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:

FTTH

CWDM

1 2007


, 2007 Lightwave Russian Edition
.
,
, 
.
, 
,
, . 
FTTH2006 (
FTTH, 25 , ) CSTB2007 (
CSTB, 58 , ) FTTH 
Free. 
, , FTTH. 
.
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,

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, , 
.

LIGHTWAVE RE



Russian Conference on Optical Communication.
, 16 17 2007 .,
-,
,
.


1.
2.
3.
4.

.
- .
.
.


E-mail: conference@lightwave-russia.com.
.: (095) 939-3194
2

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

1 2007
:

1/2007

2003 .
4 .

FTTH

CWDM

:
Pennwell Corp.
98 Spit Brook Road, Nashua
New Hampshire 03062-5737 USA
.: +1 603 891-0123

1 2007

:

Pennwell Corp.
E-mail: info@lightwave-russia.com

. 4

FTTH


?
33

. 12

Ethernet

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

38

:
, 119311 , / 107



,
.

77-14327 10.01.2003
ISSN 1727-7248

, 2007

:
,

-
, , . 5, . 6
./: 995-15-99, 995-45-99



24

:
,

5.03.2007.
6090/8.
Helios. .
. . . 7,0.
4000 . ---

Ethernet


CWDM

:

:

.: (495) 505-5753
mk@lightwave-russia.com

FTTH
FREE

16 WDM

:

.: (495) 939-3194
editor@lightwave-russia.com
:

.: (495) 726-9285
muslimova@lightwave-russia.com

. 51


.

47
48
50 -
51

:


,
36222;

--2003
.: (495) 500-00-60,
www.interpochta.ru
:
.: (495) 505-57-53

www.lightwave-russia.com

FTTH
(STEPHEN HARDY)
FTTH, 25 - -,

. ,
, 2100
,
. FTTH , ADSL,
FTTH ,
.

(, Verizon) ,

.
FTTH , (Michael
Render) Render Vanderslice & Associates.
,
, ,
, FTTH-
,
,
, FTTH, 6 .
1%
, 213%- .

63,5% (.
).
- , ,
PON, Ethernet

34%.

: BPON 28%,
EPON 21%, GPON 18%.
Verizon . -

www.lightwave-russia.com

- Virizon (FiOS*)

, (Bob Ingalls
. FTTH- Verizon
Jr.), Verizon
Telecom,
, FTTN AT&T,
-:
, FTTN-
4,4 ;
,

.
6 ;

2010 18 FTTH,
.
Lightwave KMI Research,
. , Verizon
(Vince Vittore), Yankee Group,
15%-
,
175
,
.

(David
(8 /, MPEG4),
E. Young), - (3 /),
Verison,

, - .
Verizon 10%-
, 2025%
2010 . Verision , 3040% .
2006 $873, $933. Verizon ,
. 1.
2006
FTTH
$850 $880 .

80% , (3 /) (1 /).
, .
15 /, , AT&T
AT&T, , , . -
FTTH (, ,
), 2008 MSO* DOCSIS
1 , PON-3.0*
, , - AT&T Operations Inc. ,
. FTTH FTTN 15 20
.
- 3850 / 5
Verizon
6 .
AT&T
, AT&T VDSL2 ,
FTTN-.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

(Colin Dixon),
IP Diffusion Group
. Diffusion Group
.


, ,
. (Hiromichi
Shinohara), Access Network
Service Systems Laboratories NTT, , ADSL-
2006 .
, FTTH-
ADSL 2007 .
,

ADSL FTTH ,
,

, VDSL2. - , FTTH 6,31 2006 .
, 2010
30 .
- , NTT
BPON
GEPON
; GEPON 1 /
, ( NTT ).
NTT
FTTH.
. ,
10- EPON , . BPON- GEPON-
WDM. - ,
NTT WDM
access, WDM PON-.
, WDM access . -

(ONUs), .
. , NTT WDM-,
64 .
,
WDM 35 .
,
.

,
WDM PON ONU , - . WDM, , ,
, , Novera Optics
.

(ETRI) ,

, TDMA.
ETRI , 10 / TDMA PON
2008
. TDMA PON 10 /
1,25 / . ETRI 10- TDMA PON.
,
FTTH , . . (Gilles Coullon),

France Telecom
.
, .
France Telecom 100 , HDTV-
70 .
1000

Orange. France Telecom GPON Alcatel SAGEM.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

Telefonica FTTH .
(Jose Luis Novoa
Lozano),
Telefonica de Espana,
.
EPON-,
,
. . ,
GPON-, . , ,
. . , FTTH ,
Telefonica
FTTH FTTX.

Lightwave, November 2006

, .
, .
6 . , 1 . ,
.
FiOS
(FTTP),
Verizon. Fios , .
MSO , .
DOCSIS 3.0 (Data-over-Cable Service
Interface Specifications)
,

160 / ( 6 256 QAM)
120 /.

, , . DOCSIS IP,
.

www.lightwave-russia.com

CISCO
,  Cisco Systems
Cisco EDFA , ,
, . 1993
.
, .

Cerent (USA)
1999 .

, SONET.
. 1.
,
,
,

1997
Cisco , 64 .

, 10 /,
. 1999
40 /.
Cisco 2001
Pirelli Optical Systems, ,
160
10 / , 2002
(DWDM)
Cisco ,
. 1987 .
Pirelli Optical Systems Southampton
2004
University
ONS 15454,

, ,
DWDM, SDH,

.
, ,
.
, ,
, 2004 (IP). ,
,

. , IP , , -
, IP (ROADM)
.
DWDM -

www.lightwave-russia.com

, L-
40 /.
? .
.

( ),

( -).

,
, .
,
,

() . ,
.
, , , , ( ).

() .
. ,

/,
,

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

,

, . , ,

-,
,
.

:

? , . , .

.

, .



. Cisco , .

CSTB2007


5 8 2007
CSTB'2007.
, , ,
, .
, , ,
, ,
(HDTV), ,
,
IP-.

(), IP-

, .

,
,
,
CSTB'2007.
,
,

, . , , ,
. ,
.
90%.
[1],

. , .. , . ,


, ,
. , , - . , ,
,
.

IP-
. , IPTV
.
: , ,
,
, -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

, . IPTV
,

, , C.T.I. ,
.
, ..
. ( ,
IPTV [2]). - IPTV IP-,
IP- ,
.
IPTV . , , 1%.

,
, ,
. ,
.

, .
IPTV ,
IPTV .

www.lightwave-russia.com

FTTH FREE
(KURT RUDERMAN), Lightwave Europe

Free,
,
FTTH , FTTH .
-
DSL, ,

.
Free
,
FTTX.
FTTX France Telecom , ,
.
,
,
FTTH ,
Free.
,
FTTH, ,
FTTH
.

FTTH , ,
FTTH,
. ,

FTTH.
, 2006 800 FTTX.

FTTX 5,6 [1].
,
FTTH-
, . (

www.lightwave-russia.com

,
[2].)
, IDATE,

, FTTH
. , ,

, 50 /
. ,
. (triple play),
.

(HDTV). , , ,
.
Free , HDTV

FTTH. , HDTV , , HDTV HDTV.

Free
FTTH Free . ,


DSL,

FTTH. , FTTH-,
2007 2012
4
. Free . , -

Iliad Group,
50- FTTH- $29,90, ADSL2+.
.

DSL. , 50- FTTH-
, 20- DSL,
.
Free , DSL 15%. - ,
ADSL FTTH
Free 350 .
,

FTTH, Free Citefibre, ,
FTTH. Free FTTH 15- .
Free

, France
Telecom, .
France Telecom, , , FTTX- ,

.
, -
FTTH, France Telecom FTTH GPON FTTH. , ARCEP.
ARCEP, ,

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

France Telecom

.
,
FTTH -. ,
.
France Telecom

.
Free,
Ethernet , 720 Draka. - IDATE, ,
,
30%.
, Free ,

, .

Free
France
Telecom
Free.
France Telecom FTTH Telefonica
Telecom Italia,
GPON FTTH.

PON,
,
FTTX- Ethernet -. ,
, FTTH, .

FTTH


-

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

,
. ,

,

.
, , ,

,
France Telecom.
France Telecom,
.
- , FTTH-
,
.
,
.
France Telecom 17-
2006,
,

www.lightwave-russia.com

FTTH.
, .. France
Telecom
DSL.
VDSL
GPON FTTH
.
,
, .
4
2006 .
.


.
.
Free , , Free . Free
FTTH- , , .
, , , , .

, Union pour un Mouvement Populaire
.
2007. Hauts-de-Seine, ,
France Telecom FTTH. 2005 - ,
Hauts-de-Seine, , .
2006 , CiteFibre
Erenis, ,
, FTTX .

10

www.lightwave-russia.com

Erenis
FTTB/ADSL- 2002
. CiteFibre
Erenis
, . France
Telecom Free.


FTTH
France Telecom,
, Free,

FTTH-, .
DSL
( 11 600 2002) 4 FTTH 2012 .
- ,

.
, /, , .
France Telecom . - : , . - ,
,
France Telecom
, :
France Telecom
,
, . ,

.
- :
1996 .
, .

, , .

.
, -,
Telefonica, ,
. . . Telefonica
GPON FTTH,
.
, ,
T-Com Production
& Service Deutsche Telekom, , fibre-to-the-curb
(FTTC)/VDSL 2,9
10 2005
. :
- . .
,
.
,
Telecom Italias, , FTTH. FTTH
2007 , FTTC, , - , .
FTTB.
FTTH. GPON.

Lightwave Europe, December 2006

,

1. .. FTTH //
Lightwave Russian Edition, 2005, 4, . 16.
2. . FTTH
//
Lightwave Russian Edition, 2007, 1, . 45.
3. FTTH
// Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2005, 1, . 5.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

ETHERNET

(DAVID PARKS), Ciena

- IP- ,

. , Ethernet, Ethernet
.

, Ethernet. ,
, , (OAM),
50 . ,
Ethernet , TDM ATM. ,

, Ethernet SONET/SDH.

Ethernet,
.

Ethernet .
(N)/G.709, ,

12

www.lightwave-russia.com

, , Ethernet ( . [1, 2], .


).

Ethernet

Ethernet , , . ,
,
, ,
(private lines). ,
Ethernet,
IPTV 50 . .
.
Ethernet ,
. Ethernet
SONET/SDH,
Ethernet-,
IP.
Ethernet- -
.
,
-

. 25 / IP .
, OTN WDM.

,
, , ,
.

Ethernet

Ethernet
,
.
LAN,
,
Ethernet , .
Ethernet
, .
.
, Ethernet
.
Ethernet
(VLANs)
1 /, 10 /,
100 /.
. Ethernet
.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

. 1. Ethernet. OTN/G.709,

, Ethernet,

,
, (VPNs)
. Ethernet
(QoS),
.
. Ethernet ,
.
50 ( SONET/SDH) , .
. Ethernet
, OAM-.
.

. Ethernet ,

.


Ethernet
Ethernet ,
Ethernet .
,

(IETF), 1- 2-
IP/MPLS; ITU G.709 OTN
SONET/SDH

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

WDM-
40 / G.ASON GMPLS

.
. 1,
,
.

. OTN : .
OTN ( ) Ethernet, .
OTN , SONET/SDH.
, SONET/SDH, OTN
, . , OTN

OC-192/STM-64 10,7 / Ethernet LAN PHY
OTN-. OTN SONET/SDH Ethernet.
,
Fibre Channel, ESCON FICON,

. 2.
. OTN 
SONET/SDH,

www.lightwave-russia.com

13


, Ethernet IP Ethernet

SONET/SDH.
IP/MPLS-,
,
.
, Ethernet, , . ,
, ITU G.ASON.
ITU G.ASON
,
Ethernet-. ,
TDM
Frame Relay ATM-
.

Ethernet
,
. 3.
Ethernet
Ethernet .

.
Ethernet


,

.

,
dry Martini. Dry Martini
- .
Ethernet
,

QoS (. 2).
OTN ,
, OTN, MPLS.
.

.
. ,
Ethernet
,
, SONET/SDH.

, Ethernet ,
.



. 4. 
IP/MPLS ,
. , 
Ethernet. , , 

,

Ethernet MPLS, .. ,
OTN,
1- 2- IP- .
draft Martini
RFC 3916 .
1- 2- ,
IP/MPLS, . 3. -

14

www.lightwave-russia.com

Ethernet
.
,

Ethernet
.
.

, , , 90 .
Ethernet
. . 4
, .

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

, ,

, , .

, NE , . NE . , ,

, , .
, .
Ethernet,
, ..
.
,

Ethernet (SLAs) .
, .. ,
,
. . 5

.

Ethernet

, Ethernet
.

IP-,
.
Ethernet
, , , , , , ,
. -

Ethernet-
, ,
QoS, ,
, TDM.
Ethernet


. 5. .
. Ethernet


. , 

,
,
, VPN-.


.
Ethernet
.

Ethernet
Lightwave, August 2006
. G.709 OTN , ,



1. .
SONET/SDH. Ethernet 

// Lightwave Russian Edition,
Ethernet/OTN ,
2006, 2, . 28.
Ethernet- Ethernet-WAN .
2. ..
, ITU G.ASON NGN // Lightwave Russian Edition,
2006, 2, . 18.
OTN
3. .., .. 
, PON. 2 Ethernet
. // Lightwave Russian Edition,
Ethernet
2005, 3, . 19.


21
(BT) Nortel Siemens
Ethernet
21

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

(21st Century Network).



(Provider Backbone Bridging Traffic Engineering).
PBB-TE .

www.lightwave-russia.com

15

WDM


CWDM
.. , ,
MRV Communications WDM

CWDM
,
. ,




.
,

.

CWDM . -




( access), (WDM).
MRV Communications , 90%
CWDM

, ,
(saturation). ,
, CWDM,

. ,
, Ethernet
(/ Link Up)
.
Ethernet IP-. IP-,
. , ,

. 1. CWDM

16

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

WDM

.
SFP (Digital
Diagnostics DD).

(RX Power) ,
1
,
DD
SFP

. 2.


*******************************

, 

44/111

3,3916

TX ,

29,598

TX , /

1,8/1,531

RX , /

13,8/0,041

.
(TX Power) ,
end-to-end

, , ,
(). CWDM,
(
, ,
, ).

CWDM
.
. ,
, access (, SDH, -

CWDM),
( WDM)
, .

,
.

CWDM-
( SNMP-, telnet).
CWDM 2

()

()
. . . . . . . . .
()
(DD)

()

()

()

MRV Communications ( www.mrv.ru)


SFP-GD-LX

SFP
Singlemode

GE/FC

1310

22

24

13

19

10

SFP-GD-ELX

SFP
Singlemode

GE/FC

1310

24

26

17

21

25

SFP-GD-XD

SFP
Singlemode

GE/FC

1550

2,5

24

26

19

23,5

50

SFP-GD-ZX

SFP
Singlemode

GE/FC

1550

24

26

24

28

80

SFP-GD-EZX

SFP
Singlemode

GE/FC

1550

32

34

32

36

120

Finisar ( www.finisar.com)
FTRJ1319F1xTL

SFP
Singlemode

GE/FC

1310

9,5

21

22

11,5

19

10

FTRJ1519P1xCL

SFP
Singlemode

GE/FC

1550

21

22

21

27

80

FTRJ1619P1xCL

SFP
Singlemode

GE/FC

1550

28

30

28

35

110

18

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

WDM

3
CWDM

()

()
.

. .

()
.

()
.

()
()
(DD)

MRV Communications ( www.mrv.ru)


SFP-27DCWEIR-

Multi-Rate
CWDM SFP
(100/ 13101610
Singlemode
2,7 /)

22

20

60

SFP-27DCWLR-

Multi-Rate
CWDM SFP
(100/ 13101610
Singlemode
2,7 /)

30

26

100

Finisar ( www.finisar.com)
FWDM-1521-7D-xx

Multi-Rate
CWDM SFP
(100/ 13101610
Singlemode
2,7 /)

20

18

50

FWDM-1621-7D-xx

Multi-Rate
CWDM SFP
(100/ 13101610
Singlemode
2,7 /)

28

26

100

. . 1 - ( WDM).

end-to-end :
access


WDM .
,

, :
Pout
(Output Power);
Pin
(Input Power);
Psens (Receiver
Sensitivity);
Psat
(Saturation
Power).


:

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

Psens < Pin < Psat



,
(. . 2):

Psens (min) + 3

< Pin < Psat (min)

,
,
3 dB .
2 SFP Gigabit Ethernet
. 3 SFP
CWDM.

CWDM
-.
CWDM
( - OADM),
CWDM-
.
CWDM-

,
CWDM.

www.lightwave-russia.com

19

WDM



.. ,



. 2000 , , . , .


1990-
. , ..
.
, ,

.
.
.


,
,

20

www.lightwave-russia.com

10 /. ,
, [1].


.

(EDC Electronic
Dispersion Compensation) ,

(40 /
TDM- 100 / Ethernet- ). , n-
n , , n2-
, .

, ,
(ISI
Intersymbol Interference),
[2, 3].
(CD
Chromatic Dispersion) G.652 10

/ 1550 40 .
,
.
CD
.
(
).
,
.
CD .

()
.

.
, ( ),
. -
, - CD.
, , 2,5 /
10
/ . , . , ,

, -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

WDM

10 /.

[3].

[5, 6].
,
3.2.


)
)

.
. 1.
(

). - ()
, , ,
( , CD ,
), .
.
- (FIR Finite Impulse Response):

3.1.
,



,
[4]:
,

.

-

.
. .
. x (n), y (n) 1
, , n - , c0, , cM :

, z1 NRZ- ( .
, .. ), , y(n) (
( y(n1)),
);

- (
.
, IIR Infinite Impulse Response).
,


. ,
. . 1 NRZ,
,

.

CD :
, : CRZ, CSRZ,
APRZ.
.
.
(1000 ),

,
.
.
,
, .
. CD
CD NRZ , . 2. , 
. 

. ,
: , / 

, 40
.

22

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

WDM

. 2.

, .
- (D/A),
.

4.


: ,
.

,
.

. ,
(
).

(FFE Feed
Forward Equalizer) / (DFE Decision
Feedback Equalizer), ( ,
) (. 3). FFE
-, DFE
- (. ). FFE- , DFE-
.


(. . 3)
,
(MSE Mean Square Error). MSE yn an :
.
, ,
, (MLSE Maximum
Likelihood System Estimation).

N MLSE- 2N ,
MSE [4].

5.

)



(), ().
)
,
DCF. .

1. .
,
// Lightwave
Russian Edition, 2005, 3, 1920
2. ..
 //
Lightwave Russian Edition, 2003,
1, . 4852.
3. .., ..

// Lightwave Russian
Edition, 2005, 1, .4851.
4. Prati G. Electronic dispersion compensation.
ECOC 2005, Mo4.6
5. .., ..
//
Lightwave Russian Edition, 2004, 4, . 2629.

. 3. 
() 
(). : c0, , cM 
, g0, , gL 
, T


, T/s

( s,
)

6. .., .., ..

// Lightwave Russian Edition,
2005, 4, . 2130.
7. Faerbert A. Application of Digital
Equalization in Optical Transmission Systems //
OFC 2006, Conf. Proc., paper OTuE5, 2006.
8. Killey R. I., Watts P. M., Glick M., Bayvel P.
Electronic dispersion compensation by signal
predistortion // OFC 2006, Conf. Proc., paper
OWB3, 2006.

Syntune AB, , CyOptics Inc., (InP),


- . ,

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007


.

:
Lightwave, 2006 1, 3, 

DWD
, 1, 2.

www.lightwave-russia.com

23


?
.. ,

,


PON AON
(Passive Optical Network PON),
(Active Optical
.
Network AON).

PON
, PON
. 11. PON 
FTTx,

x , OLT
.
FTTx
,
Fiber To The Home (FTTH),
.
PON
, .

, ; Fiber To
, Lightwave Russian
The Node (FTTN),
Edition 2004 .
,
,
. PON , ,
( ; Fiber To The
, ,
) .
Premises (FTTP) Fiber
, To The Building (FTTB),
:

-,


,

PON- (32
64); -, ,

. 2. PON
().
.

, , ,
1 POP (point of presence)
.
.
APON/BPON GPON. -

24

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

PON
, .


.
SFP
(Small Factor Pluggable module),
.

, . 1,
, AON
, PON.

. 3. PON

OLT (.1), (. 2).



,

OLT, .
, ,
. . 2 PON,
Node1

.

.
. ,
ONT- ( ), OLT,
, ONT ,
, , ( ).

,
OLT . ,
, , .


.
. 3 , , , ,
.
-

26

www.lightwave-russia.com


,
.
. 3
,

,
,
PON, ,

.
. 4. AON


,
, .
, . 3,
AON
PON
AON, ,
Ethernet
. , SDH PDH PON (. 5).

. 5. AON

, , , 1,

TDM (Time Division Multiplex).
-,
1
.


, , ,
. ,
.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

. 6. WDM
( )

, ,

.



. ,
AON ( Ethernet)
,

. 7. WDM
 ( )

(
) SFP-
, .
PON (APON/BPON
GPON, EPON),
TDM ,
(IPTV)
(. 4, 5). , , ,

.
WDM
DWDM
(Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing)
CWDM (Coarse Wavelength Division

1 WDM
,
, .

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

Multiplexing).

CWDM,
.
,

PON AON.

, , ,
-
. ,
. ,
. 1.
, , PON,
, , PON, ,
.
,
10 /.
. 6
. , ,
PON (. 3),
,
OADM.

.
(CWDM
DWDM), .
OADM ( / )
. 40 80. WDM-

www.lightwave-russia.com

27


(. 7), 1520 .
.

, ?
.


?
PON
.
APON/BPON
PON, ATM
622 / .
ITU
G.983.x.


Terawave, Olencom
Motorola ( Quantum Bridge),
. ATM
,
.
, , Ethernet

$2000. OLT, $3000
. ONT FTTH, FTTN
FTTP.
GPON APON/BPON , GPON.
EPON ( GEPON Ethernet PON)
.
OLT

Ethernet. IEEE
802.3ah EPON 2004
.
.

28

www.lightwave-russia.com

, Fujikura
() TDM.
, ,
.
2005 . FTTH,
ONT 500
. 1 / .
Fujikura, Fiber Home, CoreCess, UT-Starcom
AllOptic ( GEPON
EPON, E1, EPON ).
GPON PON.
G.984
2,5 / (
2,5 /
DownStream 1,25 / UpStream).
GPON
EPON EPON ,
E1.
FTTP FTTN
FTTH (
64 ONT )
.

FlexLight,
Ethernet. FlexLight GPON 2005 .

( ONT
2000 ).
2005
Wave7Optic, Siemens, Alcatel ECI1.
, PON, - , ,
,

. , FlexLight Terawave
FTTP/FTTN , , . Siemens Alcatel

. ,
.

.



.
AON
,
AON SDH- PDH-,
.
, Ethernet,
. ADVA
FSP150.
: Gigabit Ethernet,
100 /.
IEE 802.3ah ADVA
,
.

,
.
ADVA
. ,
, ,
.
2005
ES3526S Edge-Core2, , ,
24 . , FSP150,

100 /.

1 2007 GPON- Terawave.

2 MRV
OA2000.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

.



DWDM
.
2005 , 1
. 8 .

( POP)
DWDM, FTTN
Allied Telesis AT,
FTTP x900-24XS. Edge Core
TDM-, ES3526S. Ethernet-.
(OADM). ,
CWDM (G.694.2 Spectral grids for WDM
Supercom 2005 Korea Telecom
.
applications: CWDM wavelength grid) ,
(
WDM-PON

.
. .

-, ). 8 (
IPG Photonics
802.3ah, G.652) 16 ( G.652C
Corporation.

G.652D) .
( .
),
FTTx,

OADM, ,


PON. ,
. -.
,
,
,
.
.


500
, 100
CWDM .
.
, , .
, , WDM

,
, Metrobility (R4000 R5000), Allied Telesis
, ,
(AT-WG1003). . , .


100 / 1 / $2000 (
.

PON AON,

POP),
,
, .
,
10 /
CWDM . . FTTN FTTP,
, FTTH. . 8 .

CWDM
, ,
50 ( .
1520 ), DWDM (ITU-T G.694.1 Spectral
grids for WDM applications: DWDM frequency
. ,
grid) ,
, 1
, . 6.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

www.lightwave-russia.com

29

. PON
AON
,
.

?


( )


. ,

, , .
,
. , . , ,

, . , , ,
( , - ). , , .


,
.
. . , , ()
( 12).

(-

30

www.lightwave-russia.com

5 ) , 24
. ,
,
,
.
.
. ,
,
Sirocco Prysmian Cables&Systems.

. , ,
.
, ,
.
, .
,
.


.
, .
. ,
.
.
,
, .

, .
, , -

, . ,
, , ,
2030%.

, , .

, ITU-T G.652 ( ).
, G.652C G.652D
(E-)
16
CWDM.


, ?

PON AON . .
PON: ,
64
( ),
(TDM, Ethernet), ( ), , ,
SLA.

.
PON: , ( );

: , ; -
POP.
AON:
PON ;

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

;
; (
); ;
PON POP.
AON: ,
TDM (TDM
over Ethernet );
,
( - );
.
. , PON . GPON 64,
128 .

.
, AON,
WDM,

( 100 / 1 /).
.
- ,
. -

,

.

. PON-
ONT
OLT ,
.
OLT / (4*32( 64)),
4 OLT1, 32
64 . .
OLT
?

, , OLT
,
, .
. ,
, 24 ,
,
.
WDM,

-,
(
) .

FTTx?

Morgan Stanley, 2005
30%
.

1 OLT Alcatel Siemens , 2 4 PON.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

www.lightwave-russia.com

31

FTTH.
3 2005 .
FTTH 20072008 ,
DSL.
FTTH . ,
SBC,
FTTN+VDSL. , ,
,
. 1996

.

FTTH 2003 .
, . , FTTH
-.
ADSL. ,
ADSL VDSL, ,
FTTN.
Morgan Stanley
.
,
. , KMI
Research, 2008

. ,
Deutsche Telecom, France
Telecom British Telecom GPON
.

. . , -
10 / 1 ,
, , WAN-.
, ?
Tellabs,
FTTH 2005 , ,
33 /,
HDTV-.

32

www.lightwave-russia.com


, ,
ADSL, VDSL, ADSL VDSL . . ,

,


.
,
.
FTTB .

.
HDTV, HDTV-, , , , ,
HDTV-,
LCD . ,

PON CWDM. IPTV, ,
. ,
,
FTTH.



:
,
;
;
.

,
,

.
, ,
,
.
, ,
, , , .
,
.
(VoIP IPTV).

,

, . SLA
,

.
().


. ,

.
. , .
, Ethernet , , . ,


.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007




.. ,


,
, ,

.
.
.
,
,


. .


,
, .
,
,
-

. ,
,
, , ,
.

, .
SDH ,
,
IP,
.
xDSL,
PON, ,
.. ,

. , . , ,

TriplePlay ,
VPN -.
,
. -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

-,
, ,
, Triple Play,
, , ;

MetroEthernet. ,
- , .
, .
(), ,
.
,
.
,

.
.

www.lightwave-russia.com

33

, . , . ,
2005 Ethernet (
xDSL, PON, HFC ..), Triple
Play.
- ,
, .
,
,

. ,
, , ,
( )
. Metro Ethernet Forum . ,
,
.
, ,
VPN
. , IP, IP/MPLS , IP VPN, VPLS, AToM.
- SDH-,
Fast
Gigabit Ethernet. Ethernet , MEF IEEE
2.
, WDM , .
, ,
: IP/MPLS .

.
,

MPLS- . , -

34

www.lightwave-russia.com

. 1.

, , ,
, , . ,
, ..
(, , ,
IPTV, VoD, VoIP, ,
) QoS,

.
,
.
?
?

SDP (service delivery point) ,


, ..
?

?
(
15000 , , $10 .)
?

,
,

, , .

5060 . ,

.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

. 2.


, -VLAN ,
,
VLAN. -VLAN ..

, , IP- MAC-,
. , ,
.
-

PPPoE . ,
PPPoE
, , . PPPoE
peer-to-peer
, , VoD VoIP
.

PPPoE
. IPTV PPPoE - -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

,
.
, -VLAN,

(BSR Broadband Service
Router).
, ..
VLAN , . , SDP BSR. , ,
VLAN. ,
peer-to-peer, BSR,



-

www.lightwave-russia.com

35

. 3.

, .

SDP,
( !) .
, BSR
, - .
, QoS, ,
().
, , , ..,

36

www.lightwave-russia.com

,
BSR NRI,
CRM, OMS, ServiceActivation, Fault-
Performance Management, Billing . Juniper Networks,
BSR Juniper E-320 SDX-300.
.
, , , , . -, VPN , SLA.

, .
()
Juniper M-320 IP/MPLS,
. , MPLS VPN ( ..),
. , 10 G Ethernet.

(BSR) Juniper -320
, -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

. 4. Triple play, NGN

,
.
. .
,
, .

. ,

, ISO/OSI.
GE BSR Juniper E-320
Uplink . -

cWDM ADVA FSP-2000. , . , , ,


,
.
- .
1 GE.
, BSR,
,
. ,
( BSR), .
.

2-
Zyxel D-Link. -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

, -
. ,
, .
C-VLAN-
, .. VLAN,
.
,
. , ISO/OSI.
- () , ,
(), .
,

.

www.lightwave-russia.com

37



(WERNER DAUM),

()


,

, . 3
(IEC 60793-2-30),
( 230 380 ),
, , ,

.

,
, , . , , ,
: -65 +125C.

2 (IEC 60793-2-20), 140 280
.
2 3
, 4 (IEC 60793-2-30), ,
. 4
2006 . (. Lightwave,
2006, . 12). ,
1 IEC SC86A

38

www.lightwave-russia.com


A2 A3.
IEC 60793-2-20 (

3)
,
,

.

,

, .



,


.

, ,

.

Lightwave, February 2007

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007


.
,
, .
15 -
,
, FTTH (
). , ,
.
O, E, S, C
L ( 1260
1625 ).
G.652.D
.
,
.

40

www.lightwave-russia.com


1310, 1550 1625 , . ,
G.652,
.
, G.657
Characteristics of a Bending Loss
Insensitive Single Mode Optical Fibres and
Cables for the Access Network (

)
- ,

.
-
, .
-
,
,
, .
,

. ,
,
, ,
.
-
2006 , ,
.

,
FTTH.
,
,
, .
FTTH. 2006 . FTTH
6 ; ,
FTTH
. ,
FTTH.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

.. .

(LIGHTWAVE RUSSIAN EDITION, 3, 2006, . 2527)
, , , () , / , ,
,
, .

:

.
, ,

,

.
[1], -



,
,
.
,
,
[2].
.

.
, -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

( )
, . ,
(
-), , ,
[3].

, , ,
, .

-

www.lightwave-russia.com

41

, () .
,

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,


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,
,
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, [46].
,
.
,
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,
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.

42

www.lightwave-russia.com





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.

,

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,

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, 40/3,5 50/4,5 6 9,6 .
[1]
,
,
,
20 . , -

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

,

( , ).

( 1990 .
),


Tamaqua Siecor.
,

20 (.. ) .
, ,
,
,
(
) .
, (
..)


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,


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(
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44

www.lightwave-russia.com

, 9,6 ),
(
500%).
,

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.




,
, .

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(
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) ,
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[11].

, , .

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007


[9] ,
, ,
,
, .




.


, .
,
- .


,
.., . ,

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(. 1 2). ,
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1. 
, 

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47 19.04.2006
(www.minsvyaz.ru).
2. 

. .: , 1978.
3.


 
. . 
97
17.12.97.
4. 
. .: , 1996.
5. 


, . .. 
. 1998.
6. 45.1552000. 

.
7. ITUT Recommendation K.25. Protection of
optical fibre cables.
8. 3587001563186132002
. 01.
9.

. .: , 1999.
10. 
, 

. .: , 1981.
11. 
. . .: , 2003.

Lightwave Russian Edition



-
-
.
. ,
.
www.lightwave-russia.com
46

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

- (-60 ...+80 ) . ( -30 ) .


4



1,5 /,
3
10 ,
. -

, (0,5 /). 16
,
. 2005 , 2006 1,2.
, ,

2
,

. 2. 


, .


- ,


, 
.
,

UNI

WEMA 5L OPGW NO.201


. 1. 

(Nexans)

56 ,

.






. 1,2




,
- .

20 .
: . , , ,
(. 1).
,
. .

UNIWEMA 5L
(

) (. 2);
, .


,


, .

100%
(. 3).
.

. ,
, . 3 

.
48 
,
15,5



230 /,

.
, ,
7,6 .

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

www.lightwave-russia.com

47

A: , 117997 ,
. , 84/32,
. 22, 2730
.: +7 495 7871777
: +7 495 3333300
E-mail: info@teralink.ru
: www.teralink.ru
2005
. ,
:
PON

(FTTP/FTTH)


.

1 

A: , 394019 ,
. , 6
.: +7 (4732) 672795, 790755
: +7 (4732) 672795, 790755
E-mail: ofssvs1@ofssvs1.ru
: www.ofssvs1.ru

- , , . . .

,
.
ISO 9001-2000 ( 092294 QM, DQS).

48

www.lightwave-russia.com

A: , 192007 ,
. , 21
.: +7 812 3202471
: +7 812 3202470
E-mail: pt@ptfiber.ru
: www.ptfiber.ru

A: , 125083 ,
. 56 2
.: +7 495 7907902
: +7 495 7907902 (. 101)
: www.raychemtelecom.ru
( )
,

.

FOSC 400, , FIST, (Single
Circuit Management).

- : Corning Cable
Systems ( , , , , ),
,
( ), .
: -
,
,
Corning , - .

PHOTONIUM

A: Photonium Oy, Maksjoentie 11,


Virkkala FI08700, FINLAND
.: +358 19 357381
: +358 19 3573848
E-mail: photonium@photonium.fi
: www.photonium.fi
.: +358 40 5626797*
Email: alexei.malinin@photonium.fi*

A: , 115088 ,
. , 7
.: +7 495 7863434
: +7 495 7863432
E-mail: mail@ssd.ru
: www.ssd.ru, www.fot.ru

Photonium
.

FCVD,
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Photonium , .
Photonium . ,
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Photonium ,

* :

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1000 ,

, , ,
, .


,
, , .



3, Tyco Electronics
Raychem, Seba, Corning Cable Systems.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

A: , 220088 ,
, 15, 907
.: +375 17 2945972
: +375 17 2944935
E-mail: info@beliit.com
: www.beliit.com

- :
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A: , 127236 ,
., 71
.: +7 495 9019186 ()
+7 495 7559088
+7 495 4870125
: +7 495 9019186
E-mail: sale@optictelecom.ru
: www.optictelecom.ru
A: , 050004 ,
. , 67, 204
.: +7 3272 664002, 664003
: +7 3272 507327
: , .

OFS

Diamond SA

A: Via die Patrizi 5


CH6616 Losone
Switzerland
.: +41 91 785 45 45
: +41 91 785 45 00
E-mail: diamond@diamondfo.com
: www.diamondfo.com
,
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Fan-out, Break-out, FTTx , , , . ,
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01,

A: 125212 ,
, 12
.: +7 495 9567687
: +7 495 9567688
E-mail: sales@tkc.ru
: www.tkc.ru

- , .

( ), , ,
, , , .

- ,
, .
Fujikura, Yokogawa,
Hakuto Photom,
Raychem

Westover.

A: , 103104 ,
., 9,
/ , 315 (OFS)
.: +7 495 2027659
: +7 495 9019711
E-mail: amikilev@ofsoptics.com;
mpavlychev@ofsoptics.com
: www.ofsoptics.com
OFS (Optical Fiber Solutions - ) ,
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Furukawa 2001 . Furukawa
Electric Co LTD OFS.
OFS
. , . , ,
, . 2001
OFS. 1998

- --1 - .

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

A: , 198323 ,
, 115
.: +7 812 3803901
: +7 812 3803903
E-mail: office@ocs01.ru
: www.ocs01.ru
A: , 198323 ,
, 115,
.: +7 812 7461761
: +7 812 7461140
E-mail: plastcom@plastcom.spb.ru
: www.plastcom.spb.ru
01

()
(), .

,
( , , ..).
, , ,
.

www.lightwave-russia.com

49

www.ocs01.ru www.plastcom.spb.ru
01

EXFO

www.teralink.ru


,

,

www.alkorfiberoptics.ru

:
%
, %
, %
, %
%
,
%
, %
.

www.beliit.com

%
% %
,
,


www.ptfiber.ru

50

www.exfo.com

www.ofsoptics.com
OFS
,
,

,
,

.

www.photonium.fi



%
,
;

, %

.

PHOTONIUM

www.lightwave-russia.com

%


, %

, ,
, ,
,
.

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 4 2006

.. , .. , .. ,
. . .

, ,
. .

- (FOPA fiber optical parametric amplifiers)


,

. , ,
, . ,
.
FOPA,
,
,

, FOPA .


, .

, ,
, ,
,
E, ,
, ..
E.
.
. 1. 

[1]
1, 2 3
4 = 1 + 2 3 .
(1)

,


p, : ,
s, .
(idler) i. (1)
. s + i = 2p .
(2)
.
. 1.
. -
. E(p)

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

www.lightwave-russia.com

51

. 2.

() 

()

E(s) (p - s).



(p - s). . 2.
E(p) . p (p  s). i = 2p  s . s .
s
,
s .


(p - s)
.
E(p), E(s), E(i), , (z) /2:
(z)  2p s i + z + 2Ppz = /2, (3)
p, s i ,
z = 0; z
; 2Ppz ;  = s + i 2p,
, ; ;
;
n2 ;
Seff ; Pp
.
(3) ,
, ..

52

www.lightwave-russia.com

Pp Ps, Pi.
(3) , z = 0 , 2p s i = /2.

, , .
, ,
, /2.
z = 0 (0) = /2,


,
z + 2Ppz = 0, (4)
..
.

Gs
[1]:
(5)
,
Ps(0), Ps(L) ; g ,
(6)
.

, [2], . 3.
, , .
,
, ,
 + 2Ppz = 0. g = Pp, Gs
(7)
,
PpL  1.
(7)
.
, :
.

.
 .
g, (6). Gs
.
Gs  (PpL)2 .
(8)
, , .

,
( ). (7),
Gs
(9)
,
( ).
,
, , Pp
L.
60
2 [3].

FOPA 
-

. 3. 
 
Pp = 1,4 ,
L = 500 ,  = 11 11,

0 = 1559 ,
p = 1560,7 ,
dD/d
= 0,03 /(2).



LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

(10)
,

. 4.
100  = 11
11 2 

p
0 .
.
1 
p
0 = 2
2 
p
0 = 1.5
3 
p
0 = 1
1 
p
0 =0

. C

0
,
FOPA.
,
,
[4, 5].
Gs (. 4) [4].

 = 11 11,
2 ,
p

0.
p
0: 0 ; 0,5 ; 1 ; 1,5 ;
2 ; 2,5 ; 3 .
. , ,


P
0. .
:

4-

p.
(10) ,
,  4, Pp.

, .

 (
20 11, ..
, , ).

,
. ,

,

.

,


, .
0 .
FOPA,
, - . , .
. 5
1 .

100 1 .


p
0.

(9),
Gs
PpL. ,


Pp, ,


L.

-
.

,
. 5. 

( ) 
( ) 100
1 .
p
0

-

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007

www.lightwave-russia.com

53

,
, , , .
. ,

( ) . , , .



.
200 400 [2,6].
, , (EDFA
Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier)
(RA Raman Amplifier),
.

. , - 0 . .


. , FOPA , , . , .
.
, .

,
,

, , , . ,
, , .

FOPA

( ).
. , FOPA
.

, , , ,


s
FOPA

s. , ,
.
, . FOPA
,
0,
s.
-
FOPA,
, -. EDFA, FOPA
- 3 , -

54

www.lightwave-russia.com

LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007


(TDM time-domain multiplexing)
,

[7].

FOPA
.
, , . FOPA ,

.


FOPA .
- ,
.


, ,
Pp L. :
GR[] = PpLSR ,
SR  8,7gR/Seff PpL ( ), gR Seff .
:
GP[] = PpLSP 6,
SP  8,6 .
,

. 1
, .

SMF DSF DCF HNLF ASMF


, /
0.2 0.2 0.45 0.7
80-240
85
50
19
12
3
, , Seff, 2
.
0.35 0.6
3
7
28
, gR/Seff, -1-1
FOPA
,

1.8 2.7
5
15
50
1550 , , -1-1
.
3
5
26
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1. Hansryd J., Andrekson P.A., FiberBased


Optical Parametric Amplifiers and Their
Applications, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics
in Quantum Electronics, May/June 2002, vol. 8,
. 3, p. 506520.
2. Ho M.C., Marhic M. E., Akasaka Y.,
Kasovsky L. G. Fiber optical parametric ampli
fier and wavelength converter with 208nm gain
bandwidth, J. Lightwave Technol., 2001,
vol.19, p.977.
3. Marhic M. Toward Practical Fiber Optical
Parametric Amplifiers, Thursday Morning
/OFC 2003/, vol.2, p.564.
4. .., ..,
.. 
,
, 2005 ., 12, . 4346.
5. .., .., 
.. 

, 
. 3. . .
2005 ., 6, . 3436.
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CW Pumped Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier
with 49 dB Gain and Wavelength Conversion
Efficiency, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 2001,
vol.13, p.194196.
7. Hansryd J. and Andrekson P.A. OTDM
demultiplexer with 40dB gain based on a fiber
optical parametric amplifier, IEEE
Photon.Technol.Lett., July 2001, vol.13,
p. 732734.
8. Marhic M.E., Kalogerakis G., Uesaka K.,
Shimizu K., Wong K.Y., Kazovsky L.G.
Interleaverbased method for full utilization of
the bandwidth of fiber optical parametric ampli
fiers and wavelength converters, Thursday
Morning /OFC 2003/, vol.2, p.510.
9. Blows J. Cross Talk in a Fiber Parametric
Wavelength Converter, Thursday Morning
/OFC 2003/, vol.2, p.565.
10. Wong K.Y., Marhic M.E., Uesaka K.,
Kazovsky L.G. Polarizationindependent and
flatgain CW twopump fiber optical parametric
amplifier and wavelength converter, IEEE
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LIGHTWAVE Russian Edition 1 2007