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7714327 10.01.2003
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, 2003

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

www.lightwaverussia.com

No. 102

We are honored and pleased to launch this Russian


language edition in cooperation with High Technolo
gy Publishers. The optical fiber market in Russia is
expected to grow about 20% from about 680 Thou
sand kilometers of raw fiber to about 900 Thousand
kilometers in 2004. We anticipate that Lightwave
Russian Edition will play an important role in the de
velopment of this market, in part by introducing
overseas technology and products to network ope
rators, equipment providers and distributors in the Russian Federation.
Welcome to Russian first fiber optics communications magazine!


Lightwave,
(). , 
20%, 680 2002 . 900
2004 .
, Lightwave Russian Edition 
,
, 
.
, 
 !

David Janoff,

Senior Vice President


of PennWell's Advanced Technology Division.
djanoff@pennwell.com


PennWell
djanoff@pennwell.com

The advance of optical communications technology


is a global phenomenon. While each country re
presents a unique communications environment,
developers and planners around the world face a
similar set of questions: Is optical technology the
right choice for my application? If so, how do I cho
ose the right architecture and the right supplier? If
I develop optical communications equipment, how
do I design my product to meet my customer's ne
eds with the greatest efficiency and the lowest cost? In Russia, the time
has arrived for a magazine that helps to answer these common ques
tions within the region's unique context. Lightwave Russian Edition is
that publication.
In fact, it is our hope that Lightwave RE will in many ways be a partner
with you in your optical endeavors. The Russian optical communications
market is growing, and we at Lightwave and Lightwave RE wish to help
you participate in this growth. Together, we can achieve great success.


. ,

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Lightwave Russian Edition.
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Stephen Hardy
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Lightwave
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Lightwave
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1. Chuyanov V. et al. OC48 600 km transmission over SMF28 using Di


rectly Modulated Packaged External Cavity Laser, Proceedings of
ECOC, 1.2.3, Copenhagen, 2002.
2. Sabinin N.K., Gladychevskii M.A., Leontiev K.G., Scherbatkin D.D.,
Nanii O.E., Belov K.N., Savochkin I.A. Dispersion reduction in optical fib
er communication lines with directly modulated lasers. Technical digest,
LAT 2002, Moscow, June 2002, p.197.
3. Dokhane N., Lippi G.L. Appl. Phis. Lett., 78, 3938 (2001).
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Proceedings of ECOC, 2.1.3, Copenhagen, 2002.


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.

1. Mears R.J., Reekie L., Jancie I.M., and


Payne D.N., Highgain rareearth doped fib
er amplifier at 1.54 mm, in Optical Fiber
Communication Conference, Vol.3, 1987
OSA Technical Digest Series, (Optical Socie
ty of America, Washington, DC., 1987) p.167.
2. Desurvire E.E., Simpson R.J., and
Becker P.C., Highgain Erbium doped tra
velingwave fiber amplifier, Opt. Lett., v.12,
pp.888890, 1987.
3. Mears R.J., Reekie L., Jancie I.M., and
Payne D.N., Low noise erbiumdoped fiber
amplifier opersting at 1.54 mm, Elect. Lett.,
v.23, pp.10261028, 1987.
4 .Zyskind J.L., Nagel J.A., and Kidorf H.D.,
Erbiumdoped fiber amplifiers for optical
communications, in Optical Fiber Telecom
munications, v. IIIB, edited by I.P. Kaminov
and T.L. Koch, Academic Press, San Diego,
1997, pp.1368.
5. Desurvire E. Erbiumdoped fiber amplifiers.
A WileyInterscience publication, 1994.
6. .., .., ..,
..

. ,
1996, .23, .10591064.
7. .., .., ..,
.., .. 


,
, 1997, . 24, . 151154.

www.lightwaverussia.com

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;

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


.



. 

622 / 2,5 /.




5 10 .
, 

 11 / [8]

, 
SAT3/WASL
28 . [9] 
.

1. Signal Channel 160 Gbit/s (40 Gbit/s


x4) 300 km Transmission Using EA
Modulator based OTDM module and
40 GHz External Cavity Modelocked
LD. Murai, Hitoshi at al ECOC 2002,
Copenhagen, Sept. 2002 SS.2.1.
2. 1,28 Tbit/s 70 km OTDM transmission
with a phase thirb and fourth order si
multaneously dispersion compensation
with a phase modulator Yamamoto
T., Tamura K.R. Electronics Letters
2000 V.36 N24, p.2027 2028.
3. 45.286.2002 

. 
.
4. Ultra Low Loss 10,151 dB/km) Fiber
and its Impact on Submarine Transmis
sion Systems. K. Nagayama, T. Saitoh
at al OFC 2002, USA Postdidline Pa
pers.
5. Ulyra Low Nonlinearity PureSilicaCore
Fiber with an Effective Area of 211
mm2 and Transmission Loss of 0,159
dB/km. Masno Trukitani, Masahiko Mat
sui at al ECOC 2002, Copenhagen,
Sept. 2002, SS.6.3.
6. Optical 3R regeneration with alloptical
timing extraction and simultaneous wa
velength conversion using a single
ElectroAbsorbtion Modulator. Awad
Ehab, Goldhar, Julius at al ECOC 2002,
Copenhagen, Sept. 2002, SS.6.3.
7. Novel 3R Regenerator architecture with
wavelength flexible output. Sartorius
Bernd, Slovak Juray (Germany) ECOC
2002.
8. 1092 Tbit/s, 273 Channel, 40 Gbit/s per
channel spacing bandwidth efficiency
50 GHz. Fucuchi R. et al NEC Corpora
tion, OFC Post diadline, OFC 2001.
9. 20000 km under the sea. Mark Telford
LIGHTWAVE EUROPE October 2002,
pp. 3031.

www.lightwaverussia.com

21

WDM


EDFA
.. , ...., , rustam@tt.ru

, 

DWDM, 

. 10 

2,5 1600 /, ..
1000 .
10
20
 
.

()
: 
, 
, 
. 
, 
, 
.

, 

. 

, 
 
.

.1.

 
Standard
Telephones and Cables 
1975 . 1977 . 

,

.
AT&T, General Telephone and
Electronics, British Post Office . 
(MMF)

. 
( G.651)

, 
850 [1].

(3 /),

.

,

.

SSF,
G.652, , 

1300
. 


.1.  ( )

22

www.lightwaverussia.com


.

.


, 
1300 


.

MCI
1982 . MCI, 
1300 , 
50% , 
AT&T,

, 850 1300 . MCI

7 30 ! 


.
, 
,

.







.
() ,

. 


.
1988 .

, AT&T, 

TAT8, 3
,
1300
60 .

 
.
:
MMF 
SSF 
DSF 

NZDSF.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

WDM

:
 
DBR  DFB  VCSEL.
:
850  1300  1550  
C (1530 1565 )  
C L (15301625 ).
:
 , 
WDM: 850 , 1300 ,
1550  
CWDM (4, 8 ) 

DWDM (16, 32, 40, 96, 192 ).
:
NRZ  RZ 
 RZ.
:

  
 
 3R.
:
2 /  34 /  155 / 
622 /  2,5 /  10 / 
40 /  160 /.
:
 
/ 

.

0,20,25 / 
, 1550 . 
, 
, 1310 .

, 
,
.

(DSF, 
G.653). ,

1550 , 
.

DWDM EDFA
DSF. ,
, 
,
, 
, 
EDFA. 
.


DSF:

. 

,



.
1994 .
(NZDSF,

G.655), 

EDFA.

. , 
,



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1998 . 
NZDSF

.

, 



.


(EDFA)

,

. 

,

. 
,


.
1990 . 
,
(EDFA),

.
, EDFA 

.


. , 
. ,


()

. ,


,

, . 

, 

, 
.





, 
.
G (gain) 
g = 10lgG []

G = PS out PS in , g = pS out pS in ,
(1)
PS in PS out () 
(
,

p = 10lg(P/1 ) []). 
EDFA

. 
.

, , ,

( . [3]).
.2

. (
) 

.
1550
.2.
, 
EDFA, Pout sat
. Pout sat
,
G
(g 3 ) 
Gmax, 

.2. EDFA :
) ;
) 1550 .
0

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

www.lightwaverussia.com

23

WDM

.
,
,
, 

Pout sat .


.

,

(OSNR). OSNR

,

. OSNR
, 


BER.

OSNR .
 NF (noise figure) ,

, 

(OSNRin)  
(OSNRout):
PS in
PS out
OSNRin
NF =
= .
(2)
PN out
OSNRout
PN in
, 
,

, ..
,

PN in = h,
h ,
.
.

/ ,
,
OSNRin = PS in h.


PASE (amplified spontaneous
emission) ,
:
PN out = PASE + h

PASE [2]
PASE = 2nsp (G 1)h,
(3)
nsp 
. nsp = 1. 

. ,
PS out PS in = G,  (2) 


1
NF = (1+ 2nsp (G 1)),
G


PASE = (NF.G 1)h.
(4)

EDFA 
,
, : nf = 10lgNF.
G >>1 NF = 2nsp. , 

 ( 
) NF 2 (nf = 3 )
nsp = 1.
 NF
, 
G1 G2
 NF1 NF2

NF2 1
NF = NF1 + .
(5)
G1


 n 
,

.


:



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.

.


,

. 
EDFA

: EDFA

NF1, 


. 
 
,
980 ,

[3]. 


1480 . 

.





. 

, 
.


, Namp 

G
nsp (.3).

,
1/G.
.

,
, 

[4].

:
.
,
..
. ,


.

24

www.lightwaverussia.com

.3. SNR

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

WDM

Pin
1
= . . (7)
h
2Namp NF.G
, 
1550 ,
12,5 (
0,1 ),
(7) 

,

osnrout = 58 + pin g nf 10lgNamp ,


(8)
pin [] 
; g [] 
; nf [] .

, 
(8)
.
, ,
,
OSNRout 

25%, 3 
. , ..
(8) 
, 
/ 3
.
,

.
, (8) ,
OSNRout 

Pin , , 
, 

.
, 

/
(.3).
(8) , 

l 

: g = al,
Namp = L / l:
osnrout = 58+pin al nf 10lg(L/l).

/ .


 
.

. 
,

[5].
.4 OSNRout


.
15, 20, 25 30 
60, 80, 100 120 . , 
.4, DWDM

.

(10 / ) OSNRout
[6].

OSNR .
OSNR
1 , .. ,
NF 1
. , 
NF
3 .
, 
46 ,
.



.  
(5),
NF
.


,
,
, 

SNR,


Pin ( 
).

. 


, Namp 
PASE N_amp = Namp 2nsp (G 1)h, .3.

Namp

h. / 

Pin
1
OSNRout = . (6)
h
2Namp nsp (G 1)+1



/ (OSNRout ). 
Namp (G 1), 
, . 

,
G = exp(aL / [Namp10lg(e)]) = exp(0,23aL / Namp )

g = 10lg G = aL / Namp ,
a [/] 
, L / Namp 
. Namp (G 1) 
, 
aL(10lg(e))  0,23aL Namp, 
(.. G 
, (G 1)
Namp ).
, 


. , ,
.

,
, 
,

, , . 

40100 .



. (6)

Pin
1
OSNRout = . =
h
2Namp nsp G

.4. OSNRout
, 15, 20, 25 30 .
0 ,  5

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

www.lightwaverussia.com

25

WDM

, 

. 


 ,
 

 
.
 1

1 ,
, 

.
OSNR
.


ASE 
.
.

L0 = 1000 N0 = 10
= 0,2 /. 

N, 
OSNR 2000 .
.

OSNR 1000 2000 .
(8)
g + 10lgN = g0 + 10lgN0 ,
g0 = L0 / N0 = 20 ,
g = 2 L0 / N = 400/N,
N:
400 /N + 10lgN = 30 , 
N = 25.
100 80 .

Q

, 
BER 
,

.
,
.


( BER=1011 BER=1015) .
.

,




,
0 1 (.5).

.

: , 
,
,

26

www.lightwaverussia.com

.5.  RZ ( )
. 

. 

: 0 , 1 , 
0 1, 
0 , 1 . ,
BER 
, , 
Q, 

1 0
Q = ,
(9)
1 + 0
OSNR , 
.
,

(ASE),
OSNR,
Q
[5].
Q2Be
OSNR = ,
(10)
B0
B0
12,5 (~0,1 ), Be
,
m = I0 / I1 ,
( I0, I1 0 1
). , (10)
,
,

0.

BER Q 
.
BER,
(11)

( )

1
Q
exp( Q2 / 2)
BER(Q) = erfc  , (11)
2
2
Q 2
Q.
BER =1,011
Q=16,53.
Q 

q = 20lgQ [], . 1.
, 20 ( 10) 
, (10) OSNR 
Q.


Q, q []
6,00
7,00
8,00
9,00
10,00
11,00
12,00
13,00
14,00
15,00
16,00
17,00
18,00

BER
2,73.102
1,45.102
6,77.103
2,67.103
8,50.104
2,08.104
3,63.105
4,15.106
2,80.107
9,64.109
1,43.1010
7,38.1013
1,00.1015

1. BER 
Q

(8) (10)
,
OSNR Q .



, 

. 

/. 
OSNRout 
BER
, 

, 
EDFA,
. 

, ,

.

FEC
, , 
BER
SNR, ..

.

, .6:
FEC,
, 
,


LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

WDM

RS(255,251)
RS(255,239)
RS(255,223)

1,6%
6,7%
14,3%


144,0 /
32,4 /
13,2 /

2. 
,
Pentium PIV, 2

.6. FEC


.
FEC 
, 
,

.


OSNRout , , 
, 

(.7).


 .

FEC. , 
Fast Ethernet,
Gigabit Ethernet

25%, 
4B/5B 8B/10B.
10 Gigabit Ethernet 
: 64B/66B (
3%)
8B/10B (25%)
. ,
Ethernet (10/100/1000/)
.
, IEEE 802.3

CRC, 
4 . 
64
1518 ( ,
, 
CRC, 
)
CRC 0,266,67%.
SDH
B1 (
) B2 () SDH
.


out of band FEC ITU G.975 (1999),

RS(255,239). FEC 
9,95 10,66 /
BER 105 1015, 
SNR

6 . FEC, RS(255,239).


. 
G.975 FEC,
,
.
, FEC

. 

, .. 
.
, 
FEC DWDM

.
FEC
STM1/4/16, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet.


FEC




(ReedSolomon) RS(n,k) s
,
RS(255,251), RS(255,239), RS(255,223) c 
(s = 8) . 
, FEC 
k
s nk 
, k.s ,
.
n, 
k 
nk
.
, ,
t ,
t = (n k)/2. 

.
(n k)/k. 


.
.
. 2 

Pentium PIV, 2 . 

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

, ,

. 

.

.

RS(n,k) 
(nk)/2
 
n .
,
FEC.

.


. , 
RS(n,k),


.
,
, 
.



.
FEC
OSNR, .. 

OSNR 
BER .
BER 1011 Q
16,5 , . 1. .8 
BER Q
( BER 
,
Q) , 
, FEC 7% 23%. FEC 23%
BER 1011
q = 8,4 .
8,1 (16,58,4 ).
, 23%
.
,


,
10lg(1,23) 0,9 .
,
7,2 .
, 
FEC, ,
q = 3 . , 
OSNR 
3 ( )
BER. 
(8),

www.lightwaverussia.com

27

WDM

3 , , 

, .

, 
,
 

.
7,2
!


. 

1000 .
, EDFA
, , 
,


60 120 .

.7. FEC

1. Frank G. Wakeham , Corning Inc., Backbone


to the future Traditionally, longhaul net
works served as the proving ground for
technologies that migrated to other parts of
the network, Lightwave, September 2001.
2. / .
. .: , 1991. 575 .
3. .., .. 
 , Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2003, .1419.
4. Rajiv Ramaswami, Kumar N. Sivarajan
Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective,
Academic Press, 1998, 632 pp.
5.
, Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2003, . 8.
6. Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB,
edited by Ivan Kaminow and Tigye Li, Aca
demic Press, 2002, 1022 pp.

.8. FEC
7 23%

.. , .. ,
.. ,


,



.


, 
INTERNET 
,
ETHERNET, 
.

28

www.lightwaverussia.com

,

,

, 
. 



(WDW DWDM).
WDM
CWDM (Coarse WDM), 

, 
/ 

. WDM

,

.

,
. 
[1, 2].

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

WDM

.

: 
, 


;
 

()
( ).


(), 



(1N), .
,

1N 

. 
/ 

(),
() ,
.
. 1


()
.

SDH 
, 
1 
1 (.) 2 2 (.). 

.
3
4 3 4.
,
1i 3
3,
km, k=i+1,
3 ,

km 
3.
,

. 2.  , 
()

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4. ,

,
, 
, 
. ,



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. ,
[3],
32 

3 5 .


,
, 
.


. , 
,
.

/
[4],
. 2. 
 (), 

. 1.  , 
()

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

Y,
, .

, 
, , 
. 

1i,
km pj, 
1i , km pj, 
km. 
1, 2 3
1, 2 3
, j. 
 ()

, ,

, .
 


, .
,
4080 
, 4 16
. 1990
. 20011030
.
,
, 
.

1. 168  Gbit/s OTDM Wavelength Conversion


using an SMZ  TYPE alloptical switch. Y.
Ueno, S. Nakamura et al. ECOC2000, Mu
nich, Germany, Proceedings V.1.
2. Design Model for Transparent WDM Pacbat
Switched Irregular Networks. Gerardo Casta
non. ECOC2000, Munich, Germany, Proce
edings V.2.
3. NELL () 2000 .
4.  

. .., 
.., .. 2 .. .
( 91) 2125 
, 1991 ., , . 122123.

www.lightwaverussia.com

29

No. 110

.. , ...,
, rtcom@ssktb.ru




, 


,
.




. 


.




. 


, 
,





.




. 


.



.
,
(
),

( ) 
. , ,



,
. , 



(Fujikura),
 G.652 [1].


(Corning), ,
 G.652/G655.





.



. ,


, 

.




.


, 
. , 

,

, 

.

: 
( 4 
[]  2,7 , 3 
[ ]  7 , 2 [ ] 
20 , 1 [ ] 80 ), 

. 



.



.


.
, () 

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


, , 


() 
, 

.




( 6 
).



. 

,

. 

,

.



. 1991 . 

,

 .




.


,
1995 .
 
. 

1996 . 

, 
. 

, 


, 
. 

www.lightwaverussia.com

31

,
: 


.



 . 
: 

1. 
, 

. 1998 . 


8 . . ,


 . 2000 .


35 . . 

32

www.lightwaverussia.com


. 225 .
190 . 

. 

,


. ,
225 . 
,


.
, 



. ,



( 


45 . ).


, , 

. 


.
,
, 
, 
,



.
2000 . 


 ,

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

. 



.


.



, 
.
, 


. , 



.


1, 


 .



.






.

, 1992 .

, 


.


 G.652, .. , 

1,31 , 

1,55 .
 G.653,
1,55 , 
.

, 
( 
, ), 
G.652, 


. ,
, 




. 
, 
G.653 
,

. ,
G.652 
.


 G.655

,


.
= 1,55 


. 
, 
100150
, 

() 
. , 34
G.652,

.

,
, 
256 STM16 
150 .
, 
( )

G.652. 

( 

).


Siemens,
Sie
mens G.652 Siecor. 
Siemens
3,5 . ,

3,5 . 
Siecor.

2,5 .
Fujikura, , 
Fujikura G.652
.
G.652 Siecor,
Fujikura, Corning , 

1996 .,

Fujikura. ,
, , 
,
, 
Fujikura
,

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


, , 

19972000 . Fujikura

, 
, Fujikura
.


G.652
Fujikura.

, .
, 
G.652
Corning, .
, 
, 
. ,
, 
, 
Alcatel, Corning, Pirelli
.
, , 
,
G.652


.


Cor
ning, Fujikura, Lucent Technologies
. 


. 
, 



.

Corning, Fujikura, Lucent Technolo
gies

40
.
,
40 ,
.






.

, 

,
( , 1,2 ). 


, 

www.lightwaverussia.com

33


. 
50 ,


.


,
.
, ,
, 

(
1/2
) . 

( )

. 


( ) 

. 
, 


, 
( , 
)


. 
.


,
.

.
,


.


.
, 

105 ,
. 
, 
, 
.
, 

: ;
; 
, 
;
, 


; 
, ,
,
.


,

No. 111
34

www.lightwaverussia.com


( 
OPGW).
OPGW 
. 
,


60 70 . , 


60 70 .
,



, .


OPGW, 
.




.

, 
. , 
, , 

. 


,
.
, 

, 

,

.



, 
, 
,
.


, 


. , 


.
.


.

. 

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


.
.


, 
, .

Q, 
1995 . 

Siemens, . Q

. 
:


,


50 ;
( 
)
,

;



,

;

;



: 

.
, 



( 

).
, 


. ,

.


, 
.

,
, 
,
.





,

:
1, 
,
,
. 

. 
. 
, 


,
.

  

,

.


.
, 

. 

,

.


,
 . 



 G.655.


.


(

),
( 
), 
. 

.




,

. 




.

1. . 
. .:
, 2002.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

2. High Perfomance Dispersion and Dispersion


Slope Compensating Fiber Modules for Non
zero Dispersion Shifted Fibers. Fujikura
Technical Review, No.32, s.510.
3. Future GuideTM. Fujikura Technologies of
Optical Fiber. 
2003.




:



?




?



?



?

( , ,

) 


?

, 

. 



.
,
, 


. ,

, 
 , 

. ,


,
,

.

..

www.lightwaverussia.com

35



.. , ...., alexei55@mail.ru



. 

.
2,5 /
10 /
40 /. 

, 

. 
(CD)
() [1]. ,



2,5 / 
300

1550 (
10 /
16 ).


CD.

EDFA. CD, 
EDFA, [2].
, CD, 30
, 

40 /.
, ,
, 


(). ,
, 
, 
CD [3]. 

,

(DCM),
,
.


, , 
.


, , 

. 
CD 

36

www.lightwaverussia.com




.


.



,

.




.


.

.
, 
, ,

, 

. 



.




= ,
(1)
,
, 
. ,

, 


.

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),


. 

, 

.


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,


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.
, , 


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T= (B)1 . 
, 
B.




.
,

ITUT G.650 [4].
(CD) 

, 
,

.

. 1. 
, , 
DCD

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

. CD
: ,
,
.


.

(chromatic dispersion coefficient): 

(1 ),

(1 ) .
/().

(zerodispersion slope):


. /(()2).
:
, 

. .



D


() 
:
1 d ()
D = . ,
(2)
L
d
L ,
. 


.
ITUT
G.650 [4] 
:
(Phase shift
technique);
(Interfero
metric technique);
(Pulse delay
technique).


, 
. 

*.

() = / (2 f),
(3)
f .

.
:


;

( 

)
;

.




.

CD 


. 2. 
.
, 
, 
, 
.
, 
,

.
.

.

(3)

, 
.


(), 

. 
[4,5]


, 


.

. , 
, 
.


(Differential Phase Shift method),

1
2
1 2 .



:
.


. 
()

* IEC 607931
42:2001) [5]

. . .

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

No. 112
www.lightwaverussia.com

37


1/2 ,
1 2 , 

1 (1 2)
D(1/2) = . .
L (1 2)

,

. CD, 

( 
), . 3.


. 
,
, 

,

, 

.





.



ITUT G650 
, 


(time of
flight). 


, ..

. CD
, 

.

.2. CD



,
IEC 60793142 [5]
:
400 .
. .

,
. 

,

.





,

, , 
,
, 
CD. 

. 

,
CD,
.


, , Acterna, Anritsu,
EXFO, Luciol, NETTEST, Perkin Elmer 
( 
).

.3. CD


*.
, , 

. 
,

.



(
) 
CD1 Luciol.

,
(0,1 ) 
.
. 

5 . 
( 42 )

100 .


( 
, ).
21 ( 
) 22
( ) 
7 


. 


, 



/.



[6]. 21
22
(
, , 
, ) 

.

* , 

, .

38

www.lightwaverussia.com

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

Acterna
MTS5000

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

www.lightwaverussia.com

39


CD 
Anritsu (MW9076D1)
Acterna (MTS5000e),
CMA5000 
Nettest FTB400 FTB5800
EXFO. 
,
, 

.


,
, , 
,
, 
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CD ..

EXFO 1996 
(FTB300); 

.
Anritsu (MW9076D1),
Acterna (MTS5000 c 5083 CD) Net
test (CMA5000 OTDR/CD) 

4 
: 1310, 1450, 1550
1625 **, 

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4 
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Nettest CMA5000, 
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30 ). ,
500 
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.

, ,
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, ,
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,
.

1. .
WDM. .: EXFO,
2001. / . . . .. 
, .. , .. .
2. Barlow A.J. Chromatic dispersion tolerance
get tighter. Perkin Elmer Optoelectronics, web
exclusiv, 5 sept., 2002.
3. .., .., 
.. 
. . .
.: , 2002, . 5279.
4. ITUT Recommendation G.650, Defenitions
and test methods for the relevant parameters
of single mode fibres.
5. International standard CEI/IEC 607931
42:2001.
6. .., .., 
.., ..

,
http://www.ruscable.ru/statya36.shtml.

** 5000 OTDR/CD 6 .



(G.652) 10 / 
.
,
17 /() =1550
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40

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.
,
. 21, 22 (), MW9076D1
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, MTS5000 c 5083 CD (Acterna)
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

No. 113

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

Commission, IEC) 
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tion for Standardization, ISO).

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003



.
ITUT 

,
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, ),

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www.lightwaverussia.com

43


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International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC)
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(IEC Council),
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44

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Telecommunication Industry
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


ITU, IEC
ATIS, TIA, ETSI, TTC
ATM Forum, Frame Relay Forum

Internet Engineering Task Force

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: S, C L, 


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196,1 192,1 (
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003



c (ITUT)


1988 .

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1989 1993 .,
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. 

(ITUT Study Group)

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(http://ecs.itu.ch/cgibin/ebookshop/).
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(http://webstore.iec.ch/).
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(http://www.tiaonlie.org/standards/
search_n_order.cfm). 
.
(ISO)

(http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/
xsite/advertising_guidelines.html).




(http://www.interstandard.gost.ru/)


(http://www.minsvyaz.ru/site.shtml?
parent=12&id=80). 
, 
, , 1999 .



()
(http://www.rans.ru).


http://www.csrstds.com/klist.html

www.lightwaverussia.com

45

(POTDR)
 PMD

No. 103
2003 . 
EXFO

EXFO POTDR1100. 

()


. 


,
, 


 ,
. 
,


Bluetooth 22

 2003 
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,

BlueTooth
. 


22,


.
22 

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,
No. 104

. , 
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. 10
100 BlueTooth.

 
,




. 


,
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.
GAP OPTIQUE
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FTB400.
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(POTDR).
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.



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POTDR 
.



 2003 


. 



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576 .

45o,

. 

. 

.
, , 
.

No. 105
46

www.lightwaverussia.com

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

Terawave :
OLT ONT, PON

OLT TW060 ( 1U)
Gigabit Ethernet,
1 
PON.

ONT
: TW200 (1U)
Ethernet 10/100BaseTX
FXS TW202
Ethernet.
TW200 

Ethernet 10/100BT 32 

Gigabit Ethernet .
TW20x 


. 


PON.

www.tt.ru.

No. 106


( )


. 
40
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.

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

www.lightwaverussia.com

47

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48

www.lightwaverussia.com

. , 


40 /,
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(OTDM),
(WDM)
.

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


,
, 

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( 160) 
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.
.

:

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


2 d
V =
n12 n22 ,

d ; n1 n2 

; 
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= (n1 n2 ) / n1.
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NA =

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www.lightwaverussia.com

49

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

1. 

250
.
1,5 ,
min  2( 2/c)B.
, /c
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min,
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

, 
, 

S 
.

www.lightwaverussia.com

51

2. (PROB) ,
S
S
3,0
3,1
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, 


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10 /
1 .

1. Jacobs I. Optical fiber communication technolo


gy and system overview, in Fiber Optics Hand
book, McGrawHill Companies Inc., 2002.
2. Agraval G.P. Fiberoptic communication sy
stems, Second edition, John Wiley&Sons
Inc., 1997.
3. . . .:
, 2002.

Lightwave RE

. ..



:



1 2003 .
15 ,
. (095) 9393194
52

www.lightwaverussia.com

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

www.optictelecom.ru

,


www. exforussia.ru



www.noyesfiber.com

www.fod.ru

FOD

 


www.tt.ru


, 

www.exfo.com

NOYES FIBER SYSTEMS

EXFO



,



, 

, 

www.telect.ru

www.kmiresearch.com

PRGROUP

KMI


Telect



 

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

www.lightwaverussia.com

53

FOD

A:
.:
:
Email:
:

, 129090 , / 48
+7 095 1053464
+7 095 1053468
info@fod.ru
www.fod.ru


(FOD) 1991 
 
 .


(, )

( , ).

FOD. 
: 
(OTDR), 
, ,
, ,

.


: Noyes Fiber
Systems ( AFL), Silicomp
() .

A: , 115035 ,
. , .77,
. 2, . 1
.: +7 095 9516808
: +7 095 9535249
Email: sales@optictelecom.ru
: www.optictelecom.ru
A: , 220034 ,
. , .15, 39
.: +375 17 2360178
: +375 17 2360346
A: , 480016 ,
. , .207, 301303
.: +7 3272 682334
: +7 3272 507327
:
,
.

54

www.lightwaverussia.com

PRGROUP

A: , 7, 117997 ,
. , .84/32,
. 22, 2730
.: +7(095) 7875550
: +7(095) 3333300
Email: info@tt.ru
: www.tt.ru

A: , 107120 ,
., .3, .1
.: +7 095 1050582
: +7 095 1050582
Email: info@prgroup.ru
: www.prgroup.ru


,


.
1994

.


.

NOYES FIBER SYSTEMS

A: 16 Easgate Park Road, Belmont,


NH 03220, USA
.: +1 603 528 7780
: +1 603 528 2025
: www.noyesfiber.com
C
( AFL) 


.

PRGROUP
Telect.

ADF,
LYNX, ,


Wavetrax/CableLinks.

EXFO

A: Le Dynasteur 1012, rue Andras


Beck 92366 Meudon La Foret
Cedex FRANCE
.: +33 1 40 83 8585
: +33 1 40 83 0442
Email: info@exfo.com
: www.exfo.com
,

,
.

KMI RESEARCH

.:
:
Email:
:

+1 401 2438100, 2438111


+1 401 2438100
info@kmiresearch.com
www.kmiresearch.com

,


. , .
.

A: , 103104 ,
/ 91
.: +7 095 2654430, 2671393
: +7 095 7465601
Email: info@alkorfiberoptics.ru
: www.alkorfiberoptics.ru
 :
, ,
.
.

.
.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003

.
Lightwave RE , ?
.. , Lightwave RE


, 
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.

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. 

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[1],

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1. .., ..,
.. 
. 

, 2001, 4, . 11.

,

Gain (Optical amplifier gain)


1. () G
( )
2.
() g

Loss

1.
2.

Insertion loss IL

IL

Optical return loss,


Backward loss
Polarization
dependent loss (PDL)

ORL

Attenuation

PDL

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


1. Pout Pin
G= Pout /Pin.
2.
g[]=10lgG.
(),
: g[]= pout []pin[].
. .
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2003


2002

:

1 2003

No. 114

No. 115