following: a) b) a hut, shed or roofed enclosure an earth retaining or stabilizing structure, whether permanent or temporary (this includes the temporary earth-retaining structures used to support the sides of any excavation) a dock, wharf or jetty

c)

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d)

e) f)

g) h)

a floating structure, not being a boat or vessel, constructed or to be constructed on a flotation system that i. is or is to be supported by water ii. is not intended for or useable in navigation (boats or vessels used for navigation come under the Maritime and Port Authority) and iii. is or is to be permanently moored a culvert, crossing, bridge, underpass or tunnel a sewage treatment plant, sewer, drain, swimming pool or any non-proprietary type of concrete tank for the storage of any solid, liquid or gaseous product a shelter provided under the Civil Defence Shelter Act (Cap. 42A) such other erection or structure (whether permanent or temporary) as the Minister may, by order published in the Gazette, declare to be a building.

building works The provisions in the Act apply to building works and the term refers to all of the following: a) b) c) the erection, extension or demolition of a building the alteration, addition or repair of a building the provision, extension or alteration of any airconditioning service or ventilating system in or in connection with a building

and includes site formation works connected with or carried out for the purpose of (a), (b) or (c) above. developer A developer, in relation to any building works, means the person for whom or on whose behalf the building works are carried out. It includes a housing developer as defined in the Housing Developers (Control and Licensing) Act as well as a home owner who a) builds on his own, or engages others to build, any building for his own use or for any other purposes and carries out, or engages others to carry out, any building works.

b)

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earth retaining structure This term refers to any structure, structural system or other means used to maintain the shape of an excavation in the ground during construction, earth filling or cutting. It includes all earth retaining structures, whether the structure is to be removed after construction or left in place as part of a permanent structure. general building works This term refers to any building works except those works that are defined as specialist building works. geotechnical aspects For underground building works, there are special requirements relating to the geotechnical aspects of the works. The Act defines the term to mean: a) an analysis of the geological structure and earth materials of the site of the underground building works and its influence on the underground building works an analysis of the groundwater regime and its influence on the wall stability and integrity of the underground building works over time and such other applications of earth sciences to and engineering aspects of the underground building works as may be prescribed.

b)

c)

See Chapter 5 for details on these works. geotechnical engineer In the Act, this term refers to a professional engineer who is registered under the Professional Engineers Act (Cap. 253) as a specialist professional engineer in the specialized branch of geotechnical engineering. He is commonly referred to as the PE (Geo) by the industry. insignificant building works This term is used in the Act to refer to building works given in the First Schedule of the Building Control Regulations (see Schedule A). Insignificant building works may be carried out without any approval of plans or permit from the Commissioner of Building Control.

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key structural elements This term refers to the foundations, columns, beams, shear cores, structural walls, struts, ground anchors and such other parts of a building which are essential for its support and overall structural stability. large building works Large building works are those that have a value of more than $7.5 million. For such works, the Act requires qualified site supervisors to be appointed to carry out full-time supervision of the structural works. limited liability partnership A limited liability partnership is a body corporate which is formed by being registered under the Limited Liability Partnerships Act (Cap. 163A) and which has legal personality separate from that of its partners. This term has the same meaning as that given in section 2(1) of the Limited Liability Partnerships Act (Cap. 163A). This term is used in conjunction with the licensing of builders. major building works The Act uses this term to refer to those works that require an accredited checker to check the structural plans and design calculations. This applies to all works except minor building works. However, if there are underground building works, a specialist accredited checker is required to check the geotechnical aspects of those underground building works, irrespective of whether the works are major or minor. minor building works This term refers to those building works that do not require checking of the structural plans by an accredited checker. Minor building works are given in the Fourth Schedule of the Building Control Regulations (see Schedule B). All underground building works are not considered as minor building works, hence the geotechnical aspects of these underground building works require checking by a specialist accredited checker.

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person responsible This term is used in the Act in relation to an exterior feature of a building. It generally means the owner of the building which the exterior feature is installed on, forms part of or projects outwards from. Exceptions to this general meaning are summarized in Table below.

Description a) Except for a window, grille or shutter that is part of a flat, where the exterior feature is part of the common property of any housing estate of the Housing and Development Board

Person Responsible is either the Housing and Development Board or the Town Council established under the Town Councils Act (Cap. 329A) for that housing estate, as the Minister shall designate for that exterior feature

b) Except for a window, grille or the owner thereof shutter that is part of a flat, where the exterior feature is part of the common property or limited common property of any other land (whether or not comprised in a strata title plan)

c) Where the exterior feature is a window, grille or shutter that is part of a flat in any housing estate of the Housing and Development Board d) Where the exterior feature is a window, grille or shutter that is part of a flat not in any housing estate of the Housing and Development Board

the owner of the flat as defined in the Housing and Development Act (Cap. 129)

the owner of that flat

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qualified site supervisor This term refers to a person appointed (whether alone or as a member of a team of qualified site supervisors) to act as a qualified site supervisor under section 10 of the Act. small-scale building works Small-scale building works are those where the value of the building works does not exceed $7.5 million. The carrying out of structural works in small-scale building works requires only immediate supervision (not full-time) by an appropriate qualified person, a resident engineer or a resident technical officer. specialist accredited checker This term refers to an accredited checker who is registered to undertake duties required for the geotechnical aspects of underground building works. He is commonly referred to as the AC (Geo) by the industry. specialist builder The term refers to any person who is licensed as a specialist builder under Part VA of the Act. There are six types of specialist building works. Each type can only be carried out by a specialist builder licensed in that particular specialist work. specialist building works This term refers to any of the following six types of building works. Each category of works can only be carried out by a specialist builder licensed in that particular category. (1) Piling Works Specialist building works comprising installation and testing of pre-cast reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete piles, steel piles, bored cast-inplace reinforced concrete piles, caissons and special pile types like micro-piles, barrettes piles and composite piles, embedded retaining wall piles like diaphragm walls, contiguous bored piles or secant piles.

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(2) Ground Support and Stabilization Works Specialist building works that include installation and testing of ground anchors, soil nails, rock bolts, ground treatment like chemical grouting and jetgrouting, reinforced-earth, shotcreting and tunnel supports. (3) Site Investigation Works Specialist building works comprising field investigations, exploratory drilling or boring, logging, sampling, coring, in-situ plate-loading tests, pressure meter tests, penetration tests, vane shear tests, probing tests, permeability tests, geological mapping and geophysical surveys, and installation and monitoring of instruments measuring forces, deformation, displacements, pore and earth pressures, and ground-water levels. (4) Structural Steelworks Specialist building works comprising the fabrication of structural elements, erection work like site cutting, site welding and site bolting, and installation of steel supports for underground building works. (5) Pre-cast Concrete Works Specialist building works comprising fabrication of pre-cast structural elements. (6) In-situ Post-tensioning Works Specialist building works comprising the setting out of tendon profiles, laying of conduits, anchorages and bursting reinforcement, pulling or stressing of cables, pressure grouting of conduits. structural elements This term refers to those parts or elements of a building that resist forces and moments, and includes foundations, beams, columns, shear cores, structural walls, struts, ground anchors, slabs, trusses, staircases, load bearing walls and all other elements designed to resist forces and moments. The term specifically excludes doors, windows and non-load bearing walls.

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temporary building A temporary building is any building or structure that is: a) b) constructed of short-lived materials, or permitted by the competent authority or Commissioner of Building Control to be used for a period not exceeding 36 months, or such other period as may be prescribed (if prescribed) in the building regulations.

The Act specifically excludes from this definition any bridge, decking for a bridge, or any earth retaining structure. Building works for a temporary building, and its occupation, are exempted from Part II of the Act. Instead, the construction and occupation of a temporary building need to comply only with the Building Control (Temporary Buildings) Regulations, which involves applying for a permit to erect a temporary building. underground building works This term refers to any of the following building works: a) any excavation or other building works to make i. a tunnel with a diameter, width or height of more than 2 metres ii. a caisson, cofferdam, trench, ditch, shaft or well with a depth of more than 6 metres

b)

any building works for constructing, altering or repairing any earth retaining structure in or for a trench, ditch, shaft or well with a depth or height of more than 6 metres, or such type of foundation works as the Minister may prescribe in the building regulations for buildings of 30 or more storeys (The Minister has prescribed all types of foundation works applicable).

c)

A geotechnical engineer and a specialist accredited checker have to be appointed to undertake duties relating to the geotechnical aspects of underground building works.

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value of building works This term has different meanings for two types of building works as follows: a) for underground building works, the value is the total cost to be expended in carrying out those underground building works, estimated at the time of, and contained in, the application under section 5 of the Act for approval of the plans of those building works, including any goods and services tax payable in relation to the supply of the work. for any other building works, the value is the total cost to be expended in carrying out the building works (including the foundations, basements, structural frame, finishes and the installation of building services) estimated at the time of, and contained in, the application under section 5 of the Act for approval of the plans of the building works, including any goods and services tax payable in relation to the supply of the work.

b)

Essentially, the term refers to the estimated total cost to be expended in carrying out the building works in question. In the case where only underground building works are considered, then the estimated cost is limited to that cost required for carrying out the underground building works alone. This term is relevant as a measure for compliance to several provisions in the Act, such as appointment of accredited checkers and accredited checking organisations, and fixing the minimum number of qualified site supervisors required in the supervision team. EXAMPLE As an example, the value of building works is used to compute the minimum number of qualified site supervisors a qualified person or QP has to appoint for the structural works under his charge. Lets take a case of a building project where the total cost is, say $100 million, inclusive of the total cost of the underground building works of $30 million. If a qualified person is appointed for all aspects (i.e. the structural as

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well as the geotechnical aspects) of the underground building works, the geotechnical QP will appoint qualified site supervisors based on the value of $30 million for the underground building works. The qualified person appointed for the rest of the structural works will appoint qualified site supervisors based on $70 million. If two qualified persons are appointed for the underground building works, i.e. one for the structural aspects and another for the geotechnical aspects, the $30 million value of the underground building works will have to be appropriately apportioned between them to compute their respective number of qualified site supervisors to appoint. The example is based on the arrangement that the various QPs wishes to make their own appointments of qualified site supervisors. However, the Commissioner of Building Control will deem that the supervision team requirements are complied with if the prescribed number of qualified site supervisors based on the total cost of the building works has been appointed and the supervision of the various relevant aspects of the building works are done by the appointed team. This means that as long as the supervision team based on the total value of works has been appointed, all aspects of the works in the project may be supervised by this team, even though there may be different QPs for various aspects of the building works in the project.

***

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SCHEDULES
SCHEDULE A
INSIGNIFICANT BUILDING WORKS
The First Schedule of the Building Control Regulations

BUILDING WORKS THAT DO NOT REQUIRE THE APPROVAL OF PLANS AND PERMIT 1. Building works carried out for or in connection with
(a) (b)

site formation works involving any excavation or filling not exceeding 1,500mm in depth or height any trenches for the purpose of laying sewers not exceeding 1,000 millimetres in diameter in conjunction with any public sewerage system any boundary wall, boundary fence or gate any awning, windowhood or cantilevered roof constructed of glazed or clay tiles, and having a projection not exceeding 1,400 mm any awning, windowhood or cantilevered roof constructed of lightweight material, and having a horizontal projection not exceeding 3,000 mm any single storey trellis, pergola, shelter, gazebo and the like any canal or drain not exceeding 1,500 mm in depth any box culvert with a span not exceeding 5,000 mm and a depth not exceeding 1,500 mm any stall or shed of lightweight material within any premises used for the purpose of holding a trade fair, fun fair or any exhibition any pipe rack or support not exceeding 2,000 mm in height any height restriction gantry

(c) (d)

(e)

(f) (g) (h) (i)

(j) (k)

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SCHEDULE A
(l)

any concrete or brick vault used for housing underground tanks height not exceeding 1,000 mm from the ground level and erected for the purpose of supporting any mechanical plant, tank, equipment, machinery or other components (other than a building)

(m) any plinth, platform or other base with a visible

(n) (o)

the enclosing of a balcony, yard or terrace with windows and glass panels in residential buildings the creation of any opening in a non-load bearing wall or the sealing up of any wall opening, or the demolition, restoration or reinstatement of any non-load bearing wall any retaining wall or earth retaining structure that is constructed with structural steel or reinforced concrete and with a visible height of not more than 1,500 millimetres, or any other retaining wall or earth retaining structure with a visible height of not more than 1,000 millimetres any retaining wall or earth-retaining structure for supporting the face of an excavation made for the purpose of constructing any pile cap, footing, sump, lift pit or trench, provided that the size of the pile cap, footing, sump, lift pit or trench does not exceed 10 square metres in area and 2 metres in depth.

(p) (q)

(r)

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Replacement or changing of windows and doors Replacement of existing floor and wall finishes Replacement or changing of any false ceiling with lightweight material One to one replacement of timber roof and roof covering Erection or alteration of (a) any partition or partition wall in any bungalow, semi-detached, terrace or linked house, or

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SCHEDULE A
(b) any partition or partition wall constructed of lightweight material in any other building 7. 8. Construction of any raised floor or the topping up of balconies, and the like, with lightweight materials Erection of any single storey detached booth, kiosk, guardhouse, bin centre, and the like, not exceeding an area of 10 square metres Installation of any roller shutter or grilled door

9.

10. Erection of any single storey lean-to extension with roof covering of glazed or clay tiles, or of any lighter material, in any bungalow, semi-detached, terrace or linked house, subject to compliance with building setback and area of coverage requirements under the Planning Act (Cap. 232) 11. Erection of any single storey shed or hut not exceeding an area of 10 square metres for housing fuel tanks, mechanical or electrical equipment 12. All air-conditioning works 13. Nothing in this Schedule shall exempt any person from complying with the requirements of any other written law 14. In this Schedule "lightweight material" means (a) any sheet or board material such as timber board, plywood, fibreboard, plasterboard, aluminium sheet, corrugated metal sheet or polycarbonate sheet (b) any concrete product made with lightweight aggregates such as pumice, perlite or vermiculite, or (c) any hollow concrete block, hollow glass block, autoclaved aerated concrete block and the like "non-load bearing wall" means a wall which supports no load other than its own weight "partition" means a temporary or easily removable vertical panel of lightweight construction for the subdivision of spaces within a building.

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SCHEDULE B
MINOR BUILDING WORKS
The Fourth Schedule of the Building Control Regulations BUILDING WORKS THAT DO NOT REQUIRE THE CERTIFICATE OF AN ACCREDITED CHECKER 1. Building works for or in connection with
(a)

(b)

(c) (d)

(e)

(f) (g)

(h) (i) (j)

(k)

detached houses, semi-detached houses, terraced or linked houses for residential purposes not exceeding 3 storeys detached substations not exceeding 2 storeys, detached bin centres, detached guard houses and the like retaining walls and earth stabilizing structures not exceeding a visible height of 4m shophouses not exceeding 2 storeys (where attic or basement floor exceeding an area of 100 m2 shall be considered as a storey) single storey buildings, sheds and the like where the span of beams or roof trusses is not more than 6m and the floor area is not more than 150 m2 underground tank, swimming pool and the like not exceeding a depth of 4m single storey covered walkway, car parking shed and the like where the span of the beams or roof trusses is not more than 6m or the span of any cantilever is not more than 3m box culverts, canal crossings or link bridges with spans not exceeding 5m chimneys, lighting masts and the like not exceeding 20m in height foundation for above ground tank structure where the length, width or diameter of the foundation does not exceed 6m foundation for gantry cranes with capacity not exceeding 3 tonnes and the span between supports not exceeding 6m in any direction

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SCHEDULE C
SCOPE OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE
The Third Schedule of the Building Control Regulations

No qualified person shall prepare or sign the plans of building works


(a) for any of the projects listed in Part I unless he is a

professional engineer (b) for any of the projects listed in Part II unless he is a professional engineer or an architect except that for structural components and works relating to such projects, the structural plans shall be prepared by a professional engineer, and (c) for any other project not listed in Parts I and II unless he is an architect except that for structural components and works relating to such projects, the structural plans shall be prepared by a professional engineer PART I
(a) Airport runways, taxiways and aprons (b) Bridges, causeways, tunnels and underpasses (c) Bulk handling complexes (d) Chimneys (e) Claddings and curtain walls (f) Crane gantries (g) Concrete tanks (h) Culverts (i) Dry docks, jetties, quays, slipways, harbours, wharves

and marine structures (j) Retaining wall and stabilizing earth structures (k) Site formation works, foundations and plinths (l) Transmission towers PART II
(a) Alterations, additions and extensions to detached, semi-

detached and terraced houses


(b) Alterations and additions within existing buildings which do

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SCHEDULE C
not affect the building envelope (c) Bus depots and train depots (d) Cable car stations and towers (e) Electric substations (f) Power stations (g) Grandstands and sports stadium (h) Helicopter ports (i) Industrial buildings (j) Marinas (k) Petrol service stations (l) Pumping stations (m) Satellite tracking stations (n) Shipyards (o) Silos (p) Swimming pools (q) Warehouses and godowns (r) Pedestrian overhead bridges (s) Farm structures

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SCHEDULE D
TASKS THAT MUST BE CARRIED OUT BY ACCREDITED CHECKERS
The Second Schedule of the Building Control (Accredited and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations The accredited checker in relation to any plans of building works (but not the geotechnical aspects of any underground building works comprised in those building works) shall a) determine and use the Code of Practice adopted in the preparation of the structural design in the plans of building works b) check the design loadings and, where applicable, wind loading c) ascertain the design assumptions and limitations of the computer program used in the analysis of the structural design d) use appropriate engineering information and models in the analysis for the structural design e) check the standards and specifications of materials to be used in the building works f) ascertain the structural design concept used and identify the key structural elements g) determine the stability and robustness of the structural system, including considerations for lateral loads, lateral ties, bracings and lateral transfer of loads h) analyse all key structural elements and the foundation system of the building to be erected or affected by building works carried out in accordance with the plans of building works i) analyse all piles used in foundations, including considerations for structural capacity, geotechnical capacity, lateral load effects, uplift effects, pile group effects, differential settlement of supporting structures, negative skin friction effects and pile joint capacities j) analyse all earth retaining structures, including considerations for surcharge loads, overburden

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SCHEDULE D
pressure and water pressure k) analyse all columns and vertical key structural elements, including considerations for axial loads, lateral loads and bending moments l) analyse all long span steel trusses and long span beams, including considerations for lateral stability and torsional capacity m) analyse all transfer beams, including considerations for torsional capacity, lateral stability and the effects of the structural frames to which they are connected n) analyse all joint connections, including connections between structural elements and between the structural element and its supports o) check the structural detailing in drawings and ensure that these are consistent with the design calculations and p) determine the adequacy of other aspects of the design which are peculiar to the building to be erected or affected by the building works and which are essential to the structural integrity of the building.

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SCHEDULE E
TASKS THAT MUST BE CARRIED OUT BY SPECIALIST ACCREDITED CHECKERS
The Third Schedule of the Building Control (Accredited and Accredited Checking Organisations) Regulations The specialist accredited checker in relation to the geotechnical aspects of any underground building works shall (a) in respect of any excavation or other building works to construct a tunnel with a diameter, width or height of more than 2 metres (i) review the adequacy of the site investigation, namely type, extent (which shall include quantity, location and depth) and laboratory tests results relating to the design and construction of the tunnel; (ii) review the site investigation results and the geotechnical parameters for the design, taking into consideration onerous water conditions, seepage pressures, surcharge, earth, water, construction and accidental loadings; (iii) review the method or model adopted for the analysis and design including the consideration of drained, undrained and consolidation analyses, and appropriate drainage conditions; (iv) review the suitability of tunnelling methods, sequence of construction and tunnel support systems (including face pressures and ground support systems) to be applied; (v) review allowable limits of ground deformation and changes in groundwater and piezometric levels, and measures to control groundwater where required; (vi) review the stability of excavation and ground stabilization or improvement works as appropriate; (vii) review soil or rock reinforcement, where applicable, including the consideration of the structural and geotechnical capacity; (viii) review the adequacy of instrumentation and

121

SCHEDULE E
monitoring of geotechnical engineering parameters (such as tunnel face pressures, pore pressures, water table level, ground deformation and stresses), including the consideration of location, type and number of instruments, and frequency of monitoring and reporting; and review the instrumentation and monitoring results, and performance, and ground conditions at the site to ensure that there is no inadequacy in the geotechnical aspects during construction if carried out in accordance with the plans of the underground building works;

(ix)

(b) in respect of any excavation or any building works for constructing, altering or repairing any earth retaining structure (including earth slopes) in or for a caisson, cofferdam, trench, ditch, shaft or well with a depth of more than 6 metres (x) review the adequacy of the site investigation, namely type, extent (which shall include quantity, layout and depth) and laboratory tests results relating to the design and construction of the earth retaining structure (including earth slopes); (xi) review the site investigation results and the geotechnical parameters for the design of the earth retaining structure, including consideration of onerous water conditions, seepage pressures, surcharge, earth, water, construction and accidental loadings; (xii) review the method or model adopted for the analysis and design, including the consideration of drained, undrained and consolidation analyses, and appropriate drainage conditions; (xiii) review the suitability of earth retaining structure types and scheme, and the method and sequence of construction to be applied; (xiv) review the stability of the excavation work, taking into consideration groundwater, drainage and seepage conditions, basal heave, hydraulic uplift and piping, and any ground stabilization or improvement works as appropriate; (xv) review allowable limits of ground deformation and

122

SCHEDULE E
changes in groundwater and piezometric levels, and measures to control groundwater where required; (xvi) review the design of tie-backs, soil or rock reinforcement, where applicable, including the consideration of the structural and geotechnical capacity; (xvii) review the instrumentation and monitoring of geotechnical engineering parameters (such as pore pressures, water table levels, ground deformation and stresses), including the consideration of location, type and number of instruments, and frequency of monitoring and reporting; (xviii) review the instrumentation and monitoring results and performance of the earth retaining structure (including any earth slope), and ground conditions at the site to ensure that there is no inadequacy in the geotechnical aspects during construction if carried out in accordance with the plans of the underground building works; and (xix) review the adequacy of the founding or penetration depth of any embedded earthretaining wall; (c) in respect of such type of foundation works for buildings of 30 or more storeys (i) where caissons, rafts or piled-raft foundation are adopted (A) review the adequacy of the site investigation, namely type, extent (which shall include quantity, layout and depth) and laboratory tests results relating to the design and construction of the caisson, raft or piled-raft foundation; (B) review the site investigation results and the geotechnical parameters (such as soil strength and deformation characteristics, pile shaft friction, downdrag, pile base resistance or bearing pressures and pile lateral geotechnical capacity) for the design of the foundation, taking into consideration the onerous water conditions, seepage pressures, and loads from

123

SCHEDULE E
surcharge, earth, water and construction; (C) review the method or model adopted for the analysis and design, including the consideration of drained, undrained and consolidation analyses, and appropriate drainage conditions; (D) review the adequacy of the foundation type and the method of construction to be applied; (E) where applicable, review the negative shaft friction; (F) review the stability of excavation for the caisson or raft during construction, taking into consideration groundwater, drainage and seepage conditions, basal heave, hydraulic uplift and piping, and any ground stabilization or improvement works as appropriate; (G) review the forces and deformation of the raft or pile-raft foundation and stability of the foundation, including the consideration of short-term and long-term conditions; (H) review the results of load tests to ensure that pile shaft friction, base resistance, pile movement and other appropriate geotechnical parameters are consistent with the design; (I) review allowable limits for foundation movement; (J) review the adequacy of the founding or penetration depth to ensure that the geotechnical aspects are within the design; and (K) review the ground conditions at site and test results for the design and construction of the caisson, raft or piledraft foundation to ensure that there is no inadequacy in the geotechnical aspects if carried out in accordance with the plans of the underground building works; (ii) where jacked-in piles or driven piles or bored cast in-place piles or barrettes are adopted (A) review the adequacy of the site investigation including the extent (which shall include the quantity, layout and depth) and laboratory tests results relating to the design and construction of the piled foundation; (B) review the site investigation results and the geotechnical parameters, such as soil strength and deformation characteristics, negative skin friction or downdrag, pile shaft friction, founding depth, pile base resistance, pile

124

SCHEDULE E
group effects, settlement, bearing capacity, and where applicable, lateral geotechnical capacity; (C) review the load tests results to ensure that the pile shaft friction, founding depth, base resistance, pile movement, and other appropriate geotechnical parameters are within the design; (D) review the adequacy of founding or penetration depth of piles; and (E) review the ground conditions at site and test results for the design and construction of the piled foundation with a view to determining whether there is any inadequacy in the geotechnical aspects if carried out in accordance with the plans of the underground building works.

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