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Mathematics Formula List 1

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Trigonometry
1. 1 cos sin
2 2
= + sin ) sin( =
2.
2 2
tan 1 sec + = cos ) cos( =
3.
2 2
cot 1 cos + = ec tan ) tan( =
4. B A B A B A sin cos cos sin ) sin( =
5. B A B A B A sin sin cos cos ) cos( =
6.
B A
B A
B A
tan tan 1
tan tan
) tan(

=
7.
A B
A B
B A
cot cot
1 cot cot
) cot(

=


8.
A C C B B A
C B A C B A
C B A
tan tan tan tan tan tan 1
tan tan tan tan tan tan
) tan(

+ +
= + +
9. A B B A B A B A
2 2 2 2
cos cos sin sin ) sin( ) sin( = = +
10. A B B A B A B A
2 2 2 2
sin cos sin cos ) cos( ) cos( = = +
11. ) sin( ) sin( cos sin 2 B A B A B A + + =
12. ) sin( ) sin( sin cos 2 B A B A B A + =
13. ) cos( ) cos( cos cos 2 B A B A B A + + =
14. ) cos( ) cos( sin sin 2 B A B A B A + =
15.
2
cos
2
sin 2 sin sin
D C D C
D C
+
= +
16.
2
sin
2
cos 2 sin sin
D C D C
D C
+
=
17.
2
cos
2
cos 2 cos cos
D C D C
D C
+
= +
18.
2
sin
2
sin 2 cos cos
C D D C
D C
+
=
19. A A A cos sin 2 2 sin =
20. A A A A A
2 2 2 2
sin 2 1 1 cos 2 sin cos 2 cos = = =
21. A A 2 cos 1 sin 2
2
= 30.
2
cos
2
sin 2 sin
A A
A =
22. A A 2 cos 1 cos 2
2
+ = 31.
2
sin 2 1 1
2
cos 2
2
sin
2
cos cos
2 2 2 2
A A A A
A = = =
23.
A
A
A
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
tan
2
+

= 32.
2
2sin 1 cos
2
A
A =
Mathematics Formula List 2

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24.
A
A
A
2
2
tan 1
tan 1
2 cos
+

= 33. A
A
cos 1
2
cos 2
2
+ =
25.
A
A
A
2
tan 1
tan 2
2 sin
+
= 34.
A
A A
cos 1
cos 1
2
tan
2
+

=
26.
A
A
A
2
tan 1
tan 2
2 tan

= 35.
2
tan 1
2
tan 1
cos
2
2
A
A
A
+

=
27. A A A
3
sin 4 sin 3 3 sin = 36.
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
sin
2
A
A
A
+
=
28. A A A cos 3 cos 4 3 cos
3
= 37.
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
tan
2
A
A
A

=
29.
A
A A
A
2
3
tan 3 1
tan tan 3
3 tan


= 38.
3
sin 4
3
sin 3 sin
3
A A
A =
39.
3
cos 3
3
cos 4 cos
3
A A
A =
40.
3
tan 3 1
3
tan
3
tan 3
tan
2
3
A
A A
A

=
SOME IMPORTANT RESULTS
1. sin sin( ) sin( 2 ) sin( 3 )... sin( ( 1) ) n + + + + + + + +

sin
2
sin ( 1)
2
sin
2
n
n

| |
= +
|
\ .

2. cos cos( ) cos( 2 ) cos( 3 )... cos( ( 1) ) n + + + + + + + +

sin
2
cos ( 1)
2
sin
2
n
n

| |
= +
|
\ .

3.
2 3 1
sin2
cos cos2 cos2 cos2 .....cos2
2 sin
n
n
n

=
Mathematics Formula List 3

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4.
1
sin sin sin sin3
3 3 4


| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .

5.
1
cos cos cos cos3
3 3 4


| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .

6.
2 2 1
cos cos cos cos3
3 3 4


| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .

7. tan tan tan tan3
3 3


| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .

8. tan tan tan 3tan3
3 3


| | | |
+ + + =
| |
\ . \ .

9.
2 2 3 3 1 1
tan 2tan2 2 tan2 2 tan2 ... 2 tan(2 ) 2 cot(2 ) cot
n n n n


+ + + + + + =
10. sin sin sin sin( ) 4sin sin sin
2 2 2


+ + +
+ + + + =
11. cos cos cos cos( ) 4cos cos cos
2 2 2


+ + +
+ + + + + =
12. If , , (0, )
2

e then sin( ) sin sin sin + + < + +


SOME IMPORTANT RELATIONS

If = + + C B A
1. C B A C B A sin sin sin 4 2 sin 2 sin 2 sin = + +
2. C B A C B A cos cos cos 4 1 2 cos 2 cos 2 cos = + +
3.
2
cos
2
cos
2
cos 4 sin sin sin
C B A
C B A = + +
4.
2
sin
2
sin
2
sin 4 1 cos cos cos
C B A
C B A + = + +
5. 1 cos cos cos 4cos cos sin
2 2 2
A B C
A B C + + =
General Solution

1. If sin sin = Then
n
n ) 1 ( + =
0 sin = Then n =
1 sin = Then
2
) 1 4 (

+ = n
1 sin = Then
2
) 1 4 (

= n
2. If cos cos = Then = n 2 For all these cases ,........ 3 , 2 , 1 0 = n
Mathematics Formula List 4

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0 cos = Then
2
) 1 2 (

+ = n
1 cos = Then n 2 =
1 cos = Then ) 1 2 ( + = n

3. If tan tan = Then + = n
0 tan = Then n =

4. If
2 2
sin sin = OR
2 2
cos cos = OR
2 2
tan tan =
Then = n

Inverse Trigonometric Function
1. If be the principle value of x
1
sin

then
2 2

s s
2. If be the principle value of x
1
cos

then s s 0
3. If be the principle value of x
1
tan

then
2 2

< <
4. If be the principle value of x
1
cot

then < < 0


5. If be the principle value of x
1
sec

then s s 0
6. If be the principle value of x ec
1
cos

then
2 2

s s
7. x x =

) sin(sin
1
; x x =

) (sin sin
1
; x x =

) cos(cos
1
; x x =

) (cos cos
1
; x x =

) tan(tan
1
;
x x =

) (tan tan
1
; x x ec ec =

) (cos cos
1
; x ecx ec =

) (cos cos
1
; x x =

) sec(sec
1
;
x x =

) (sec sec
1
; x x =

) cot(cot
1
; x x =

) (cot cot
1

8. x x
1 1
sin ) ( sin

= ; x x
1 1
cos ) ( cos

= ; x x
1 1
tan ) ( tan

=
x x
1 1
cot ) ( cot

= ; x ec x ec
1 1
cos ) ( cos

= ; x x
1 1
sec ) ( sec

=
9.
x
ec x
1
cos sin
1 1
= ;
x
x
1
sec cos
1 1
= ;
x
x
1
cot tan
1 1
=
10.
2
cos sin
1 1

= +

x x ;
2
cos sec
1 1

= +

x ec x ;
2
cot tan
1 1

= +

x x
11. (a) 1 When
1
tan tan tan
1 1 1
<

+
= +

xy
xy
y x
y x
(b) 0 , 0 and 1 When
1
tan tan tan
1 1 1
> > >

+
+ = +

y x xy
xy
y x
y x
(c) 0 , 0 and 1 When
1
tan tan tan
1 1 1
< < >

+
+ = +

y x xy
xy
y x
y x
Mathematics Formula List 5

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12. (a) 1 When
1
tan tan tan
1 1 1
>
+

=

xy
xy
y x
y x
(b) 0 , 0 , 1 When
1
tan tan tan
1 1 1
< > <
+

+ =

y x xy
xy
y x
y x
(c) 0 , 0 , 1 When
1
tan tan tan
1 1 1
> < <
+

+ =

y x xy
xy
y x
y x
13. ) 1 1 ( sin sin sin
2 2 1 1 1
x y y x y x =


14. ) 1 1 ( cos cos cos
2 2 1 1 1
y x xy y x =


15.
2
1
2
2
1
2
1 1
1
2
tan
1
1
cos
1
2
sin tan 2
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

=
+

=
+
=


Trigonometry Table








1.
4
1 5
18 sin
0

= 2. 5 2 10
4
1
18 cos
0
+ =
3. 5 2 10
4
1
36 sin
0
= 4.
4
1 5
36 cos
0
+
=

Properties of Triangle

The angles of a triangle ABC are denoted by A,B,C and the corresponding opposite sides by
a,b,c
s denotes the semi-perimeter of triangle ABC, its area, R the radius of the circle
circumscribing the triangle ABC i.e. R is the circum-radius.
1 R
C
c
B
b
A
a
2
sin sin sin
= = =
2 B c C b a cos cos + = ; C a A c b cos cos + = ; A b B a c cos cos + =
3 i) A bc c b a cos 2
2 2 2
+ = OR
bc
a c b
A
2
cos
2 2 2
+
=
0 30 45 60 90
Sin 0 1/2 3/2 1
cos 1 3/2 1/2 0
tan 0 1/3 1 3
cot 3 1 1/3 0
sec 1 2/3 2 2
cosec 2 2 2/3 1
Mathematics Formula List 6

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ii) B ca a c b cos 2
2 2 2
+ = OR
ca
b a c
B
2
cos
2 2 2
+
=
iii) C ab b a c cos 2
2 2 2
+ = OR
ab
c b a
C
2
cos
2 2 2
+
=
4
2 2 2
1
tan
a c b R
abc
A
+
= ;
2 2 2
1
tan
b c a R
abc
B
+
= ;
2 2 2
1
tan
c b a R
abc
C
+
=

5
bc
c s b s A ) )( (
2
sin

= ;
ac
c s a s B ) )( (
2
sin

= ;
ab
b s a s C ) )( (
2
sin

=

bc
a s s A ) (
2
cos

= ;
ac
b s s B ) (
2
cos

= ;
ab
c s s C ) (
2
cos

=

) (
) )( (
2
tan
a s s
c s b s A


= ;
) (
) )( (
2
tan
b s s
c s a s B


= ;
) (
) )( (
2
tan
c s s
b s a s C


=
6
2
cot
2
tan
C
b a
b a B A
+


2
cot
2
tan
A
c b
c b C B
+

;
2
cot
2
tan
B
a c
a c A C
+


7
2
1
= A x product of length of two sides x sine of their included angle
C ab B ca A bc sin
2
1
sin
2
1
sin
2
1
= = = A
8 ) )( )( ( c s b s a s s = A
9
A
=
4
abc
R
10
A

=
) )( (
2
tan
c s b s A
;
A

=
) )( (
2
tan
a s c s B
;
A

=
) )( (
2
tan
b s a s C


A

=
) (
2
cot
a s s A
;
A

=
) (
2
cot
b s s B
;
A

=
) (
2
cot
c s s C

Basic Algebra

1 ab b a b ab a b a 4 ) ( 2 ) (
2 2 2 2
+ = + + = +
2 ab b a b ab a b a 4 ) ( 2 ) (
2 2 2 2
+ = + =
3 ca bc ab c b a c b a 2 2 2 ) (
2 2 2 2
+ + + + + = + +
4 ab b a ab b a b a 2 ) ( 2 ) (
2 2 2 2
+ = + = +
5 ) )( (
2 2
b a b a b a + =
6 ) ( 3 3 3 ) (
3 3 3 2 2 3 3
b a ab b a b ab b a a b a + + + = + + + = +
7 ) ( 3 3 3 ) (
3 3 3 2 2 3 3
b a ab b a b ab b a a b a = + =
Mathematics Formula List 7

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8 ) ( 3 ) ( ) )( (
3 2 2 3 3
b a ab b a b ab a b a b a + = + + =
9 ) ( 3 ) ( ) )( (
3 2 2 3 3
b a ab b a b ab a b a b a + + = + + = +
10 ) )( ( 3
2 2 2 3 3 3
ca bc ab c b a c b a abc c b a + + + + = + +

Progression(AP,GP,HP)
1
2
) 1 (
....... 3 2 1
+
= + + + +
n n
n
2
6
) 1 2 )( 1 (
......... 3 2 1
2 2 2 2
+ +
= + + + +
n n n
n
3.
2
3 3 3 3
2
) 1 (
......... 3 2 1
|
.
|

\
|
+
= + + + +
n n
n
4 If a,b,c are in AP then b - a = c - b = common difference
AM =
2
c a +

If a, b, c are in GP then = =
b
c
a
b
common ratio
GM = ab
5 If a, b, c are in HP then
c b a
1
,
1
,
1
are in AP and
HM =
c a
ac
+
2

6 M H M G M A . . . > >

7 If a = first term , d = common difference , r = common ratio , l = last term
In AP n
th
term d n a t
n
) 1 ( + =
Sum up to n
th
term { } ) (
2
) 1 ( 2
2
l a
n
d n a
n
S
n
+ = + =
In GP n
th
term
1
=
n
n
ar t
Sum up to n
th
term
1
1

=
r
r
a S
n
n
when r > 1

r
r
a S
n
n

=
1
1
when r < 1

r
a
S

1


Mathematics Formula List 8

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Theory of Quadratic equation
0
2
= + + c bx ax is a quadratic equation where a, b, c are the co-efficients of
2
x and x ,
constant respectively and R c b a e , , and 0 = a
1. Roots are
a
ac b b
2
4
2
+
= ,
a
ac b b
2
4
2

=
2.
a
b
= +
a
c
=

3. D = Discriminant = ac b 4
2

If D > 0 the roots are real and unequal
If D = 0 the roots are real and equal
If D < 0 0 the roots are imaginary

4 If D < 0 and a > 0 the sign of the expression c bx ax + +
2
is always positive
and if D < 0 and a < 0 the sign of the expression c bx ax + +
2
is always negative

If D = 0 sign of c bx ax + +
2
is always same as that of a
Let two roots of c bx ax + +
2
be , then
c bx ax + +
2
= ) )( ( x x a where >
If > x and < x then sign of c bx ax + +
2
is same as that of a but
If < < x then sign of c bx ax + +
2
is opposite to that of a

Complex Number
1. i = 1
2. If any complex number Z = x + iy then
|Z| =
2 2
y x + Amp. Z = =
x
y
1
tan


If x = +ve and y = +ve then =
If x = +ve and y = -ve then = -
If x = -ve and y = +ve then = -
If x = -ve and y = -ve then = -( - )

3. If w is the cube root of unity then
w
3
= 1
1 + w + w
2
=0
w =
2
3 1 i +
, w
2
=
2
3 1 i

Mathematics Formula List 9

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4. If x + iy = p + iq x = y and p = q

5.


i n
e n i n i = + = + sin cos ) sin (cos [De Moivers Theorem]

Permutation & Combination
1
)! (
!
r n
n
P
r
n

= 5.
r
r n
C
C
r
n
r
n
1
1
+
=


2.
)! ( !
!
r n r
n
C
r
n

= 6.
r
n
C =
r n
n
C


3.
r
n
P = r!
r
n
C 7 If
q
n
p
n
C C = either p = q or p + q = n
4.
r
n
C +
1 r
n
C =
r
n
C
1 +
8
1
1 1
.


+ =
r
n
r
n
r
n
P r P P

9. The number of permutations of n things taken all at a time , when p, q, r things are alike
and rest are all different is
! ! !
!
r q p
n

Logarithm

1 logb loga log(ab) + = 9 b
a
log x 1 log = a
b

2 logb - loga = )
b
a
log( 10. a
m
a
x
x
m
log
1
log =
3 x m x
m
log log = 11. If y x
a a
log log = then y x =
4
b
a
a
b
log
log
log = 12. y x
a
> log if 1 > a then
y
a x >
but if 1 0 < < a then
y
a x s < 0
5 b a
b
a
=
log
13. y x
a
s log if 1 > a then
y
a x s < 0
but if 1 0 < < a then
y
a x >
6
b
a
a
b
log
1
log = 14. d x c
a
s s log if 1 > a then
d c
a x a s s
but if 1 0 < < a then
c d
a x a s s

7 0 1 log = 15. x x
b a
log log > if 1 > a then y x >
but if 1 0 < < a then y x s < 0
8 1 log = a
a
16.
log log
b b
y x
x y =

Series and Expansions
Mathematics Formula List 10

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Maclaurins Series
2 3
(0) (0) (0)
( ) (0) ..........
1! 2! 3!
f f f
f x f x x x
' '' '''
= + + + +
1. ... .......... ..........
! 7 ! 5 ! 3
sin
7 5 3
+ + =
x x x
x x
2. ..... .......... ..........
! 6 ! 4 ! 2
1 cos
6 4 2
+ + =
x x x
x
3. . .......... .......... ..........
15
2
3
tan
5
3
+ + + = x
x
x x
4. .... ..........
4 3 2
) 1 log(
4 3 2
+ + = +
x x x
x x
5. .... ..........
4 3 2
) 1 log(
4 3 2
=
x x x
x x
6. ...... .......... ..........
! 4 ! 3 ! 2 ! 1
1
4 3 2
+ + + + + =
x x x x
e
x

7. ...... .......... ..........
! 4 ! 3 ! 2 ! 1
1
4 3 2
+ + =

x x x x
e
x

8. ..... .......... .......... 1 ) 1 (
4 3 2 1
+ + + + + =

x x x x x
9. ..... .......... .......... 1 ) 1 (
4 3 2 1
+ + = +

x x x x x
10. ....... .......... 4 3 2 1 ) 1 (
3 2 2
+ + + + =

x x x x
11. ....... .......... 4 3 2 1 ) 1 (
3 2 2
+ + = +

x x x x
12. ..........
! 3
) 2 )( 1 (
! 2
) 1 (
1 ) 1 (
3 2
+
+ +
+
+
+ + =

x
n n n
x
n n
nx x
n

13. ..........
! 3
) 2 )( 1 (
! 2
) 1 (
1 ) 1 (
3 2
+
+ +

+
+ = +

x
n n n
x
n n
nx x
n

Binomial Theorem

1.
n n n n n n n n n
b b a C b a C b a C a b a + + + + + = +

.......... .......... ) (
3 3
3
2 2
2
1
1

2.
n n n n n n n n n n
b b a C b a C b a C a b a ) 1 ( .......... .......... ) (
3 3
3
2 2
2
1
1
+ + + =


3.
n
n
C C C C 2 .........
2 1 0
= + + + +
4.
1
5 3 1 4 2 0
2 ......... .........

= + + + = + + +
n
C C C C C C
5. General term =
r r n
r
n
r
b a C t

+
=
1

Mathematics Formula List 11

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6. When n is even there will be one middle term of the expansion
n
b a ) ( + and it is the ( 1
2
+
n
)
th term.
7. When n is odd there will be two middle terms of the expansion
n
b a ) ( + and they are
th
n
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
1
and th
n
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
1
2
1
term.

Inequality
1. Arithmetic mean of n quantities > Geometric mean of n quantities
n
n
n
a a a
n
a a a
/ 1
2 1
2 1
) ...... (
......
>
+ + +

2
m
m m
b a b a
|
.
|

\
|
+
>
+
2 2
if 0 < m or 1 > m

m
m m
b a b a
|
.
|

\
|
+
<
+
2 2
if 1 0 < < m
3.
m
n
m
n
m m
n
a a a
n
a a a
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
>
+ + + ...... ........
2 1 2 1
if 0 < m or 1 > m

m
n
m
n
m m
n
a a a
n
a a a
|
.
|

\
|
+ + +
<
+ + + ...... ........
2 1 2 1
if 1 0 < < m
4. ) ..... )( ..... ( ) ....... (
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
2 2 1 1 n n n n
b b b a a a b a b a b a + + + + + + s + + +

Limits
1.
0
lim
x
1
sin
=
x
x
5.
0
lim
x
1
tan
=
x
x

2.
0
lim
x
1
1
=

x
e
x
6.
0
lim
x
1
) 1 log(
=
+
x
x

3.
0
lim
x
a
x
a
e
x
log
1
=

7.
0
lim
x

x
x
/ 1
) 1 ( + = e
4.
a x
lim

1
=

n
n n
na
a x
a x
8.
x
lim

x
x
|
.
|

\
|
+
1
1 = e

Derivatives
1.
1
) (

=
n n
nx x
dx
d
10.
dx
d
x x x tan sec ) (sec =
Mathematics Formula List 12

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2. a a a
dx
d
x x
log ) ( = 11.
dx
d
x ecx ecx cot cos ) (cos =
3.
x
x
dx
d 1
) (log = 12.
dx
d
2
1
1
1
) (sin
x
x


4.
dx
d
0 ) ( = c c is a constant 13.
dx
d
2
1
1
1
) (cos
x
x


5.
dx
d
( )
x x
e e = 14.
dx
d
2
1
1
1
) (tan
x
x
+
=


6.
dx
d
x x cos ) (sin = 15.
dx
d
2
1
1
1
) (cot
x
x
+
=


7.
dx
d
x x sin ) (cos = 16.
dx
d
1 | |
1
) (sec
2
1

x x
x
8.
dx
d
x x
2
sec ) (tan = 17.
dx
d
1 | |
1
) (cos
2
1

x x
x ec
9.
dx
d
x ec x
2
cos ) (cot = 18.
dx
d
) (uv = ) ( ) ( u
dx
d
v v
dx
d
u + (Product Rule)
19.
dx
d
=
|
.
|

\
|
v
u
2
) ( ) (
v
v
dx
d
u u
dx
d
v
(Quotient Rule)

Indefinite Integral
1. c
n
x
dx x
n
n
+
+
=
+
}
1
1
15. c x
x
dx
+ =


}
1
2
sin
1

2. c e dx e
x x
+ =
}
16. c x
x
dx
+ =


}
1
2
cos
1

3. c
a
a
dx a
x
x
+ =
}
log
17. c x
x x
dx
+ =


}
1
2
sec
1

4. c x dx + =
}
18. c x ec
x x
dx
+ =


}
1
2
cos
1

5. c x
x
dx
+ =
}
| | log 19. c x
x
dx
+ =
+

}
1
2
tan
1

6.
} }
= dx x f c dx x cf ) ( ) ( 20. c x
x
dx
+ =
+


}
1
2
cot
1

Mathematics Formula List 13

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7.
}
+ = c x xdx cos sin 21. c
a
x
a a x
dx
+ =
+

}
1
2 2
tan
1

8. c x dx x + =
}
sin cos 22. c
a x
a x
a a x
dx
+
+

}
log
2
1
2 2

9. c x dx x + =
}
| sec | log tan 23. c
x a
x a
a x a
dx
+

+
=

}
log
2
1
2 2

10. c x xdx + =
}
| sin | log cot 24. c a x x
a x
dx
+ + + =
+
}
2 2
2 2
log
11. c x dx x + =
}
tan sec
2
25. c a x x
a x
dx
+ + =

}
2 2
2 2
log
12. c x dx x ec + =
}
cot cos
2
26. c
a
x
x a
dx
+ =


}
1
2 2
sin
13.
}
+ = c x xdx x sec tan sec 27. c a x x
a a x x
dx a x + + + +
+
= +
}
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
log
2 2

14.
}
+ = c ecx xdx ecx cos cot cos 28. c a x x
a a x x
dx a x + +

=
}
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
log
2 2

29. c
a
x a x a x
dx x a +
|
.
|

\
|
+

=

}
1
2 2 2
2 2
sin
2 2

30.
}
+ + = c x x xdx | tan sec | log sec
31. c
x
c x ecx ecxdx + = + =
}
|
2
tan | log | cot cos | log cos
32.
} } } }
(

= dx Vdx U
dx
d
Vdx U Vdx U ) ( . Where U and V are functions of x
Definite Integral
1.
} }
=
b
a
b
a
dx x f dt t f ) ( ) (
2.
} }
=
a
b
b
a
dx x f dx x f ) ( ) (
3.
} } }
+ =
b
a
b
c
c
a
dx x f dx x f dx x f ) ( ) ( ) (
4.
} }
=
a a
dx x a f dx x f
0 0
) ( ) (
Mathematics Formula List 14

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5.
} }
=
a a
dx x f dx x f
2
0 0
) ( 2 ) ( if ) ( ) 2 ( x f x a f =
0 = if ) ( ) 2 ( x f x a f =
6.
} }

=
a
a
a
dx x f dx x f
0
) ( 2 ) ( if ) ( ) ( x f x f = i.e. f(x) is an even function
0 = if ) ( ) ( x f x f = i.e. f(x) is an odd function
7.
} }
+ =
b
a
b
a
dx x b a f dx x f ) ( ) (
Let us assume that T is the fundamental period of the function ( ) f x
8.
0 0
( ) ( )
nT T
f x dx n f x dx =
} }

9.
0
( ) ( )
a nT nT
a
f x dx f x dx
+
=
} }

10.
0
( ) ( ) ( )
bT T
aT
f x dx b a f x dx =
} }

11. ( ) ( )
b nT b
a nT a
f x dx f x dx
+
+
=
} }


12.
( ) { }
0
( ) lim ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ..... 1
b
h
a
f x dx h f a f a h f a h f a n h

(
= + + + + + + +
}


1 1
0
0 0
1
lim ( ) lim ( )
n n
h n
r r
r
h f a rh f a
n n


= =
= + = +


13. Newton-Leibnitzs theorem
}
=
) (
) (
) ( ) (
x
x
dt t f x I

= ) ( )} ( { ) ( )} ( { x
dx
d
x f x
dx
d
x f
SOME IMPORTANT RESULTS
1.
/2 /2
0 0
sin cos 1 xdx xdx

= =
} }

2.
/2 /2
2 2
0 0
sin cos
4
xdx xdx

= =
} }

3.
/2 /2
3 3
0 0
2
sin cos
3
xdx xdx

= =
} }

Mathematics Formula List 15

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4.
/2 /2
4 4
0 0
3
sin cos
16
xdx xdx

= =
} }

5.
1
0
log 1 xdx =
}

6.
/2 /2
0 0
log(sin ) log(cos ) ln2
2
x dx x dx

= =
} }

7.
/2 /2
0 0
log(sec ) log(cos ) ln2
2
x dx ecx dx

= =
} }

Gamma Function:
1
0
x n
e x dx n


=
}

1. 0 =
2. 1 1 =
3. (1/ 2) =
4. ( 1) ! Int n n if n + = e
5. ( 1) Int. n n n if n + = e

1.
/2
0
1 1
2 2
sin cos
2
2
2
m n
m n
x xdx
m n

+ +
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .
=
+ +
| |
|
\ .
}

2.
/2 /2
0 0
( 1)( 3)( 5)......
sin cos
( 2)( 4)......
n n
n n n
xdx xdx if n Odd Integer
n n n


= = =

} }


( 1)( 3)( 5)......
( 2)( 4)...... 2
n n n
if n Even Integer
n n n

= =