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BIOLOGY

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.[1] Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines. Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology:[2] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cells are the basic unit of life New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution Genes are the basic unit of heredity An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition Living organisms consume and transform energy.

Subdisciplines of biology are recognized on the basis of the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues, organs, and organ systems of an organism; and ecology examines how various organisms interact and associate with their environment.

IMPORTANCE OF BIOLOGY TO OUR DAILY LIFE

Agriculture plays great role narrating the importance of biology in our daily lives. Agriculture is largely the result of mans taking the advantage of the inter relations of soil, climate and natural habitat to select those particular combinations that meet his basic requirements. Thus to provide necessary food, man depends entirely on green plants that can alone capture the solar energy. High yielding varieties of crop plants like rice, wheat, jute, sugar cane, pulses etc are now bred experimentally. Disease resistant grains and verbalized seeds are made. Biological control strategies are undertaken as pest control emphasizing the importance of biology in our daily lives. Modern man does not depend on fishing and hunting like our ancestors and instead rears fishes as well as cattle and various other domestic animals to get food and other necessities of life. This has resulted in the development of fishery and animal husbandry. The importance of biology in our daily lives lies in the production of clothings and timber for making furnitures, in supplied raw materials for paper, dyes, etc. Fossils are important in locating underground oil and natural gas reserves. Even coal and mineral oil formed from decomposed plant bodies are key to industrial prosperity. Medical advancement also shows the importance of biology in our daily lives. The study of dreaded diseases, their causative agents, cure as well as the actions of drugs are a way of biological enlightenment that strives minimizing human suffering. Importance of biology in our daily lives also lies in finding and curing hereditary abnormalities like haemophilia, Downs syndrome,etc. Biology aims in making effort to better human race through eugenics. Biology study has a vital role in controlling environmental pollution and attracted sense of art and beauty.

UNIFYING IDEAS IN BIOLOGY


1. Emergent Properties - all life forms show hierarchy of organization extending from organic molecules to the ecosystem. 2. Cells- cell theory states that cells are the basic unit of life, of which all living things are composed, and that all cells are derived from preexisting cells. Two main cell types are Eukaryotic (Fungi, Plants, Animals and Protists) and Prokaryotic (Eubacteria, Archaebacteria) 3. Heritable Information- DNA codes for the continuity of life, the basic genetic code lies in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA. These nucleotides (arranged as genes) dictate the specific proteins of a given species. 4. Form and Function- are complimentary at every level of biological organization. Life's structures are the bases for life's functions. If you don't understand something's function, analyze its form, and vis versa. 5. All life forms are dependent upon interactions with their abiotic and biotic components. Organisms are open systems exchanging energy and nutrients with their environment. Nutrients cycle, energy flows. Ex, energy from the sun goes to producers to consumers and dissipates as heat. Life depends on energy sources. 6. Regulation- all functional aspects of life's chemistry must be regulated to maintain homeostasis. Feedback mechanisms are often integrated into the organism. 7. Unity and Diversity- diversity in the varying forms of life (three domains- Eukarya, Archaea, Eubacteria). Unity is found in many shared biochemical processes, such as, a common genetic code, or the basic chemistry of cell respiration. 8.Genetic change through time- Evolution, brought on by mutation and natural selection account for much of the unity and diversity in life. 9. Science includes observation based discovery and the testing of hypotheses through experimentation. Data analysis includes statistical studies to validate hypothesis. Statistical analysis, T-Score, and other calculations. 10. Science, Technology and society- many technologies are based upon scientific discovery and a desire to solve a problem.

BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY
These are the main branches of biology:

Aerobiology the study of airborne organic particles Agriculture the study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications Anatomy the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans Arachnology the study of arachnids

Astrobiology the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universealso known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy Biochemistry the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level Bioengineering the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology Biogeography the study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally Bioinformatics the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data Biomathematics (or Mathematical biology) the quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling Biomechanics often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics Biomedical research the study of the human body in health and disease Biophysics the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences Biotechnology a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology Building biology the study of the indoor living environment Botany the study of plants Cell biology the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell Conservation biology the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife Cryobiology the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings Developmental biology the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure Ecology the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the nonliving elements of their environment Embryology the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth) Entomology the study of insects Environmental biology the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity Epidemiology a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations Epigenetics the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence Ethology the study of animal behavior Evolutionary biology the study of the origin and descent of species over time Genetics the study of genes and heredity Herpetology the study of reptiles and amphibians Histology the study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy Ichthyology the study of fish Integrative biology the study of whole organisms Limnology the study of inland waters Mammalogy the study of mammals Marine biology (or Biological oceanography) the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings Microbiology the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things

Molecular biology the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry Mycology the study of fungi Neurobiology the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology Oncology the study of cancer processes, including virus or mutation oncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remoldings Ornithology the study of birds Population biology the study of groups of conspecific organisms, including o Population ecology the study of how population dynamics and extinction o Population genetics the study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms Paleontology the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life Pathobiology or pathology the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease Parasitology the study of parasites and parasitism Pharmacology the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines Physiology the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms Phytopathology the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology) Psychobiology the study of the biological bases of psychology Sociobiology the study of the biological bases of sociology Structural biology a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules Virology the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents Zoology the study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior (branches include: Entomology, Ethology, Herpetology, Ichthyology, Mammalogy, and Ornithology)