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2 2005

2 2005

2/2005
2003 .
4
:
Pennwell Corp.
98 Spit Brook Road
Nashua
New Hampshire 03062-5737 USA
.: +1 603 891-0123

5 FC/NFOEC
:

:

Pennwell Corp.
E-mail: info@lightwave-russia.com

9
10

:

.: (095) 939-3194
editor@lightwave-russia.com


ONT

ONT
ONT

ONT

SAIC

ONT

ONT

ONT


ONT

Greenfield

OLT

ONT

16 WDM
EPON GPON

SAIC
Greenfield

. 12

: ?

OSI

:

:
,

12
: ?

ONT

ONT

:

.: (095) 505-5753
mk@lightwave-russia.com

26

. 24


OSI

Ethernet-
VOIP

:
, 119311 , / 107

38

10.07.2005.
6090/8.
Helios. .
. . . 7,0.
4000 . --
-
, , . 5, . 6
./: 995-15-99, 995-45-99

35

48 -
49
50
. 35

Ethernet-
VOIP

DWDM-



,
.

77-14327 10.01.2003
ISSN 1727-7248

, 2005

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

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5 ).
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Lightwave Russian Edition
, . 2005 .
(www.wyp2005.ru), , .. ,
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Lightwave Russian Edition
,
.

LIGHTWAVE russian edition 1 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

OFC/NFOEC


,

(5, , )

OFC/NFOEC ,
. (Annie Lindstrom), Fibresystems Europe /
Lightwave Europe.

FTTP

, 20 . , -

Verizon () NTT ()

OFC/NFOEC-2005

,
(FTTP), (triple play) -

FTTP- .

, ,
-


(Hiromichi Shinohara), -

, .


NTT, NTT

. ,
, . ,
, , , , . , ( , , ,
. . .). (Donald
Keck), Corning (),
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,
: ,
, ,
,
-

OFC (Optical Fiber Communication


Conference and Exposition) NFOEC
(National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference)
1984 : OFC
, NFOEC (RBOC). . OFC ,
NFOEC .
OFC NFOEC

.
OFC/NFOEC-2005
, , ,
:
. , ,
.
: 5
,
,
, : ,
.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

-
FTTP ( -).

2010 30 .
FTTP-. 3 .
, 75% . ,
FTTP
, (

, .
. .) ( ).
IP- IP- FTTP-, , , NTT
VoIP 1,6 .
.
FTTP
. NTT Verizon

, . NTT
,
, FTTP . , , , -

www.lightwave-russia.com

OFC/NFOEC

, 1
. , .
, FTTP-

Gigabit Ethernet PON (GE-PON)
.
NTT WDM-
ONU 2.

. , , -

,
FSAN (Full
Service Access Network

, , Verizon 20- . ,

) ITU-T
G983.3 G984.2 -

12
, 3 . .
Verizon
FTTP. ONT 2 ,
. (Vincent
OByrne),
, ,

: (
) 1490 ( ) 1510 .

, , , , (Timothy Jenks),

, , ONT,

. 1. PLC
NeoPhotonics

(BPON) Gigabit
PON (GPON), IEEE
802.3ah Ethernet (EFM).


ONT 1310 ,

, , 2
.
NeoPhotonics
.
-

, FTTP-

(, ),

Photon
Technology (, ),

, -



. -


,

FTTP-. -

, , ,
PLC-

.
NeoPhotonics: Verizon -

FTTP-,
--

. ,
NeoPhotonics (PLC Planar Lightwave Circuit) (.
. 1).

(ROADM).
.
Fiberxon: OFC/NFOEC-2005 -

Fiberxon (),
( 3). -

.
, ( ) PON FTTP.
, -

, , , -

,
, , ,
FTTP. , [..
] , (Brian
Whitton),
Verizon.
[].
Verizon , FTTP (), ,
1

,
.
" " , 9

ONU (Optical
Network Unit) ONT (Optical Network Terminal)
:
, / .
OLT (Optical Line Terminal)
FTTP. (. .)

www.lightwave-russia.com

,
- ().

: OFC/NFOEC-2005
NeoPhotonics ,

Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu


.
, , , , .
. .

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

OFC/NFOEC

,
, (Li Hsu),
Fiberxon.
9 .
, GE-PON
(Gigabit Ethernet PON)
(SFF Small Form Factor)
(SFP Small Form
Factor Pluggable)
,
GE-PON-
(-). ,
, GEPON, .
GE-PON OLT/ ONU 2 ( ) 1,25 /
1310 1490 . ,
OLT ONT ,
, 29 , 20 . GE-PON


FTTx- , -,
. -,
, ,
QoS 5. IP- , , , HST 3000 Acterna (. 2) .
Ethernet DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) : , IP-
IP- (IP- HST
3000 OFC/NFOEC).
Acterna SMART : OLP-57 SMART FTTx/PON-

. 2. HST 3000
Acterna

OLT-55 SMART--

. OLP-57

, -

.
OFS:
OFC/NFOEC

FTTx/PON-. -

. OFS,

100Base-T/1000Base-T ONU
UNI-4 ONU
.


(1490 1550 1310 ).

Furukawa Electric, ,
-

100Base-T/1000Base-

1310 -

, , OFS, -

T UNI ONU, .
,

OFC/NFOEC, : -

PON - (

.
,

).


(/ ).
, OLT-55,

.
, (Dan
Hendrickson),
OFS,

2 3
,

( ),
6.

,
. , . .
Acterna: Acterna ()
, , (Jim Nerschook), - ,

FTTx.
, , , (
-)

,
,
, .

, ,

. Acterna ,
, 4

UNI (User Network Interface)


-.
QoS
(
, .).
6
. 38.
5

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

, OFS
, FTTx.
(Max Nelson),
- - ,
FTTP-,
.
, Fibresystems Europe
Lightwave Europe, April 2005, p. 16.

www.lightwave-russia.com


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, .

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, ()
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, , 1999 2001 .
40 . . -

. . -

, -

, -

, -

( 1000 ).

.

1997

. -

,
- ,

(, ),


. -

4000 . , FROG:

, -

- . -

(1200 ) (
).

,
.

. -

.
,

.
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,


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, -

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,
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.

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. -

. 2004
1500 . ,
LWRE,
-



.

,

.

1997 -

9000 .
.
-


, .
-

2,5 . .

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

,

. -

.
-

, -

,
-

: , -

.

.



.
-

. , .
Lightwave Russian Edition


-01. 2003

. , LWRE,
- -

,

, -

. 2004

. ,

. . -

.
.



10 , 20

()

. 1. NTT Communications:
) ; ) 20
10 ( )

()

()

)
NTT
-

(. 2).

. 23

(holey fiber, . . 1), -

, .
, ,
-



(. . 1).

, -

, FTTx
.


, NTT
FTTx
, DSL.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

. 2. FTTx:
) ; )

www.lightwave-russia.com

,
-

.. . ..

, -

, , , ,

.
,
-

-
. ,
Lightwave Russian Edition, .

, , -

2003
, . -

,
, -

Lightwave Russian Edition.

.
-


, . . , -

, - . -

. ,
, , ,

, -

.
-.

, . , ,

- Agilent
Technologies .. , -

, , .
, .


.. Lightwave Russian Edition ,
. ,

,

,



.
:
(095) 362-7714.


,
www.teleinfo.ru,
www.teleinfo.ru/zakaz.htm.

10

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005


: ?
SUPERCOMM 2004 OFC/NFOEC 2005
.. ,
, Supercomm-2004
OFC/NFOEC-2005, .
, , -

. ,
2004
Verizon Communications ()
500
26- 33- , NTT () 33-
50-, SBC () 41- 45-, AT&T
() c 337- 413-.
.
Cisco Systems () 27-
11- , Alcatel ()
246- 385- , Corning
()
28 392-
. Nortel Networks ()
Lucent Technologies (), 31- 9-
5 ,
.

? ,
.
.

,
-

, .
-

. -

. -

.
-

(),

, -

5,1%
1997 , -

. ,

(. . 1). 2001
, ..
. , -


1015 .
() 1996 -


,
,
- . ,


? ,
,
.

, 50% 15
( ).

. -

www.lightwave-russia.com

5,1%
5,1
,

4,0%

4,4%
3,8%
3
2,1%

2,0%
0,0%
1997

1998

1999

000
00
2000

2001
001

2
2002

2003

-2,0%
-4,0%

3,1%
3,7% 4,1%

-6,0%

. 1. .
2001
( )





.
, -.

12

6,0%

- ,

. , , 2020 .

24 000 , -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

-

-

, .
-



.
-

. 2.

70- , -1
() .
DLC, Western Electrics SLC,
4 T-1
96 ( T-1
24 DS-0 Digital Signal
level 0). 70-

(IDLC Integrated Digital Loop Carrier).

, -

(triple play).

,
-

80- DLC
, . DCL
-

, -

. , -

. 80-

. 1977

, , -

, 25

, DLC (NGDLC

?
-

Next Generation DLC).


-

Western Electric, AT&T

, .

: -

Lucent . Nortel Siemens.


, ,
, ,

Nortel, Lucent Siemens

,
.

, .

,

.

,
, .
,
. -, , - ,
56 / . DSL, ,
, (FTTP). ,
, .

75%
.

(SAIC

FTTP
2003 (RBOCs Regional Bell

Service Area Interface Cabinet), , -

Operating Companies) Verizon, SBC


BellSouth -

. , (. . 2).
25%
-

(RFP Request For


Proposal) (FTTP Fiber-To-The-Premises). FTTH (Fiber-To-The Home
) ,

(DLC Digital Loop Carrier). 60-


-1. -

125 .
,
( 5, ). , .

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

13

ONT
ONT

ONT
ONT
SAIC

ONT

ONT

ONT


ONT

OLT

150 . 75 .
, . -


ONT

FTTH

Greenfield
ONT
ONT




SAIC
Greenfield

. 3. FTTP

,

ONT, ,
-


122 . .,
30 . . 18,6 . .
. ,
,

108 . .
OLT
ONT (500 . ), -

50 .
25 . .

FTTP.

(DSL Digital
Subscriber Line) ,


, .

. ,
-

DSL

,
-

,
FTTP- , ?

Verizon, , FTTP- 14 .


. Verizon


.

OLT

, .
, -

.
,

, , ..
, -

, . ,
.

)
. (ONT)

, 475 .
( 765 . ).

(. . 3).
, ,
-


24 .
(38,6 . ).

3,6 .

OLT . .

(5,8 . ) ,
.
,

www.lightwave-russia.com

. OLT (-

14

? , 2025 /,
, DSL.
, -

FTTP

95%
. 2003
, -

FTTP?

(. . 4). ,
-

DLC (OLT) DLC,


-

1,4% CAGR

+1,0% CAGR

250
,

44
42

200

40

150

38
100
36
50
0

34
1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

207,7

212,4

214,4

217,3

217,2

217,8

132,1

135,1

133,3

133,4

128,6

123,2

36

38

39

41

43

36

32

, %

CAGR

. 4.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

.
-

, /

30
25

ADSL 2+
( )

20
15

5
ADSL 2+

4
3

10
5

HDTV
MPEG2

ADSL

MPEG4
HDTV

1500

3000

4500

6000

. 5.


ADSL2+ (ADSL Asymmetrical DSL, -

: Actelis, Hatteras,
Spediant
, DSL


.

,

. ,

DSL), -

DSL-. ADSL2+ -

DSL

,
HDTV,
(. 5). ,
,
(1,6 ).
27% ( ) 1,6 . 25%
DLC, . , 40%
ADSL2+,
DLC .
,
, 60% . ADSL-.
,
.
(Adtran, Pedistal
.) ADSL ,

. Critical Telecom Go-Digital
DSL,
DSL-

, , .

, ,
.
.


, .


.


.
60%
110 . .


DSL,
DSL.
,
150 .
16,5 . . 50 .
, 1,6 , ADSL2+ (75 . ).
3,6 . . 40 .
DLC-, . , , , 150 . , 6 .
. DLC DSL
. ( ,

, .) ,
10 . .


DSL 36 .,

FTTP.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

;
ADSL (Asymmetrical DSL)
,

( 1,5 9 /, 640 /) 5,5 .
DLC (Digital Loop Carrier
)
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
;
FTTH (Fiber to the Home)
;
FTTP (Fiber to the Premises)
;
HDTV (High Definition Television) ;
IDLC (Integrated DLC)
;
NGDLC (Next Generation DLC) DLC
;
OLT (Optical Line Terminal)
FTTP FTTH;
ONT (Optical Network Terminals) FTTP FTTH.

1. Ross K. POTS to PIPES //Broadband


access report, Special Supercomm Issue,
p. 47.
2. . // 5
, 14 2005.
3. ., .
// , 14 2005.

www.lightwave-russia.com

15

WDM

EPON GPON
. . ,
, gladychevski@OPTICTELECOM.ru

PON 10 ,

155 / 2,4 /c. ,
IP-
,
, BPON1,
ATM-,

.
,

.
-, EPON,
Ethernet, EFM2. -,

EPON GPON
EPON

ONT


PON

c (DS)
(US)


(ODN)

FEC

GPON (Gigabit-capable Passive Optical


Network, ITU-T G.984),
BPON ATM-.

()

IP/Ethernet
.

, -

ATM GEM
(
Ethernet TDM)

Ethernet
( TDM)

BPON

ONT

FSAN3
-

GPON

, +

()

PHY
64 TC
128


16

DS: 14801500
US: 12601360
1550


A (520 ), 10
B (1025 ), 20

A
B
C (1530 ), 20

AES-128

Ethernet-

AES-128
GEM ATM-

DS: 1 /
US: 1 /

DS: 1,2 /, 2,4 /


US: 155 /, 622 /
1,2 /, 2,4 /

OLT
ONT



ONT

BPON

GPON
C


ONT,
,

GPON 2
OLT

EPON GPON.

ATM GEM GTC,

EPON GPON

EPON Ethernet -

EPON GPON BPON,


(. 1).

:

PON.
GPON
. -, (TDM)
Ethernet-

PON. .1 EPON GPON.


GEM , EPON. EPON -

, , ,
.

GEM (GTC4 Encapsulation Method) ,


GFP- (Generic

Ethernet-

,
-

Frame Procedure, ITU-T G.7401). -,

16

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

WDM

5+

5+

T1/E1
TDM

TCP+UDP .

TCP+UDP .
4

4
3

IP

AAL 1/2/5

Ethernet

ATM

GEM

GTC

Ethernet

PON-PHY

,
(jitter) .
(. . 2) TDM-
Ethernet- GEM-
.

PON-PHY

GPON

EPON

GPON-
-


EPON ,
Ethernet, SNMP5.

. 1. EPON GPON

, IEEE 802.3ah


MPCP (multi-point control protocol), -

: GATE
REPORT. GATE ONT, REPORT.

-

ATM

ATM

ONT. GATE, REPORT,


EFM OAM (Operation,
Administration & Maintenance), ,
, .

GPON
: OMCI (ONU
Management and Control Interface), OAM,
PLOAM (Physical Layer OAM) ( 2).

. 2. BPON, GPON EPON

.
, Ethernet
EPON
.
PON
. 2.

TDM

OAM ,
(DBA).
GTC-
, . , OAM

, , , 125-
GTC-

SONET,
TDM-
(, -

EPON
TDM-, -

).

. GPON -

TDM- EPON-

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

2
GPON EPON

ONT-

,
, DBA
ONT,
PMD GTC-

EPON

GPON

SNMP

OMCI

MPCP (


)

OAM

MPCP

EFM OAM

PLOAM

www.lightwave-russia.com

17

WDM

ONT.
GATE LLID , -

802.1

. , ONT, Ethernet-,
.
GPON . 3.
EPON

T-CONT. ( Alloc-ID,

GPON .
EPON DBA , .

ONT
EPON OLT
ONT, MAC, LLID ONT.
EPON
, .
GPON ONT
.

ONT
(burst).

) US BW Map (UpStream

OLT. -

PLOAM (13 ) ONT

BandWidth Map), PTC-, -

, ONT_ID
.

PMD-
GTC-, , -

. . 4.

Alloc-ID . PLOAM GTC, . 2



PON .



EPON
- (P2P), ONT MAC-6, MAC- OLT
ONT. -


(DBA, dynamic bandwidth allocation)

EPON, GPON 128 Advanced Encryption

Standard (AES),
3,41038
. -

. GATE EPON US BW Map GPON -

. GPON
.

,
DBA , -

, APON
(. ).

GTC

GTC

US BW Map

Alloc-ID

Alloc-ID

Alloc-ID

LLID7,
. . 3 LLID
-.
802.1, .
GPON :
- (T-CONT). ONT

T-CONT. , ,
- .


EPON
(grant) GATE, -

18

www.lightwave-russia.com

. 4.

ONT. DBA -

. FTTH (fiber to the home)



, -
, DBA -

GPON
ONT
LOW
(Loss Of Window ). -

. DBA .

OLT ,
.
EPON.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

WDM

EPON
GPON. PMD (Physical Medium
Dependent
)
EPON GPON ,
BPON, -.
: 12601360 , 14801500 ,
15501560 .
GPON
PMD (G.982). -

3
EPON GPON

GPON

, , APON , . , 4- . , 8-
;
.
, . ,
,
, .
622 /
APON,
, .

:
, . , ,
,

, ; , , ATM,

. ,
, , , - -
.

EPON

1,25 /

EPON
1000PX-10

155 /,
622 /,
1,25 /
10

16

16

ONT

16

512

155 /,
622 /,
1,25 /
20

10

1,25 /
20

32

32

ONT

16

512

155 /,
622 /,
1,25 /,
2,4 /
> 20

64

ONT

16

EPON
1000PX-20

/
/
/
/

/
(). ,

QoS ( )

1,25 /c 1 /c.

, EPON
BPON QoS, ATM--

GPON NRZ8,

QoS, Ethernet. GPON


BPON,

. 1,25 /c.

5 (burst) - T-CONT (. ITU-T G.983.4).


Ethernet

QoS . EPON -

GPON , ONT
(, 3,
6). ONT
.

3.

EPON .

Ethernet, EPON -

8B/10B ,
. 20% -

, (QoS), ,
BPON

GPON/EPON.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

QoS Ehernet,
BPON. ,
IEEE802.1p IEEE802.1Q EPON
8 , , QoS, GPON, EPON
.



, EPON , GPON
, ,
( ). ,
, ,
EPON, .

www.lightwave-russia.com

19

WDM

EPON ,
.. . QoS ( VLAN ) , (IP-,
TDM, VOIP, IPTV, ).
IPTV
( IP). : Video on Demand (VOD)


set-top box.
GPON Ethernet, Ethernet,
Ethernet-.

ONT
(Bridging)

Switched
Digital Video (SDV). ,
SDV -

EPON (bridging)
, -

GPON
2,448
/c ,
. , , 622 /
1,2 /. ,

622 /, - .

- (. ).
GPON - OLT Ethernet--

, GPON
bridging, -

GPON -
8 /10 .

.
IPTV SDV

FTTB
(Fiber To The Building -


PON,

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)


).

PON.
-

GEM-bridging (
Ethernet-bridging).

- PON.

. VOD IP
Unicast9, SDV IP Multicast. -

,
,
.
Ethernet- . EPON- ,
IGMP snooping proxy


. , EPON, . . 5 IGMP. IGMP snooping
, -

GPON-, VLAN-

.
.
EPON

Ethernet-.
OLT

72%,
68% 1,25
/, .. 900 /c 850 /,

Ethernet- TLS.

GPON GEM- -

ISP

10/100 BT
GigaVu

Internet
ONU

Switch/Router

10/100 BT

GigE
PON

Switch/Router

IP-

10/100 BT

OLT

10/100 BT

.
EPON, -

20

TLS -,

set-top box ,
. IGMP
proxy ,



-

PON

LAN (Transparent
LANServices, TLS)

IP-



(set-top box).


EPON 20%

www.lightwave-russia.com


IP-

TV

IGMP

IP :
=

. 5. IGMP

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

WDM

95% 1,25 /
.
/.


BPON?
BPON, EPON, GPON
, OLT ONT

. ,
BPON, BPON
EPON GPON.
,

GPON EPON


2 , EPON

GPON ONT

TDM-
- ONT

EPON

Ethernet-
,
Ethernet-:
IP
TLS
Broadcast, Multicast
IGMP:
IPTV,


Ethernet/GEM/GTC ,

, EPON, .
2,4 /
622 /
:
-

TDM

ATM ,
GPON ,

Ethernet (, 10
Gigabit Ethernet RPR-). OLT 1 Gigabit
Ethernet, EPON,
, GPON.

EPON
GPON, ,
-

EPON GPON
. EPON

SBC, Verizon, BellSouth


GPON, -

,
GPON -

. , -

EPON.
-

EPON
10 /, -

EPON. IP

BPON . GPON
, -

, 4.
, .


-



,
,


IP

IP

.

, - (IP), (LAN) . . 6.
-

. 6.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

21

WDM

: -, , .

video on demand,
.

, .
4
GTC (GPON TC layer)
GPON. TC (Transmission
Convergence) -

(PHY).
PHY PMD (Physical layer Medium
Dependent),
.
5
SNMP (Simple Network Management
Protocol)
. -

1
BPON (Broadband Passive Optical Network,
Broadband PON) . -


ITU-T G.983.1, 53- ATM
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
APON (ATM PON). ITU-T G.983. ITU-T G.983.3
BPON. BPON 622 /, , .
2
EFM (Ethernet in the First Mile) Ethernet
, IEEE
802.3ah.

FSAN (Full-Services Access-Network Group)


.

[4].
MAC (Media Access Control)
, 6

OSI (.
[4]). MAC- , , 48- , .
7
LLID (Logical Link IDentifier)
EPON. 2 -

IEEE P802.3ah ( Ethernet-),


.
8

NRZ (No Return to Zero) (.


.., .. ).
9
Unicast , ;
Multicast .

1. .., .. 5
PON. 2. Ethernet
// Lightwave Rrussian Edition,
2004, 2, . 25.
2. Angelopoulos John D. et al. Efficient
Transport of Packets with QoS in an FSAN5
Aligned GPON // IEEE Communications
Magazine. February 2004
3. Bemmel Vincent. Gigabit Ethernet PONs
deliver the futuretoday // Lightwave Online,
2004, July 27.
4. .. 5
OSI // Lightwave Russian Edition, 2005,
2, . 24.


&

.. , , Lightwave Russian Edition

DWDM-

DWDM-. -

, ,

. ROADM

, , -

, .
5

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,
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.
ROADM *,

5
:
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Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers),

22

www.lightwave-russia.com

* ROADM
32 .

Demux, Switch, Mux (, , ,


. 1).
Broadcast and Select
ROADM (

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

WDM

1
1 n

1 n

1 n

m-1

m+k+1

1 n

m m+k

1
2

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1
2

1 2

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,
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, Accelink
Technologies, AC Photonics,
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Technologies .

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,

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) -

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R

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,
.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

R
R

Technology is Simplifying Network


Management. OFC/NFOEC 2005, NThP2;
2. Field Barry. ROADM Spurs DWDM
Scalability. Network World, 17.01.2005.

www.lightwave-russia.com

23

WDM

OSI
.. ,

OSI ISO/IEC 7498-4 (. ).



.
OSI
:
1) (fault
management);
2) (performance management);
3)
(accounting management);
4) (configuration management);


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www.lightwave-russia.com

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LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

WDM

ISO/IEC 7498-4: . . . 4. .
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) ,
ISO 1984 . OSI , .
, .
OSI :
(physical layer),
(data link layer),
(network layer),
(transport layer),
(session layer),
(presentation layer)
(application layer).
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LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

25


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LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

.
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LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

27

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www.lightwave-russia.com

. 1.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

. 2.

. -

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[5],
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www.lightwave-russia.com

1. // ,

. http://a daily.ru. 4 2002 .


3. . 5 5
// Lightwave Russian dition, 2004, 3.
4. . 5
. .:
, 2002.
5.
. . .:
5, 2003.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

:

.. , ..., ,
.. , ..5.., ,
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,
, -

, , 1986 -


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. -

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,


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2004 37% ( 4,6 .


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.
2004 -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

FTTH (Fiber To The Home, .) .


FTTP (Fiber To The Premises, .) .

www.lightwave-russia.com

31


2005 . -

3,80%

4,64%

0,92%

,
- -

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200

, 2003 ,
2005

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2004 ,
Verizon,
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240

180
160
140
120
100


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60
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20


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2000

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,

.

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International Telecommunication
Union, ITU (.)
().

32

45

OVD
26,45%
VAD
39,98%

APVD, PCVD,
PEMCVD
& IVPO
16,25%
MCVD
17,32%


, %

Alcatel. 1
2004 . , -

2002 ,

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
2002

. 4.


2004

www.lightwave-russia.com

2003
OVD

VAD

MCVD

2004
*

* APVD, PCVD, PEMCVD & IVPO

. 5.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

2001

2002

2003

~ 65000

+ 3,0%

60794

2004

2005

> 2000

2000
1397,1

1500

500

703,8
343,7

1999
%

2000

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2003

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2005
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2004

1000

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1999
2000
..

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2005 .

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2004

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100 000
80 000 74380
60 000
40 000
+ 48,8%

-1
2003 ,

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.
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0,74%

1,01%

0
1999
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2000
76,6%

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

61,1%

60

.
,

. 6.

40

2002

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. -

2005 -




,
. -

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.

, -

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, 2003 -

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, 2004

-

..
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, ,
, , .
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2004
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.
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2000 3,2% 4,9%,
2008 8%
[12]. -

() : -

-01 2002

() 2004 255,6 . .,

(Fujikura),
(Corning Inc.), -1

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

44,9%

35,7%

~ 25,0%

31,3%

20
0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

. 6. )
%
)
%
)
% .
)
,
, %

www.lightwave-russia.com

33

(OFS).
, .. -


. -

. . 6

.
, -

,
.

. ,
-01, -1,
-, - ,
,
.

, , -

4. Bigo S. et al. 10.2 Tbit/s (256x42.7 Gbit/s


PDM/WDM) transmission over 100 km
TeraLightTM fiber with 1.28 bit/s/Hz spectral
efficiency // OFC2001, PD2551.
5. CRU International, OPTICAL FIBRE &
FIBRE OPTIC CABLE MONITOR, March 2005.
6. http://www.rccnews.ru/Rus/Plastics/?ID=
=51656&4Print=1
7. .., .. 5

1. .. 5 5 //
, 2000,
. 70, 11, . 10101015.

5 //
, 2004, 12,
. 7980.
8. CRU International, OPTICAL FIBRE &
FIBRE OPTIC CABLE MONITOR, March 2004.

2. Liu F. et al. 1.6 Tbit/s (40x42.7Gbits/s) trans5


mission over 3600 km UltraWaveTM fiber with
all5Raman amplified 100 km terrestrial spans

9. .. 5
: // 5
5, 2003, 2, . 24.

using ETDM transmitter and receiver //


OFC2002 Proceedings, postdeadline paper

10. .., ..,


..

FC751.
3. Charlet G. et al. Cost5optimized 6.3 Tbit/s5

// 5, 2004,
78, . 69.

capacity terrestrial link over 17x100 km using


phase5shaped binary transmission in a conven5

11. : // 5
5, 2005, 3, . 69.

tional all5EDFA SMF5based system //


OFC2003, PD2551.

12. C 2005 // 5
5, 2005, 3, . 1013.

? ,
..
.. , .. , .. : ,
. , -
. ,
.
. ? , , ? . 4-
, .

. ..

34

www.lightwave-russia.com







1,5



.: (095) 939#15#14,
(095) 939#41#40

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

ETHERNET&
VOIP
(SCOTT SUMNER), EXFO

Ethernet ,

Best Effort Ethernet (. 1)


SLA
-

, . , -

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol


- -). VoIP -

,
. Ethernet
-

,

Ethernet ,

,
-

: VoIP, ,

SLA.
, -

Ethernet.
SLA (. 1)

SLA
(QoS) .


Ethernet ,


. ,

.
, (virtual private LANs) -

Ethernet- (

, -

(PING), ..),


IETF
RFC-2544 (. 2). RFC-2544 -

SLA (Service Level Agreement) ,


- . . SLA
.
.
(SLA) , ,
[2].
SLA :
, , ,
;
, , ,
;
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,
, .;
, ;
, , , ..
(QoS) , ETSI (European
Telecommunications Standards Institute )
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- )
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, ,
Best Effort ,
(.. Best Effort , ) [1].
- SLA,
. SLA - , 3 [2].

, .

.
- IP
( ) ( ). ,

, ,
( ), VoIP. ,
.
VoIP.


VoIP
VoIP

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

35

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) .


IAB ,
. IETF , RFC.
IAB 1986 .
IAB (Internet Architecture Bureau) . , ISOC. IAB , ,
, .. , , . IAB IANA ( ) , IETF ,
IRTF ( ).
ISOC (Internet Society) .
1992 .
. 150 , IAB.
RFC (Request for Comments ) IETF (, , ..), ,
TCP/IP. ISOC RFC. . , .
RFC-2544 (Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect Devices ) [3].

(. 1). -

()
, VoIP. ,
. ,
-

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, ,

, .
, VoIP,
, , .
. .

.
,

,
,

,
,

,
.

. , .

www.lightwave-russia.com

, .
. VoIP

,
. -

36

5
. -

/ /

,
SLA.


,
, -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

Ethernet



(LAN),

(WAN).
,
,
-


. ,
-


,
VoIP-,

, , ( )
. ,

,
(), . -

,
-

.
, VoIP , -

,
-

RFC-2544.

. ,


, -

,
-

(,
GPS). . -

, .
, -

,
, , -

10 .


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, , ,

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-

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(, (MOS Mean Opinion Score), R* ).
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, * MOS
( 2,5 4,4) R = 20 MOS [1] . .

. , . .
.

. ( ),
. ,
( ), .

. 1.
Ethernet

,
.

, (
) (. 1). ,

, , .
,
-

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005


Lightwave, March 2005

,
1. .. 5
. 4 . .: 5
, 2004, . 4.
2. SLA ?
CNews.
www.cnews.ru/newcom/index.shtml?2004/07/0
9/161072
3. ftp://ftp.rfc5editor.org/in5notes/rfc2544.txt

www.lightwave-russia.com

37

40&

Marconi Communication
CoreOptics 40- (. 1), -

10 /c. , 10- -

. ,
(pizza box),

DWDM-
.
-

Multihaul 3000 Marconi,



T-Com ( Deutsche Telekom).

40 / . -

, (OAM&P operation, administration,

40- ,
2,5--

maintenance & provisioning), ,

().

ORBITAL FIBER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM


CABINET 384

.1. 40
,
Marconi
Communications CoreOptics

MPO 132

,

, .. P2MP
- (P2P).
- -

. 2. MPO
MPO /
18

. OFS

(. . 1). ,
, Orbital Fiber Management System.

Orbital Cabinet 384

384 ()

. 1.
Orbital Cabinet 384

(PON)
. PON -

OFS Fitel MPO*- (. . 2). MPO- MPO-/ 8

(. . 2). MPO-
,
( 32 ), / 132, , -

(P2MP) (,
).

* MPO (Multi-port Push On) ( 4, 8, 12) , . Orbital Cabinet


384 MPO- (. . 2),
MPO- 8 .

. ( ) / 32 , .

38

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

STM&1

ITT Industries AimBridges SFP-115E (. 1) -

. , , STM-1,
STM-1 -


SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy ) 155 /.

.
ITU-T
G.703 (ES1), DIN 1.0/2.3
75-.
SDH- -
, -


MSA (Multisource
Agreement) SFP (Small FormFactor Pluggable). SFP-155E
STM-1 SFP- -

. 1. SFP 155E

, -

1. SFP full5duplex STM51 electrical transceiver


// Lightwave, February 2005.

2. www.fiberopticsonline.com/content/news

EMCORE

1-Gigabit
Ethernet, -

300 . , EX4 -

300 , -

CWDM 10- 4 (1275, 1300, 1325

10-Gigabit Ethernet.

1350 ), 3,125 /.

,
. Emcore -

, . -


. 10GBase-EX4 (. 1)
-


40 .
,

, .
10GBase-EX4
.

. 1.
10GBase EX4


SDH
-

AXXMETRO 6U 19"
21

AXXMETRO AXXESSIT ASA (), TDM Ethernet. AXXMETRO

. ( STM-64, CWDM) (E1,


E3, STM1/4/16, Ethernet, 10/100/1000Base-X,
SAN) -

, -

TDM Ethernet,
IP/MPLS.

AXXMETRO . Ethernet-overSDH
- AXXMETRO -

.


http://www.emag.ru/.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

.1.
XXMETRO

www.lightwave-russia.com

39


.. , .. , , sale@optictelecom.ru

, .
Alcon ().

, (510%)
(. 1). ,

. -



( )


,
, -

ADC . ,

. -

2002 ADC Alcon Technologies,

PON,
-

- ( ) -

-.

,
,

iVAM -

..
-


.
, -


FSXExpert.

. ,
.
-

, ,

( ),
. 1.


. 3. .

40

www.lightwave-russia.com

. 2. iVAM

. 4. (Split A).
A B

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

. 5. B (Split B). A

. 6. AB (Split AB).

7. EF (Loopback EF).


. 8. E (Split E). EF (. )
E

. 9. F (Split F). E
F

iVAM -

.
FSXpert.

, . 10. EF (Split EF). Ef



,
(OTAU), -


,
.
FSXpert -

.

-

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

( 22), , (AB Switch)


ODSX.

www.lightwave-russia.com

41

1
OTAU 1xN

< 26

> 26

1270 1670

= 1310, 1550, 1625


,

1,0

1,4

1,4

1,8

55

45

(ORL)
=1310,1550,1625
,

15

(Cross Talk),

80

75

,
,

0,1

0,2

0,5

0,8

, .

10

. 12. OTAU 2x2


OTAU 21xN

. 11 ODSX

2
AB Protection Switch

ODSX

()

1310/1550

3 ,,, 48

0,1 .

+ 2 .

- 2 . -

+ 0,5 .


. 310.

ODSX

.
6 4 -

OTAU
OTAU ,
/
.
OTAU 22, iVAM,
ODSX,
1xN
21x(N/2), N

+ 0.2
( )

1,0 ., 0,6

50 .

60

300 .

+ 0,1 .

8 ., 5

10 .

3 48

+ 0,05 .

LX5 96 (

42

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2005

SC 48).
OTAU 1xN 4-
-, .. 2
2 , , ,
.
Alcon ,
,
. OTAU
21x12, 13.

.
, A/B
Protection Switch

.

12 ,

A/B Protection Switch


A/B Protection Switch

. 14. /
Protection Switch

3
4-

131020; 155020

0,02

0,05

40

250

, ,
,

0,6

(ORL) =1310,1550,

. 15.
/ Protection Switch

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, ,
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.1, 4
,
3.
, iVAM,
iVAM,
Ethernet- 10BaseT RS232.
iVAM , Telnet ..

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

43


FAST ETHERNET
-

(OAM) IEEE802.3ah. -

Radiance R821
METRObility Optical Systems. , -

, , .

EFM (Ethernet ). Radiance R821


(. 1) -

Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)


-

IP-, SNMP -

- -, -

SLA

IEEE802.3ah,
-

.
Radiance R821 -

.

Ethernet -

OSS.

, -

Radiance R821/ R851 -

. 1.
Radiance R821


http://www.emag.ru/.

. 1. Agilent N3909A




.
-

,

[3].
-

,
-

,
. , -


()
[1].
.

( ) .

.

() Agilent
Technologies (. 1) , , -

[2].
, ,

.
-

Measurement. New Jersey, Prentice Hall PTR,


1998.
2. .., ..,
..

. Agilent Technologies
, , -

,
(DWDM) [3].

.
.: , . 95.
3. . . 5
// LWRE, 2005, 1, 24.

44

www.lightwave-russia.com

1. Derickson D. Fiber Optics Test and

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

40&
MSA&

. 1. Kodiak 40/43G

. . 1.

Kodiak 40/43G
MSA-,


(),
,
Big Bear Networks -

Telcordia GR-468.

7HP ( )
SFI-5 (Serializer

/Deserializer Framer Interface Level 5).


-

Big Bear Networks (,


) -

,
39 45,
50 /.

Kodiak 40/43G,
40-

, MSA (Multiservice

, () (

Agreement). -


) -

, , -

,
- -


() (. 2). -

1. Fuller M. Big Bear bullish on 40G //


Lightwave, February 2005.

35
.

2.www.bigbearnetworks.com/products/Produ
ct-Brief-BBNTR4005.pdf

. 2. .
, 5
,

, [1],
.
.. , ..
1913 .. ..
,
. (18901971)
,
(18621942). () (18631925), , , - (1921).

,

,
,
.
.
,
, . .

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

2d Sin = m,
d
,
, , m ( ).

1. .., .. 55
// Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2004, 3, . 4753.

www.lightwave-russia.com

45




Civcom Inc. OFC/NFOEC-2005
Glassic (. 1)

TODS C- L- , 2 ,


(TODS Tunable Optical Dispersion
Compensator). Glassic SFS (Solid Free Space)

. Glassic
,
12,5 /,

Civcom Inc.
300-pin MSA (Multi-Service
Application)



1700 / +1700 /.

,
.

, .

Glassic
.

. 1.

Glassic

1) www.civcom.com/Technology/glassic.htm


Eblana Photonics Ltd.
EP1530-FP-T

(TTC
Telecommunication Technology Committee)

(. 1) (), -

100- Ethernet- -

. -

FTTH).
-

1530

PON FTTH,
, -

40 +85 C.
-

.
EP1530-FP-T InAlGaAs,

:
(FTTH), (FTTP),
(PON). EP1530-

15 5 .
,

FP-T T-1000
.
( T-1000

, : 155 622 /
1,25 2,5 /.

. 1.
EP1530 FP T

.

1. Laser is temperature5intensive for access


network applications // EuroPhotonics,
June/July 2004.
2. ww.eblanaphotonics.com/products/EP15305
FP5T.pdf


(911 2005 , , , )

. .. , Lightwave Russian Edition

, .
.
E#mail: info@lightwave#russia.com
505#57#53
46

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

Right reflector

Front
facet

Gain

Differential phase

MMI
Left reflector

Common phase

Syntune AB S1500 (. 1),


.
MG-Y (Modulated Grating Y-branch) (. 2).


(SG-DBR) [2].
. 1. S1500

S1500

,
(. . 2).
,
. MG-Y-

. 2. MG Y
Front facet ( ),
Gain ,
MMI ,
Left/Right reflector / ,
Common/Differential phase

1. Wesstrom J.5O. et al. State5of5the5art performance of widely tunable


modulated grating Y5branch lasers. Optical Fiber Communication
Conference on CD5ROM, TuE2, 2004.
2. .. // Lightwave Russian Edition,
2003, 2, . 4851.
3. www.syntune.com/s1500.html



-, -,

, , , , .
MG-Y- (MMI)
. (Differential Phase
Section) , , (Common Phase
Section) .
S1500 2 10 ,
1,5 ,
40 .
DWDM-,
15301610 , , - ..
,
, .

, , PC, SPC, UPC, APC, FC, SC, ST, LC, MU, MT-RJ,
FDDI, DIN, E2000, ,
.
:/1--403.

: /1--362


, ,

, 50 .
.
, , . 40 (5 )
C- L-.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

: /1--402
""
, 111672, / 120
. (095) 786-3497, 673-2955, 673-3352
(095) 234-1725
E-mail: optel@optel.ru, http://www.optel.ru

" """
61106, , . , . 3
./: (057) 717-66-81, (0572) 54-46-24
E-mail:optel@online.Kharkov.ua
http://www.optel.com.ua

www.lightwave-russia.com

47

www.tt.ru

www.syrus.ru

www.sarko.ru

SYRUS SYSTEMS

,
,

.

www.ocs01.ru www.plastcom.spb.ru

www.exfo.com

01

EXFO

www.ofsoptics.com

48

www.optictelecom.ru


,

,

www.uspekhi-fond.ru

OFS

,
,

,
,

.

www.lightwave-russia.com


2003




.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

A: , 57, 117997 ,
. , 84/32,
. 252, 2730
.: +7 095 78755550
: +7 095 33353300
E-mail: info@tt.ru
: www.tt.ru

( ,
) , . 1994
.

A: , 127236 ,
., 71
.: +7 095 90159186 ()
+7 095 75559088
+7 095 48750125
: +7 095 90159186
E-mail: sale@optictelecom.ru
: www.optictelecom.ru
A: , 050004 ,
.:

. , 67, 204
+7 3272 6645002, 6645003

PHOTONIUM

A: Photonium Oy, Sorronrinne 9


Lohja FIN508500, FINLAND
.: +358 19 357381
: +358 19 3573848
E-mail: photonium@photonium.fi
: www.photonium.fi
A: , 195273 5,
, 63,
OOO
: +7 812 2498841
E-mail: tenz@mail.wplus.net
Photonium
.

: +7 3272 5075327

SYRUS SYSTEMS
: -

01,

, .

A: , 198323 5,
, 115
.: +7 812 38053901,
: +7 812 38053903
E-mail: office@ocs01.ru
: www.ocs01.ru
A: , 198323 5,
, 115,
.: +7 812 14651761,
: +7 812 14651140
E-mail: office@ocs01.ru
: www.plastcom.spb.ru
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OFSOPTICS

A: , 107140, ,
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.: 095 93755959, 26257744,
: 095 26257744, 262 57764
E-mail: sale@syrus.ru
: www.syrus.ru

A: , 103104 ,
., 9

SYRUS SYSTEMS

5 ,
315
.: +7 095 202 76 59
E-mail: amikilev@ofsoptics.com

.
SYRUS SYSTEMS

: www.ofsoptics.com
www.ofssvs1.ru

- ,

OFS (Optical Fiber


Solutions - )
, , ,
. OFS, - Lucent Technologies.
OFS . , . , ,
,
. 2001 . OFS.
1998 . - --1 - .

, .
:

, -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

49

DWDM&

(Tutorial)
Xtera Communications Inc. [1]. ,
(DWDM).
DWDM [2],
WDM (, ..).
DWD .

DWDM?

DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division


Multiplexing -

(. 2) (ILAs)

) ,


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() (. 1). ,
,
() . n (.. n
), n , , n .

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3

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( )

. 1. DWDM

/2.
.

50

www.lightwave-russia.com

(
)

.
-

DWDM-, (),

, , ,

. ,
-

1
, PS out . PS out = GPS in, G , PS in,
.
2

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. ,
,

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Span 1 n Span 2 n

,
DWDM

ILAs


, ,

( )

(Span)

(Link)

/ (OSNR optical signal


to noise ratio)  ,
[6].


ITU T3


,
.
DWDM- -

ITU-T 193 100 .


100, 50 25 [14]. ITU
International Telecommunications Union
Telecommunications sector
().

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

ITU-T.
DWDM-

DWDM Mux

ITU-
DWDM- (. 3).
( DWDM-
ITU-T)

DWDM- (
) (. 3).
, DWDM- DWDM- (
ITU-T),
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4

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Mux

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4

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ITU-1

DWDM- (Demux)

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Multiplexer
(OADM)
-

. 5.

ITU-1

ITU-2

. 3.
DWDM (, ) DWDM
()

(. . 4).

.

, -

,
Mux/Demux
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;

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5
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.

3R

, 4 , ,
. (-) (, . )
, [4].
5
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[2].


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?
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,
1R Re-amplification ;
2R Re-amplification & Re-shaping
-
( ), 3R Re-amplification,
(. 5). OADM
Re-shaping & Re-timing (

).

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

www.lightwave-russia.com

51


(DCU)
.

( -

DCU

, ) , .. -


.
,
DCU,

. 7. DCU

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(. 8). ,
.

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(, postamplifier)

(, ) .
8

1550 SSMF 17 c/.

www.lightwave-russia.com

optical amplifiers).


,
,

() .
()

52


(SOA semiconductor

(EDFA Erbium doped fiber

SSMF
standard single-mode fiber.
.


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);

amplifiers);
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. ILA

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. ,
-

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.
ILAs 150160 .

;
;
.

C- L-;
9

. [6,15].

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

a)

, -

(. 10)

.
.



()10,


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;
;

)
1

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10


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).
-

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005


, .


()


.

(). , .
( ,
, ), -

11

[3].

www.lightwave-russia.com

53

t2

t3

tn

. 12.
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,
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[711].

13

[1213].

54

www.lightwave-russia.com

() ()15
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14, 15, 16
[3].

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

(4080 ) DWDM -

.
(DCU).
SSMF
?
SSMF

. 16.

, ,

. , ,
- .
?
.
.

1310

. 18. DSF


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8

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, //

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1400

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,

. 17. SSMF

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1450

1475

1500

1525

1550

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1600

1625

,
Truelight

TrueWave RS

TrueWave +

TrueWave Classic

LEAF

SMF - LS

. 19. NZ DSF



. DWDM- - -

, ,
.
,


. , -


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C- DCF

DWDM- C-.
DCF ?
DSF -

(SSMF standard single-mode fiber)

. DSF ,

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Telecommunications Union
Telecommunications sector,
), -

1310 , , DWDM- .

DSF ,
-

(NZ-DSF Non-Zero Dispersion


Shifted Fiber)

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

+ NZDSF

0
-2

1550 .
, ITU-T

1550
,

1310

1550 , . C- -

SSMF

0,5
, /

, //

(2,5 /
)

, //

0,4

0,3

0,2

1300

1400
1500
,

1600

. 20.
DWDM

www.lightwave-russia.com

55

NZ-DSF ,

ITU-T G.655,

.
NZ DSF ?
1996 , NZ-DSF
60%

C-

0,5
, /

,
,
.

, 1570


SSMF

1610 .
L
EDFA L-
C-
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L
L- ,
C-, , , .

0,4

0,3

0,2

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1300

. ,

.

1400
1500
,

1600

1. http://63.120.210.50/solutions/tutorials.cfm,
2. .. 5
5

. 22.

// Lightwave Russian Edition, 2004,


2, . 47.
3. . 5

DWDM

(1550 )

C- -

. .: , 1996.
4. .. 5

: S (14851520 ), C-

(C conventional) DWDM-, 1530

. .: 5, 2000.
5. .

(15301562 ) L- (15701610 ).

1562 . DWDM-,
2000 , C-

WDM / . .
. .. , .. 5

S-

.
C

, .. .
.. . .: EXFO, 2001.
6. ..


SSMF

S-
1485 1520

0,4

0,3

0,2

1300

1400
1500
,

1600

. 21. S

S- (S
short, ) DWDM-, 1485
1520 . S+

< 1485 .
S
-
. SSMF.
S
S- ,
C-, , ,
.

56

www.lightwave-russia.com

EDFA // Lightwave Russian Edition,

. C-.
C

2003, 1, . 22.
7. .., .. 5
5

ITU -

// Lightwave Russian Edition,


: 50 , 100 ,
200 . C- DWDM- -

2005, 1, . 48
8. .., ..
5

16 96.
L-

L- (L
long, ) DWDM -

0,5
, /

, /

0,5

SSMF . -


SSMF

L-
1570 1610

0,4

0,3

? // Lightwave Russian Edition, 2004,


4, . 33.
9. .., .. 5
// Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2005, 1, . 38.
10. . . 5
// Lightwave Russian Edition,
2005, 1, . 24.
11. . , 5
// Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2004, 2, . 38.
12. .. 5
. .: 5
, . 52.
13. .. .
. .: , . 82.
14. ITU5T Rec. G.694.1, Study Groyp 15,

0,2

1300

1400
1500
,

. 23. L

1600

Spectral grids for WDM applications: DWDM


frequency grid, Juny, 2002.
15. .., .. 5
5 // Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2003, 1, . 14.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 2 2005

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