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"- 2005"

1014 2005
1, 1316

3 2004
 3/2004
2003 .
4
:
Pennwell Corp.
98 Spit Brook Road
Nashua
New Hampshire 03062-5737 USA
.: +1 603 891-0123

5 SUPERCOM
10
:

15

:

Pennwell Corp.
E-mail: info@lightwave-russia.com
:
.
.: (095) 939-3194
editor@lightwave-russia.com

11

WDM

-
18 WDM
. 18

PON
3.

:
.
./: (095) 505-5753
nikonova@lightwave-russia.com

29
:
,


. 29

:
, 105043 , / 5

29.10.2004.
6090/8.
Helios. .
. . . 7,0.
4000 . 269

42
45
47
-
. 38

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004


:

41 -

-
, . , . 25.
./: 995-15-99, 995-45-99


,
.

77-14327 10.01.2003
ISSN 1727-7248

, 2004

54
?

www.lightwave-russia.com

SUPERCOMM

SUPERCOMM2004,
SUPERCOMM
20 24 2004 .
, ,


,
, ,
.
/ OFC
ECOC,
,
SUPERCOMM ,

.
, .
.
SUPERCOMM
.

SUPERCOM
(Jack Chalden) ,


.
SUPERCOM
. 600
.

,
,

. 1. SUPERCOMM2004
-

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004


.
, () , ,
SUPERCOM.
SUPERCOMM
,
. , SUPERCOMM

. SUPERCOMM ,
(Richard Lauder),
RBN, .
, SUPERCOMM-2003 ,
.

,
non-stop.
(Noreen Jurek), Tekelec, ,
,

.
(Irit Gillath), -
Telco Systems,
, , lc
, , .

-, -

www.lightwave-russia.com

SUPERCOMM

, Alcatel, IBM, Microsoft TV Intel.


SUPERCOMM
,
() .

, (Edward W.
Barnholt Chairman, President&CEO, Agilent
Technologies), (Serge Tchuruk
Chairman, &CEO, Alcatel),
(Richard C. Notebaert Chairman, &CEO,
Qwest Communication International)
.

,

.
,
,

.
,

. 3. Lucent Technologies, ,
,

,


(video on
demand VoD), (subscrip SUPERCOM tion video on demand SVoD)

,
.


Time Warner (Don Logan

1200 Chairman, Media&ommunication Group),
.
. 1950-
,
,
,
3 4 , . , (VoIP) . ( . . .).

, .

: , , ,
.
,
.

1960-


.
, .


. , ,


. ,

1950-.



(Associated Press news).
,
CNN.
. 2.

1970-
Alcon Technologies
,
.

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

SUPERCOMM


70%
,

, ,
22% ,
70% ,

,
52% ,
pay-per-view,
3,95 . .
( , Leichtman Research Group, Inc.)

1972 Home Box Office


(HBO),

(pay-per-view).

.
1990- ,

(Home
Shopping Network).
,
Home Box Office (HBO) 1972 . 1975 HBO
. 80-
,
1993
.
(satellite TV),
(HBO Video),
(Cinemax). HBO International
.

50 , ,
16 .
7

,
.


.
, ,
,
, .



(VoIP).
200 . . ,

, .
. ,
,
, Time Warner
17 000 VoIP-, 10% .


(VoD) (SVoD).

1,5 .
. , .
( . . .).
,
.
, ,
, .
Time Warner

. , , ,

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004


(caller ID) .


,
, ? Qwest Communications - .
(Barry K. Allen, Executive Vice President of
Operations Qwest Communications).
,
.
, , ,
, . Qwest,
, , , .
Qwest
Communications International Inc.

25 .

2003
14 288 . .
2003 47 000
1996 Qwest
Communications, ,
Southern Pacific
Telecommunications Company,
- .
Qwest
2000
Qwest Communications
US West,
70 . .
,
2004
-

www.lightwave-russia.com

SUPERCOMM

.
90
,

,

, (FCC
Federal Communications
Commission).
,
,
,
.
Qwest
. 4. Movaz Networks
- (VoIP)

. ,
2004 Qwest ,
MCI,
VoIP-, . Qwest
,

FCC 1996 (Telecommunication Act
, .
. ,
1996),
, .

, .

,
, FCC .

. , 31 (CLEC), .
Qwest , , Qwest
, . MCI .
,
1996 .
(ILEC) , . 2 2003 FCC
(CLEC)

,
, .
SBC
, - 4 6 . .


-

.
,
SBC ,


, FCC
,

, , .

IP-.
.
4 6
FCC . . 5 . ,

Total Element Long Run
.

Incremental Cost (TELRIC).
(FTTP)
(profit margins).
. , ,
,
"
" (FTTN). FCC.
100 , .
.
MCI

1987
( UUNET)

32 .

100 000
I- MCI
4500 (PoPs)
2000
(Southern
Cross), , ,
,
MCI
40 /
MCI
IP-

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004



2002 .
,
, .
, ,
,
, , , , .
,
, ,
. , -
, 19601980
. ,
. : (.. , 8),



.. , .. , .. ,
.. , ..
, . -
2003 , , , - .
,
.
, Lightwave Russian Edition.
: .
(, )
(, , , , ). I -
. , . -

10

www.lightwave-russia.com

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(.. , .. ,
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.


. , ,
-. , , ,
. .
, . , 7.4.
Nettest.
-,
Nettest.
. , , . ,
.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004



(Optics and Electronics Laboratory,
Fujikura Ltd) .
. , 1/4 .
, , . , , .
.
. 2.

()

()

Okude S. et al. Tunable FBG Dispersion


Compensator with a Simple Ring Structure.
ECOCIOOC 2003 Proceedings, vol.1,
pp.67, Rimini, 2003.

()

. 1. : )
; ) ; )


CWDM
(CWDM-) (DWDM-)
() [1]. CWDM- , ,
.
CWDM- 80 ,
. ( EDFA) DWDM-
CWDM,
. , -

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

, (
1530 1560 ) L (15791610 ).
Genoa, (LOA-linear optieal amplifier) [2] 110 (15001610 ), CWDM-. AllWave OFS Finisar
CWDM- 160 .

1. .. 
// Lightwave Russian Edition, 2003, 2, . 27.
2. Thiele H.J et al. Linear optical amplifier for extended reach in
CWDM transmission systems OFC 2003, paper MF21.

www.lightwave-russia.com

11


(Katsumi MORISHITA)
(Yoshihiro MIYAKE)

(LPG long period grating) - . -

[1].
( )
.

.
,
, , .
. 1
LPG 300 . 1,48 1,56 -

.
(FBG),

[2], LPG .
.1

LP01*,
LP11*.
- .

res 

()

. 1. LPG
300

12

www.lightwave-russia.com

1/ ()1

. 2.

1/

ncoeff ncleff

.
, ,
[3].
, -

LPG (..
). ,

.
- LPG
(ncoeff ncleff)

.
,
-
.

1. Morishta K., Miyake Y. LongPeriod


Gratings Written in a Pure Silica Holey Fiber
by the Glass Structure Change. ECOCIOOC
2003 Proceedings. Rimini, 2003, vol. 1, pp. 45.
2. .. 

(WDM) // Lightwave Russian Edition,
2004, 2, . 4752.
3. .., .. 
// Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2004, 3, . 4753.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

,
, 20 ?! , .
1000 .
, .
, , .
-
Lucent Tehnologies ,
, , . , . ,
.

, , ,
,
,
.
, .
Bell Labs, , , , .
, (Venus Flower Busket). . , 20
,


,
!

,

.
.

, .

,

.

-

. 1. 
.

(
). 
Lucent Technologies Inc./Bell Labs

, , . ,
.

, .
,


.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

. 2. ,


.
Lucent Technologies
Inc./Bell Labs

www.lightwave-russia.com

13

. 3. .
Lucent Technologies Inc./Bell Labs

, ,
,
. ,

.
5
20 ,

.


, , ,





.

(Colorado State University, US)
(VCSEL)
[1] 850
3 ,
17 . , .

VCSEL
. .
VCSEL AlGaAs ,
p- ( n-), MOCVD (metallo-organic chemical vapour
deposition) -



. .
, , ( 1400 2000 )
.

,
1,4 ,
... 25%.
7 , 100.

14

www.lightwave-russia.com

50 .
10 /
.

. 1. 


. , , , - Bell
Labs.
. ,
. ,

,

.

.
. , 20 / .
30 /.

40 /.

1. FibreSystems Europe in association with //


LIGHTWAVE Europe, May 2004, p. 7.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

WDM

,
Broadband Access Network, Harmonic Inc.

(WDM)
, , . WDM (VoD). Ethernet WDM
(EoW) ,
.
, Ethernet WDM, VoD. WDM
VoD . , WDM,
.
, DWDM
, Telewest 100 /. DWDM ,
, ,
. . ,
, VoD,
.
WDM . () WDM
, / (
).
,
WDM
,
, , , VoD, . WDM ,
(.. : ),

.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

() WDM
, ,
, () (..
VoD) .
, , , ,
,

. (-) , , , , .
,
. , ,
, .
.
IP-, .
VoD .

,
. , , ,
, : Ethernet ( / ) WDM, Ethernet .
, , WDM ,
. WDM ,

.
.

,
Lightwave Europe, September, 2003
www.lightwave-russia.com

15


,
. ..
Email: pichugindima@yandex.ru

- ,
. 2002 50% ,
. ,

.
, ,
2003 .
2003 2003 .
2003 3,4%
2002 63,5 . , ,
167 . 145 . . 2000 2004
, 42 ./ 13 ./, 1,3 . .

. , ,
, .

. 2.


13%.
150% 2001 2003 , 29,5 . . . 2001 2003 ,
25 . , 1,5 . .

. 1.

, , . 79% .
,
.

16

www.lightwave-russia.com

. 3.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

10 2004 .

Lightwave Russian Edition




7-

. 4. SONET/SDH
DWDM

53,734 .
(90,4%), (2,8%).
NZDS 2,088 .
(32,1%).
2,655 . (+8,9%). , 33,5%,
,
(965 . ).
2003
Corning Photonic
Technologies (Gerald Fine)
SONET DWDM.
RHK, SONET/SDH
DWDM ,

SDH WDM.
.


" 
"
: "Lightwave Russian Edition"
10.20 10.40.
.
.. ,
AESP Eastr Europe, BICSI, , RCDD.
10.40 11.00. .
. , " ".
11.00 11.20. Wi-Fi .
. , Wi-Fi, WiMAX, "
"
".
11.20 11.40. Sirocco Pirelli

.
Chris Pollock / Market Development Director @ Pirelli
Telecom Cables and Systems UK Ltd
11.40 12.00. Pirelli.
Alber t Segura / International Sales Manager @ Pirelli
Telecom Cables Y Sistemas ESPANA
ESPANA S. L.
12.00 12.20.

NOKIA 3:1 (, , ).
.. , -.
-.

1. Fuller M. Fiber capacity still in excess. Lightwave, March, 2004.


2. Optical fibre & fibre optic cable monitor. CRU group, www.cru
monitor.com

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

17

WDM

 (Dr. Ray Boncek),


;
(Dr. Paul Dickinson),
;
(Dr. Santanu Das),
, OFS



,
[1] ( . . .).
.
, ,
IDC,
5175 / 2007 [2].


- .
(WDM) (
), . WDM
. ,
.
WDM

SONET/SDH .
: CWDM DWDM

18

www.lightwave-russia.com

*.

,
, .
, , (ZWPF)
(NZDSF),
WDM.

DWDM,

.
(EDFA) ,
,

EDFA. /

200 .
,
. , * T CWDM DWDM
Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2004, 2. . .

, .

, , WDM .
, CWDM (
20 ) ITU-T G.694.2. ,
.
CWDM ZWPF
16
75 [3].

CWDM
30 65%
DWDM- [4].

SMF
. , . ,
, ,

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

WDM


, .
,

(
25%) .

.

, :

SONET/SDH 1310 , Ethernet 10 /
10 /;
DWDM
1550 ;
16- CWDM
( (SMF) , , 8
S, C L);
, ,
FTTH-PON ( )
[5].
ZWPF ,

SMF.
16-
CWDM,
.
, CWDM,
, 13101610 .
CWDM, , SMF. -
1400
(. . 1).
G.652.C/D ,
G.652.
CWDM, ITU-T G.694.2, ; ,
, , G.652.C/D.
, - SMF.

. 1. (G.652.C/D)


SMF,
,
CWDM . ZWPF, ITU-T
G.652.C/D,
IEC (
)
.
,

.
16 , - CWDM
DWDM.

.
,
CWDM G.652.C/D

DWDM
SMF-, 33%.

DWDM

ZWPF,
CWDM -

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

, ,

.
2,5 / (OC-48), 10 / (OC192). ,
DWDM
.
,
DWDM,
, (DCM)
,
. ZWPF
( SMF) ,

, (~17 //
1550 ) ,
,

www.lightwave-russia.com

19

WDM

,

. ,

. , ,

.

Movaz Network, ,
DWDM, NZDSF,
20% ,
SMF-.
, -

CWDM ,
G.652.C/D
(ZWPF), , 8 16.
DWDM
. NZDSF ( )
DWDM
,
10 / .
ZWPF NZDSF
, [7].
.
, .

.

. 2. NZDSF
SMF

,
,
NZDSF, .. , . NZDSF 34
, SMF,
34
2,510 /. ,
Cisco, Lucent Technologies ADVA
Optical Networking.

NZDSF
,
(. . 2). ,
(Farr Farhan),

20

www.lightwave-russia.com

.
,
,
.
1310 . NZDSF 10
/ 1310 70 BER = 1011
FEC [6].

CWDM ,
- .
, .

1. Telecommunications Industry Association.


TIA White Paper: Fiber Optic Network Capacity
and Utilization. Part II. September 2002.
2. Legard D. Internet traffic to double each
year, IDC predicts main driver will be broad
band. March 6, 2003.
3. Das S.K. et al. 40 Gb/s (162.5 Gb/s) Full
Spectrum Coarse WDM Transmission over
75 km Low Water Peak Fiber for LowCost
Metro and Cable TV Applications. NFOEC
2002 technical proceedings.
4. Kincade K. CWDM breathes life into metro,
access, and enterprise applications // Laser
Focus World, March 2003.
5. Eichenbaum B.R. et al. Economics of coarse
WDM compared with dense WDM for wave
lengthaddressable PON access architectures.
NFOEC 2002 technical proceedings.
6. Thile H. et al. Metro express transparency
in excess of 250 km using dispersion
optimized fiber. NFOEC 2002 technical
proceedings.
7. Das S.K. et al. Building metro fiber networks
that last // Lightwave, September 2001.
,
Lightwave, September, 2003

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

WDM

PON
3.
.. , .. , ..,
, info@tt.ru

PON?
PON ?! ?
.

1. PON
(PON)
.

. ,
,
( )
.
, , ,
,

:
PON ( , , ..)
(
, )
(,
)
(-, , ).
,
()
,
.


.

. ,
PON, -

, 
. :

PON






.

1.1. PON
PON
. : .

(Bus), . 1, , ,
,
,
. ( )
Y-.
(Tree)
, , . 1.

, , , , 1.

1.2.
PON

(Star) -, . 1.
APON, ,
ITU-T G.983.1 [1].
(


) ,
1N

)
)
)
,

. 1. PON:
a) , ) )
.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

21

WDM

,
PON, G.671

[2].
,
PON
,
, PON.

1
PON

(
)

2
G.983.x [1]

OLT-ONT ,

20

A: 520
B: 1025
C: 1530

15

32

WDM 1 2
( 1,3 )

, /c

155/622


(, , / WDM,
, )

G.671

G.652

, ,

,
. , -

22

www.lightwave-russia.com


. ,
,
2.
. 2

OLT-ONTi
. . (0,4 / 1310 )
. ,
8 = 0,4 /  20 .
20
PON 32 (. 1) .
, . 1N
3,3log2N . (N=32 APON) 17 .

. ,
pin,min (33 1) pin,m (11 ),

(minimum overload).
BER = 1010, . ,
, pout,min (2) pout,max (+4),
:


OBm = (2 ) (33 ) = 31 .
1 C G.983.1 [1].

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

WDM

15 (. 2).
, ,
. ,

DL

15 .
,



. 2.
.
OLTONTi

(optical power budget,

OB)

[OBmin, OBm],
.
,
OBm = pout,min pin,min
OBmin = pout,m pin,m
pout,min, pout,max , pin,min,
pin,m ,
(BER) .
- , ,
( , ,
)

[OBmin, OBm ].



OBmin = (+4 ) (11 ) =15
/ . [1]
OBmin,
OBm.
.
,

1.3. PON
OLT-ONTi
(i=1...N, N )
(d) (u) :
OB d,min  d  Li  ILi  AL  CLi 

 OBd,m d d,i
OB u, min  u  Li  ILi  AL  CLi 

 OBu,m u u,i ,
Li i- , d u
, ILi
i- ,
CLi i- , AL .
- /, , -
.

, 1 .
, B , i i- . -

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

.
, .
. . , , ILi,
.
,
,
, , FLd,i FLu,i.
DL
, : DL = FLmax FLmin.

DL .
,

DL .

.
DL PON? !

,
,
.
(. . 3).

pin,1
pin,2 .
DL.
Bmax Bmin =16 = 1 , 15 .
DL

, ,
, ,
, . . , , pin,2 > pin,max,

www.lightwave-russia.com

23

WDM


.

.

,
.
1, 2
3


(operating
wavelength range)
. 3.

PON
,
.
Rk (splitting ratio)
, k .
: Rk = Pk/Pout,
Pout = P1 ++PN.
2.

EL (excess loss) : ,
, LAN, :

EL = 10 lg (Pin/Pout)
PON. ITU-T
ILk (insertion loss) G.671 [2]

k- :
.
ILk = 10 lg (Pin/Pk).

2.1.
,

: ILk = EL + 10 lg (1/Rk)

ORL (optical return
, loss)

:
[3].

M N
()
. PON

1N Rk=Pk/Pout
.
EL = 10 lg (Pin/Pout )
2N
ILk = 10 lg (Pin/Pk)
ORL = 10 lg (Pin/PR)
. . 4

2N D = 10 lg (Pin/PD)
.
(1N)
U = ILmax ILmin
[2, 4, 5]:
- PDL
N

24

www.lightwave-russia.com

. 4. 2xN

,
: ORL = 10 lg (Pin/PR)
D (directivity)
,
: D = 10 lg (Pin/PD)
(uniformity)
U : U = ILmax ILmin.

. G.671 U .
 PDL
,
.

2.2.

.
, PON.

( 10 ),
( 40 ) (1310 40
1550 40 ). PON 2.


(. . 5),

.

PON. PON.
2 3-
1490 ,
14301580 [10].

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

WDM


.

(fused biconic taper, FBT) .
.

. , ,
[3, 7].
(planarlightwavecir
cuit, PLC) [8, 9].
. Y-, X-
.
,

( 50 ), 23 ,
. , PLC


, ,
.

1N, , 3.
5%. ,
5% [10].
, .

,
10 [4].
PON (1,31 1,55 ),
-

Y- (1x2)
X- (2x2) .
,

.
. Y- , .

, ..
, . 5.
.
, (N = 832) [8, 9].

,
=10

( + ) 0,3 (
0,03 / [11]).
PON

.

, ,

. 5.
50/50 [6]



. : 1 2. . 1 , , 40 , U=1.0 log2N ()
2 U=0.4 log2N ()
1020 .
[11].
4 50/50 [6]
1N, G.671 [2], .
PON
/ , . 6. 
/
.
3
R IL 1N [10] 12 13 [4].
,


. ,
ONT

0,5 /C.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

25

WDM


.

, DL
1
2

.
G.671 (1N)
(12)
(12)
12701350
12901330
12601360

U.

.
,
15101590
15301570
14801580
IL, .

2
3,6 log2N +0,6
3,6
3,9
( ),
EL,
,

PON. 0,3 (1+log2N)


0,1
0,3
,

, 
1,0 log2N
0,8
1,1
U,

ORL D

.
, G.671: ORL > 55, D > 55 .
-
0,1 (1+log2N)
0,15
0,20
PDL, .,
,
( 20 ), 40

50
50
40

G.671.
ORL,
,

EL < 0.9
55
55
50


D,

DL

.

0,002
0,002


, / C
40/+85
, C 40/+85
.
EL ,


.
, (0,020,05 )
. (~EL  N).
, (0,40,8 ).
, )
)
,

,

ILmax IL,
, .
IL ILmin.
. ,
)
.



. .

.
. 6.
, : )
) )
2.3.
:
4

PON . ,
. U


1N.

26

www.lightwave-russia.com

PLC

()
,

.

: -, , , .


[10].
.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

WDM

3.
PON
. , -

,
. , , ,
.

/
, .
,
DL .
,

. ,
.
, .. ,
.

3.1.

,
. ,
PON, . 7:



(S1, S2, S3, )

(S1 S3 )
.

. 7.

3.2. PON

.
PON ,
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.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

27

WDM

(GP)


pGP + rsub
rnet.

.

.



.

4.


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. 9. PON

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28

www.lightwave-russia.com

. 10. PON

! PON
: , , ,
.
.
,
.

1. . ITUT G.983.1. Broadband optical


access systems based on Passive Optical
Networks (PON).
2. . ITUT G.671. Transmission characteris
tics of optical components and subsystems.
3. .. 
// , 2002, 4.
4. Goff D.R. Fiber Optic Video Transmission.
Focal Press, 2003.
5. .  
. .: , 2003.
6. JDS Fused Coupler, Two Window. Product
Bulletin. 01/04, JDS Uniphase
7. .. 
,
. .: , 2001.
8. Kaminow I.P. Optical Fiber
Telecommunications IVB. Academic
Press, 2002.
9. Arad E. et al. Whats the Latest in
WaveGuide Technology? www.cablingbusi
ness.com/pdfs/storyJuly04.pdf
10. Fused Fiber Technology. Couplers,
Splitters, Wavelength Division Multiplexors.
ADC 1/02. 1400.
11. Lee Pete. Planar splitters are the optimal
choice for passive optical networks //
LightWave, 2003, 11.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

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www.lightwave-russia.com

29


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www.lightwave-russia.com

31

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

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http://www.optictelecom.ru/000000
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2. Bishop D. Specifing Optical Ground Wire //
Electric Energy Magazine, 2000, September.
3. 
. http://www.optictelecom.ru/000000/lib
/htm/hvo005.htm
4. .
. 7. ., 2003.
5. PLSCADD overview.
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

A, B, C

www.lightwave-russia.com

33



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www.lightwave-russia.com

37


:

(Bill Beasley),
Sumitomo Electric Lightwave (Research Triangle Park, NC).
Email: bbeasley@sumitomoelectric.com

1990-,
, , ,
. . .

2003
(CLEC) .

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( SONET/SDH,
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38

www.lightwave-russia.com

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004


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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004


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,
.
864. 25 (1") , 864-
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www.lightwave-russia.com

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, 288.

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SMF 0,1 .


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,

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40

www.lightwave-russia.com

*



(ABF)


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4. 




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,
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FTTH.




,
.
,
, ABF
.
,
,
FTTD.
Lightwave, July, 2003

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

www.soccom.ru

www.sarko.ru

"


"


www.ofsoptics.com

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OFS

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EXFO

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www.tt.ru

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Photonium
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FOD

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E-mail:
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, 129090 , / 48
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

.. , .. , . .. ,


,
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- .
. Corning 1970
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004


Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCF). .
PCF.
, ,
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PCF

.

www.lightwave-russia.com

47

. 1. ,
()
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. ,
,

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PCF.
PCF,
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,

1974 [8],
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48

www.lightwave-russia.com

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.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

. 3.

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

49

, , .
(2D) (3D) . 6.
. .
.


. (
, .)
90- , . 6. ()
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, , , , [9, 10]. , , , ,
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:
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, , . 1,
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50

www.lightwave-russia.com


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.

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. .

PCF ,
,
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[14] ,
Hole-assisted lightgide fiber (HALF).
. HALF- . 8 [15].

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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

PCF
,
.
(. 9), ,
, . , 1 2
1550 [16].
,
PCF

, PCF,
, (. 10),

.
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,
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.
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,
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. ,

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.
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PCF, ,
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Solid Holey Fiber), nl = 230 ()1
5 / 1,55 .
. 8. PCF

. -
,
.
. , -

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,
, . ,

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004

. 9. PCF
. 

, 


. 10. PCF 
:
() 
(). 

PCF 

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, , , ,
,
- ,
. PCF
, , , .
PCF.

www.lightwave-russia.com

51

, PCF
.
PCF- .
,
PCF .
PCF.
PCF

.


**

52

www.lightwave-russia.com

. 11.
) 
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) : 
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LIGHTWAVE russian edition 3 2004



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