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# INFORMATION SHEET

## POI: TITLE: Engineering Officer Refresher Course Basic Principles of Hydraulics

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INTRODUCTION Hydraulics is the transmission of power through the use of a confined fluid. The fluid can either be a liquid, such as water or oil, or a gas s u c h a s c o m p r e s s e d a i r. A fluid power system that uses gas as the transmitting force is c a l l e d a P N E U M AT I C S Y S T E M . A fluid power system that uses liquid as the transmitting force is called a HYDRAULIC SYSTEM. Common examples of hydraulic system on our vessels include: Capstans To w i n g w i n c h e s Jacking systems Steering gear Cranes Although all these hydraulic systems perform a different

function, they all use the same basic principles. This how booklet the will explain are the basic principles on of hydraulics, circuit

describe the components fitted in a hydraulic system and show components represented hydraulic diagrams.

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## BASIC PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS

Laws of Force and Motion Force is a push or pull that is applied to an object. will either change its position or its direction This includes: Starting Stopping Change in speed Change in direction This force must be enough to do the work of the system (e.g. lift a load, heave a rope etc.) AND overcome the resistance to flow of the hydraulic fluid in the pipework. system has to do, the more force is required. The more work the This force

of movement.

Pressure PRESSURE is the amount of force applied to an object divided by the area over which the force is applied. FORCE AREA

PRESSURE =

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A common way to express pressure is in pounds per square inch (psi). In this case, the unit of force is pounds and the unit of area is square inches. Other units of force and area are often used, particularly on more modern units e.g. kilogrammes per square centimeter (kg/cm2). Example: A force of 100 pounds acts on an area of 10 square inches.

PRESSURE =

FORCE AREA

100 10

=10 psi

100lbs.

10 sq. in.

Figure 1

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H y d r a u l i c p u m p s p r o d u c e f l u i d f l o w.

## When the fluid force acts

on an area in a component, a pressure is produced. The pressure produced in the confined liquid is equal in all directions throughout the liquid.

Figure 2

If a force is applied to the piston A, the resulting pressure developed is equal throughout the confined liquid. c a l l e d PA S C A L S L A W This is

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POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics Transm ission of Fluid P ower If a force of 10 pounds is applied to piston

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1,

it

will

be

transmitted through the fluid in the cylinder to piston 2 Pascals law states that the pressure developed in a confined fluid is equal at every point. Therefore, the internal fluid pressure developed by piston 1 acts on piston 2.

FORCE 10 lbs. 1 2

FORCE 10 lbs.

Figure 3

If the area of each piston is the same, the force developed on piston 2 is the same as the force applied by piston 1. This is the principle upon which hydraulic power transmissions are based.

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Engineering Officer Refresher Course In figure 4, two individual cylinders replace the single cylinder TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics in figure 3.

FORCE 10 lbs.

FORCE 10 lbs.

Figure 4

Both cylinders are the same diameter and are connected with a suitable hydraulic line. The conditions in figure 4 are not changed from the conditions in figure 3. The hydraulic system has not been changed, only the set up of the transmission line. The force on piston 1 is transmitted through the fluid to piston 2.

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PAGE 7 OF 80 A similar arrangement of two pistons connected by a tube is POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course shown in figure 5. TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics H o w e v e r, t h e p i s t o n s a r e p l a c e d v e r t i c a l l y a n d a r e o f d i f f e r e n t sizes.

## PISTON 2 50 sq. in. 500 lbs.

10 psi

10 psi

Figure 5
If a force of 100 pounds is applied to the 10 in2 area of piston 1, a pressure of 10 psi is developed. A pressure of 10 psi will act on the area of piston 2 (Pascals Law). Since PRESSURE = then FORCE = PRESSURE X AREA FORCE AREA

## The pressure of 10 psi exerts a total force of:

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POI: TITLE: Engineering Officer Refresher Course 10 (psi) X 50 (in2) = 500lbs. Basic Principles of Hydraulics

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If the force is reversed and the 500 lbs is applied to piston 2, the force developed on piston 1 will be:

## Pressure developed in system = 500 (lbs)

50 (in2) = 10 psi

## Force on piston 1 = 10 (psi) X 10 (in2) = 100 lbs

These examples demonstrate how force can be increased or decreased in a hydraulic system. H o w e v e r, it must be remembered that if there is a force

## INCREASE, there is a corresponding movement DECREASE.

If piston 1 has a 5-inch stroke, it will move: 5 (in) X 10 (in2) = 50 cubic inches of oil

## This displaced oil will move piston 2:

50 (in3)

50 (in2) = 1 inch

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PAGE 9 OF 80 The piston arrangement in figure 5 provides a ratio of 5:1 for POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course any force applied to piston 1. At the same time, the amount of TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics movement of piston 2 is 1/5 the movement of piston 1. The speed of piston 2 is 1/5 the speed of piston 1. No matter what the ratio, if you want to multiply the hydraulic force of a system, you reduce the speed of movement. On the other hand, if the force is applied to the larger piston, the speed and amount of movement is increased, but the force exerted by the system is reduced. For example, consider taking your car to have the tyres

changed.

The mechanic will lift one end of the car with a The movement made by the handle of the jack

hydraulic jack. m a d e b y t h e c a r.

is much quicker and must move much further than the movement

A small input force gives a much larger output force, but it must m o v e m u c h f u r t h e r.

## Fluid Flow in Pipes

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Engineering Officer Refresher Course Streamline flow is the ideal (best) type of fluid flow in a TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics hydraulic power system as all the particles of a fluid move in parallel lines.

Figure 6
D u r i n g t h e f l o w, t h e l a y e r o f f l u i d n e x t t o t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e p i p e moves slowest because of friction between the fluid and the pipe. Each inner layer of fluid slides along on the next outer The fluid layers near layer of fluid with less and less friction.

## the center of the flow passage move the fastest.

Figure 7

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Tu r b u l e n t f l o w c o n d i t i o n s u s u a l l y o c c u r Engineering Officer Refresher Course passage is too small for the required flow velocity or because TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics t h e v i s c o s i t y o f t h e o i l i s t o o l o w.

## PAGE 11 OF 80 because the fluid

Figure 8
Tu r b u l e n t f l o w c a n b e c a u s e d b y a n y o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e following: Rough or irregularly formed fluid passages Sudden enlargements in the diameter of the fluid passages Sudden reductions in the diameter of the fluid passages Sudden changes in the direction of flow

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Tu r b u l e n t flow heats up the hydraulic Engineering Officer Refresher Course streamlined flow and wastes power by requiring more fluid TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics pressure. In addition, turbulent flow can release air that is suspended in the hydraulic oil. cavitation. Air bubbles make the air hydraulic pockets system can also sluggish make and less This forms large bubbles or This causes psuedopockets in the pipework or components.

## PAGE 12 OF 80 fluid more than

responsive.

Large

the

system

completely inoperative. When the fluid must pass through a passage of reduced size, the restriction should be as gradual as possible. velocity and the pressure drops in that area. As the amount of fluid passes through the restriction, the flow increases in

Figure 9

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Hydraulic fluid in a system possesses two Engineering Officer Refresher Course These are: TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics POI: KINETIC ENERGY POTENTIAL ENERGY

PAGE 13 OF 80 t y p e s o f e n e r g y.

Kinetic energy is present when the fluid is in motion. energy is a result of the fluid pressure. Kinetic energy is moving; potential energy is stored. The total energy of the fluid in the system always

Potential

remains

constant (BERNOULLIS THEOREM). Therefore, energy). When the fluid starts to flow through a hydraulic system, the pressure drops. When the flow stops, the pressure rises. when the flow in the system increases (kinetic

## energy), the pressure in the system must decrease (potential

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POI: COMPONENTS FITTED IN A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Engineering Officer Refresher Course

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TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics A hydraulic power system is a closed piping circuit in which a liquid under controlled pressure is used to do work. The basic hydraulic system is composed of the following

elements: RESERVOIR HYDRAULIC FLUID PIPING AND TUBING HYDRAULIC PUMPS H Y D R A U L I C A C T U AT O R P R E S S U R E R E L I E F VA LV E D I R E C T I O N C O N T R O L VA LV E F L O W C O N T R O L VA LV E H Y D R A U L I C F I LT E R RESERVOIR E v e r y h y d r a u l i c s y s t e m m u s t h a v e a r e s e r v o i r. the mounting base for the hydraulic components. It can serve as and other

pump

## Oil storage Oil cooling Dirt settling Oil deaeration

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POI: TITLE: Engineering Officer Refresher Course B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f H y d r SUCTION PUMP a u l i c s
DRAIN RETURN LINE MAIN FLUID RETURN LINE SEALED FLANGE GASKET SIGHT GLASS AIR BREATHER AND FILTER

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## DRAIN PLUG BAFFLE PLATE INSPECTION COVER STRAINER

Figure 10

Oil Storage A supply of hydraulic oil must be available system is to operate the the

hydraulic

actuators.

When

the

operating,

## to replace any fluid losses from the system by leaks or spills.

Oil Cooling

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PAGE 16 OF 80 When the system is operating, heat will be generated in the POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course system. The large surface area of the reservoir helps to TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics dissipate this heat away from the returning hydraulic fluid to atmosphere.

Dirt Settling The hydraulic oil flows rapidly through the system. reduced. When the

## r e t u r n i n g h y d r a u l i c f l u i d e n t e r s t h e r e s e r v o i r, t h e f l o w r a t e i s This allows dirt, which may be held in suspension, to s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e o i l a n d s e t t l e o n t h e b o t t o m o f t h e r e s e r v o i r.

Oil Deaeration Dissolved and trapped air can escape to the atmosphere when the returning oil is exposed to atmospheric pressure in the r e s e r v o i r. This is why the pump takes its suction from the

## opposite side of the baffle to the fluid return lines.

Reservoir Accessories Accessories that are usually fitted to the reservoir are:

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POI: TITLE: Engineering Officer Refresher Course Fluid filler openings Basic Principles of Hydraulics Air breather Fluid level indicators Pump suction strainer Magnets

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Fluid Fillers The filler on the reservoir has a tight fitting cap and is

permanently attached to the filler neck by a chain. screens are securely fixed inside each filler tube.

Filter

## SIDE MOUNTED FILLER

F i g u r e 11

Air Breather

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PAGE 18 OF 80 T h e a i r b r e a t h e r a l l o w s a i r t o f l o w i n t o a n d o u t o f t h e r e s e r v o i r. POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course The flow of air occurs as the level of oil in the reservoir rises TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics and falls. T h e a i r b r e a t h e r a l l o w s a i r t o f l o w, b u t e x c l u d e s a n y dirt in the air from entering. combined into one unit. Often, the filler and breather are

Figure 12

## Fluid Level Indicators

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PAGE 19 OF 80 Reservoirs are fitted with indicators that show the level of the POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course fluid. They are often fitted in positions that are easily seen TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics w h e n r e f i l l i n g o r t o p p i n g u p t h e r e s e r v o i r.

A space should always be left between the level of the fluid and the top of the reservoir to allow room for fluid expansion.

Sometimes there is a thermometer built into the level indicator so that the temperature of the oil in the tank can be monitored.

Figure 13

## Pump Suction Strainer

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PAGE 20 OF 80 The open end of the pump suction is covered by a strainer POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course element. TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics The strainer is fine enough to prevent dirt entering the pump suction but not so fine that it restricts the pump fluid suction.

Figure 14

## magnets attract and hold any small metal particles or shavings

Figure 15

HYDRAULIC FLUID

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PAGE 21 OF 80 The term hydraulic oil describes petroleum oil that has been POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course carefully refined. Refining removes chemicals that are not TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics compatible with components in a hydraulic system.

Most hydraulic oils will mix without harm, but always check with the manufacturer s specifications before mixing different brands.

PIPING AND TUBING Piping and tubing transports and contains the hydraulic oil in the hydraulic system. The size of piping or tubing for plumbing a hydraulic system is very important. If a size of tube that is too small is used, the fluid is forced to flow at high speed. generation in the oil. If a size of tube that is larger than necessary is used, the power transfer is good and the heat generation is l o w, but this i n s t a l l a t i o n w o u l d b e m o r e e x p e n s i v e t h a n n e c e s s a r y. This creates excessive power loss and heat

Sometimes, especially on low power systems, one size and kind of piping is used to pipe the entire system. This is acceptable

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POI: if

the size chosen is adequate for the Engineering Officer Refresher Course pressure that exists in different parts of the system. TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics

## PAGE 22 OF 80 maximum flow and

On larger systems, the piping has been selected to meet the flow and pressure conditions in each important part of the system.

HYDRAULIC PUMPS Pumps provide the means of accepting a mechanical power input and converting and it to an equivalent and amount of fluid p o w e r. into Pumps move fluid. regulated The fluid is transmitted to the point of use, finally converted back

controlled

## m e c h a n i c a l p o w e r b y t h e a c t u a t o r. Hydraulic pumps are normally POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

PUMPS and are rated by their flow rates. Hydraulic pumps are divided into three main groups: Rotary pumps Rotary piston pumps Axial piston pumps

Rotary Pumps

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Rotary pumps are divided into different Engineering Officer Refresher Course common are: TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics POI: Gear pumps Va n e p u m p s

## PAGE 23 OF 80 types. The most

Gear Pumps Tw o g e a r s r o t a t e i n s i d e a c a s t i r o n h o u s i n g . the DRIVE GEAR, is keyed to the drive shaft. O n e g e a r, c a l l e d It meshes with,

## and drives, the other gear known as the DRIVEN GEAR.

DRIVE SHAFT

IDLER

Figure 16

The gear teeth make a tight sliding contact with the HOUSING.

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PAGE 24 OF 80 As the gears revolve, suction is created at the inlet port. Oil is POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course drawn into the gears. It is carried around the outside of both TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics gears in the spaces between the teeth. It is finally forced out of the outlet port as the gear teeth mesh.
HOUSING LIQUID BETWEEN TEETH DRIVE GEAR

SUCTION

DISCHARGE

IDLER GEAR

## DRIVEN GEAR INLET

SEAL DISCHARGE

Figure 17
SHAFT

Va n e P u m p s
VANES HOUSING ROTOR

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Figure 18
The ROTOR is keyed to the shaft and revolves with it. a r e a s l i d i n g f i t i n s l o t s i n t h e r o t o r. w i t h t h e r o t o r. The vanes are forced out by centrifugal force to make VA N E S

## They are carried around

continuous contact with the cam surface that is machined in the housing. The pump shaft is eccentric to the cam surface. space is exposed to inlet oil. This causes

the space between two vanes to open up during the time the

When

vane

passes

the

farthest

outward

point,

the

space

between it and the vane in front starts to close. the oil into the outlet port.

This forces

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POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics Piston Pumps Piston pumps are divided into two types: Radial piston pumps Axial piston pumps

PAGE 26 OF 80

Radial Piston Pumps The radial piston pump consists of a housing, eccentric shaft, pump elements, suction valve, pressure valve (discharge) and pistons. The pistons 6 are arranged radially to the eccentric shaft 2. The hollow piston 6 with suction valve 4 is encased in a bush and pushed on the eccentric shaft 2 by the spring 8. radius. The bush 7 seals against a hemispherical element. The radius of the piston contact surface corresponds to the eccentric

When the piston 6 moves downwards, the working space 10 in the bush 7 increases. The vacuum made causes the suction At the same time, the valve plate to lift from the sealing edge.

suction chamber 12 is connected to the working chamber by means of a radial groove 11 in the eccentric shaft 2.

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Engineering Officer Refresher Course The working chamber fills up with fluid. When the piston 6 TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics moves upwards, the suction valve closes and the pressure valve 5 opens. Fluid now flows via pressure port P to the system.

Figure 19

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Figure 20
There are other types of radial pumps available that can have the pump output adjustable, but these are not widely available. The pump described is used on the larger barges as part of the loadsharing hydraulic system.

Axial Piston Pumps Axial piston pumps are so named because the pistons move approximately parallel to the shaft.

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POI: The

s h a f t t u r n s t h e T H R U S T P L AT E , t h r o u g h Engineering Officer Refresher Course JOINT, which also turns the PISTON BLOCK. The piston block TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics contains the PISTONS.

PAGE 29 OF 80 a UNIVERSAL

Since the piston block is at an angle A with the shaft line, the pistons appear to move in and out as the piston block rotates. The pistons stay at the same position, but the cylinder head moves down and away from the piston crown as it turns. This gives the effect of the pistons having a stroke. the angle A, the shorter the stroke. The

greater the angle A, the longer the pistons stroke, the smaller As the piston stroke changes, so the output from the pump changes.
PISTON BLOCK CONNECTING RODS

UNIVERSAL JOINTS

INLET PORT

SHAFT

## OUTLET PORT PISTONS ANGLE A THRUST PLATE

HOUSING

Figure 21
PISTON ROD CYLINDER BLOCK PISTON UNIVERSAL LINK ROTATING SHAFT CAUSES THE PISTONS TO RECIPROCATE

TO OUTLET

## PISTON IS WITHDRAWING FROM BORE AT INLET

FROM INLET

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NO STROKE NO OUTPUT

Figure 22

## convert it to mechanical force and motion. A c t u a t o r s a r e e i t h e r L I N E A R o r R O TA R Y .

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A linear actuator will give a force or output motion in a straight line. The most common types of linear actuator is the DIFFERENTIAL CYLINDER.

Differential Cylinder The differential cylinder has unequal areas exposed to pressure during the forward and return movements of the ram. The cross-sectional area of the piston rod causes this area difference.

## Figure 23 MARINE TRAINING

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Engineering Officer Refresher Course Figure 23 shows the area of the piston that is in contact with TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics the oil. The area on the rodside of the piston is less than the area on the topside of the piston. The oil pressure will be the same on each side, but since the areas are different there will be a difference in the force FORCE = PRESSURE X AREA The force is greater pushing the rod to the right than it is pushing the rod to the left. H o w e v e r, b e c a u s e t h e r e i s m o r e v o l u m e o n t h e l e f t , i t t a k e s longer to fill with oil, so the speed of the rod moving to the right is slower than when moving to the left.

BRONZE BUSHING

SLEEVE

CYLINDER (BARREL)

CAP

## CAP RINGS PISTON CUSHION PLUNGER (SPEAR)

RESTRICTED FLOW THROUGH HERE WHEN CUSHION DEVICE IS IN PLACE

PISTON ROD
RESTRICTED FLOW THROUGH HERE WHEN CUSHION DEVICE IS IN PLACE

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Figure 24
Most cylinders are fitted with a CUSHIONING device. nears the end of its travel. Slowing down the piston reduces the possibility of mechanical or hydraulic shock when the piston suddenly stops. As the piston approaches the end of its stroke, the SPEAR or SLEEVE enters the port. This reduces the opening through w h i c h t h e f l u i d l e a v e s t h e c y l i n d e r. When the SPEAR or SLEEVE enters the passage, the remaining oil in the cylinder is forced out through a restriction in the cap. This is a

way to slow down the motion of the piston (and its load) as it

Cylinder Construction The essential parts of the cylinder are: Barrel Piston and rod End caps and suitable seals

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TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics The barrel is usually a seamless steel tube honed to a fine finish on the inside.

Piston and Rod The piston is attached to the piston rod. The piston

incorporates seals to prevent leakage between the piston and the cylinder barrel. Cushions are sometimes fitted. End Caps The end cap seals the ends of the cylinder and also holds the p a r t s o f t h e c y l i n d e r t o g e t h e r. The end caps can be directly attached to the cylinder or secured with tie-rods.

R O TA R Y A C T U AT O R S Rotary actuators are usually called MOTORS. of a motor is similar to that of a pump. When the fluid supplied by the pump pushes the m o t o r, it The construction

## Rating of Hydraulic Motors

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POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course Hydraulic motors are rated on the following: TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics Displacement To r q u e Maximum pressure limitation

PAGE 35 OF 80

Displacement Displacement is the amount of fluid that the motor will accept in turning one revolution.

To r q u e To r q u e i s a t u r n i n g o r t w i s t i n g e f f e c t s u p p l i e d b y t h e m o t o r output shaft.

## will develop a given torque with less pressure than a smaller

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POI: Ty p e s o f H y d r a u l i c M o t o r s Engineering Officer Refresher Course TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics There are three basic types of hydraulic motors: Gear motors Va n e m o t o r s In-line piston motors

PAGE 36 OF 80

Gear Motors

4. THESE TWO TEETH HAVE ONLY TANK LINE PRESSURE OPPOSING THEM 3 t h r o u g h t h e h y .d r a uPl Rc Sp r e s s u r B E T W E E N i E SURE e on

3. ET vel N A P R Ea rS U R o t o r B d eW E E o p s t o r q u e ge S m E TEETH IN THIS SEGMENT P U S t h e s u O f a c eWo f S e a N D e e t h . HES B r TH AY g Ar t DOES NOT AFFECT TORQUE AS OIL IS CARRIED AROUND TO OUTLET

TEETH IN THIS SEGMENT PUSHES BOTH WAYS AND DOES NOT AFFECT TORQUE AS OIL IS CARRIED AROUND TO OUTLET

1. THESE TWO TEETH ARE SUBJECT TO HIGH PRESSURE AND TEND TO ROTATE GEARS IN DIRECTION OF ARROWS

2. SEGMENTS OF TWO MESHING TEETH TEND TO OPPOSE ROTATION MAKING NET TORQUE AVAILABLE A FUNCTION OF ONE TOOTH

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Figure 25
T h e t w o g e a r t e e t h m e s h a n d r o t a t e t o g e t h e r. coupled to the drive shaft. Only one gear is

## By reversing the flow of oil through

t h e m o t o r, i t c a n b e m a d e t o r o t a t e i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n . The displacement is fixed and is approximately equal to the volume of oil between two teeth multiplied by the number of teeth.

Va n e M o t o r s T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f v a n e m o t o r s a n d v a n e p u m p s a r e s i m i l a r. In a vane pump, centrifugal force is used to hold the vane in contact with the cam surface, but in a vane motor there must be some means to hold the vane out against the cam ring.
CAM SURFACE SYSTEM PRESSURE VANE ROTOR SPRING

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Figure 26

F i g u r e 2 6 s h o w s a v e r y b a s i c v a n e m o t o r.

## It shows a rotor with

a single vane being held against the cam surface by a spring. In operation, the spring would be assisted by inlet oil pressure directed to the underside of the vane. If some force didnt hold out the vane to begin with, oil entering would just flow from one s i d e t o t h e o t h e r a n d n o t o r q u e o r r o t a t i o n w o u l d o c c u r.

In

vane

m o t o r,

torque

is

developed

by

pressure

on

the

## The vanes slide in and out of The sealed The rotor

the slots in the rotor and form sealed chambers. chambers carry the fluid from the inlet to the outlet. is attached to the drive shaft by splines.

F i g u r e 2 7 s h o w s a B A L A N C E D VA N E M O T O R , w h e r e t h e r e a r e t w o i n l e t s a n d t w o o u t l e t s o n t h e m o t o r. at either part is directed to two located 1800 apart. The pressure build-up chambers interconnected

## Side loads that are generated in each part

o p p o s e a n d c a n c e l e a c h o t h e r.

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1 . E n gT H Ie eV A n g IO f f i c e r in S ri NE S SUBJECT TO HIGH PRESSURE AT THE Basic Principles of INLET SIDE AND LOW PRESSURE OPPOSITE

## PAGE 39 OF 80 R eO r e s E Te r C o u r s e fUTL h Hydraulics

ROTATION

INLET

2. THE RESULTING FORCE ON THE VANE CREATES TORQUE ON THE ROTOR SHAFT

3. THE INLET CONNECTS TO TWO OPPOSING PRESSURE PASSAGES TO BALANCE SIDE LOADS ON THE ROTOR

Figure 27

Axial Piston Motors Piston motors generate torque through pressure on the ends of reciprocating pistons operating in a cylinder block. The motor driveshaft and the cylinder block are centered on the same axis. Pressure at the ends of the pistons causes a reaction against a t i l t e d S W A S H P L AT E . The reaction to the pressure drives the cylinder block and the motor shaft in rotation.

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POI: The

swash plate angle determines the Engineering Officer Refresher Course m o t o r. Axial piston motors can either be variable displacement TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics of fixed displacement. Figure 28 explains the operation of a variable

displacement

## axial piston pump.

5. AS THE PISTON PASSES THE INLET, IT BEGINS TO RETURN INTO ITS BORE BECAUSE OF THE SWAH PLATE ANGLE. EXHAUST FLUID IS PUSHED INTO THE OUTLET PORT OUTLET PORT

4. THE PISTONS, SHOE PLATE AND CYLINDER BLOCK ROTATE TOGETHER. THE DRIVESHAFT IS SPLINED TO THE CYLINDER BLOCK PISTON SUB ASSEMBLY

3. THE PISTON THRUST IS TRANSMITTED TO THE ANGLED SWASH PLATE CAUSING ROTATION

SWASH PLATE

INLET PORT

DRIVESHAFT OUTPUT

## 1. OIL UNDER PRESSURE AT INLET

2. EXERTS A FORCE ON PISTONS, FORCING THEM OUT OF THE CYLINDER BLOCK STROKE LENGTH IS MAXIMUM

## STROKE LENGTH IS MINIMUM

(MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT) MAXIMUM SWASH PLATE ANGLE AND MAXIMUM TORQUE CAPABILITY

(MINIMUM DISPLACEMENT) MINIMUM SWASH PLATE ANGLE AND MINIMUM TORQUE CAPABILITY

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4. OIL IS CARRIED IN PISTON BORE TO OUTLET AND FORCED OUT AS PISTON IS PUSHED BACK IN BY SHAFT FLANGE

Figure 28

3. UNIVERSAL LINK MAINTAINS ALIGNMENT SHAFT AND CYLINDER BLOCK ALWAYS TURN TOGETHER

Bent axis piston motors also develop torque through a reaction to pressure on reciprocating pistons. I n t h i s d e s i g n , h o w e v e r, t h e c y l i n d e r b l o c k a n d d r i v e s h a f t a r e mounted at an angle to each other the driveshaft flange.

TO INLET

2. PISTON THRUST ON DRIVESHAFT FLANGE RESULTS IN and the reaction is against TORQUE ON SHAFT

CYLINDER BLOCK

## 5. PISTON DISPLACEMENT AND TORQUE CAPABILITY DEPEND ON ANGLE

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Figure 29

Speed and torque change with changes in the angle . An angle of approximately 300 will give a minimum speed and maximum displacement and torque. An angle of approximately 70 will give a maximum speed and minimum displacement and torque. Reversing the oil flow to and from the motor using a direction control valve reverses the direction of rotation of the output shaft.

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PAGE 43 OF 80 Fixed displacement bent axis motors are used on the legs of the POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course barges. TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics

P r e s s u r e R e l i e f Va l v e s A p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s h o u l d A L W AY S b e u s e d i n t h e p r e s s u r e line of all positive displacement pumps. A p u m p p r o d u c e s a n o i l f l o w, b u t d o e s n o t p r o d u c e p r e s s u r e u n l e s s t h e r e i s a r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e f l o w. The resistance to flow The would be when a cylinder is pushing against a load. greater the load, the higher the pressure will rise. A relief valve LIMITS the pressure rise to protect the pump, piping and components.

D i r e c t A c t i n g R e l i e f Va l v e
FROM PUMP DISCHARGE

## OIL TO SYSTEM SEAT

SPRING

O-RING SEAL

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Figure 30
In the direct acting relief valve, the hydraulic pressure is

o p p o s e d b y t h e f o r c e o f a h e a v y, a d j u s t a b l e s p r i n g . The spring holds the ball against its seat. If the pressure in

the system rises above the designed value, the force produced by the pressure acting on the area of the ball will overcome the spring force holding the ball on the seat. The valve will open a n d a l l o w s o m e o f t h e o i l t o e s c a p e b a c k t o t h e r e c e i v e r.

When the force produced by the hydraulic oil equals the force of the spring nothing happens. flow through the valve. Any further increase in pressure This is called the CRACKING will unseat the ball and a very small amount of oil will begin to PRESSURE. The more oil that needs to push through the valve, the wider the seat opening must become so the more the spring must be compressed. This will take more pressure.

The difference between the cracking pressure and the pressure that is required for full opening of the valve is called OVERRIDE.

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POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course A direct acting relief valve has too much TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics applicable in all hydraulic systems.

PAGE 45 OF 80 override to be

A better valve, and more widely used, for handling large oil quantities for a tow winch, capstan or windlass, for example w o u l d b e a B A L A N C E D P I S T O N R E L I E F VA LV E .

PILOT STAGE

B a l a n c e d P i s t o n R e l i e f Va l v e
SPACER

KNOB

PLUG

LOCK NUT

SEAT

SHIM

PISTON

WASHER

O-RING

O-RING

PISTON

PLUNGER

PLUG

SCREW

SEAT

BODY

## BALANCED PISTON STAGE

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Figure 31
The balanced piston relief valve operates in two stages. L I M I T I N G VA LV E . The

P I L O T S TA G E i n t h e u p p e r v a l v e b o d y c o n t a i n s t h e P R E S S U R E

The limiting valve poppet is held against a seat by an adjustable spring. The port connections are made to the lower body and t h e f u l l f l o w i s h a n d l e d b y t h e b a l a n c e d I N G sHt O L D. S on SPR pi
PISTON CLOSED INLET PRESSURE HERE IS SENSED O E THE I nA BnDV Am a H EP PpL O T t i o n , t h e b a l a n c e d p i s t o n i s h e l d o r T T l oI S T O N era AN I VALVE THROUGH THE b a l O R Ic eC. E I N P rHe s s u r e a t t h e i n l e t p o r t a c t i n g u n d e r an FI T E PISTON

## in hydraulic the piston is

also sensed on the top of the piston. A small orifice is drilled through

the

piston

and

the

## The valve is held on its seat by a

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Figure 32

When the pressure reaches the setting of the adjustable spring of the pilot valve, the poppet is forced off its seat. The oil pressure on
WHEN THE VALVE SETTING IS REACHED, THE POPPET OP NS D LO S s o T t h e E t o pA No f A tLh e Wp i O It L n O p a s s e s PASS TO THE RESERVOIR

through the

poppet valve and dumps through the center of the balanced p i s t o n t o t h e r e s e r v o i r. Although the oil is still passing through Figure 33 shows the orifice, the amount that dumps is more so there is an overall reduction in pressure on the top of the piston. the valve cracked.

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Figure 33

The reduction in pressure on the top of the piston causes an unbalance of the hydraulic forces and allows the higher p r e s s u r e b e l o w t h e Ep iTs C o n NtEo T I O N h Ot h e Mp i s t o n o f f i t s s e a t . t ON C pus T PU P V N

When the pressure difference between the chambers at the top of the piston and the bottom of the piston is about 20 psi, the p i s t o n w i l l u n s e a t a n d a l l o w o i l f l o w t o t h e r e s e r v o i r.

PISTON MOVES UP TO DIVERT PUMP OUTPUT DIRECTLY TO RESERVOIR PRESSURE HERE IS 20 PSI HIGHER THAN IN CHAMBER ABOVE THE PISTON

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Figure 34

D I R E C T I O N C O N T R O L VA LV E S ( D C V )

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Figure 35

TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics In a hydraulic system, directional control valves are the valves t h a t c o n t r o l t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h t h e h y d r a u l i c o i l w i l l f l o w. This control also includes the stopping and starting of the fluid f l o w. There are several kinds of valve action used in directional

## control valves but the most common is the SLIDING SPOOL.

UNDERCUT

LAND

Figure 36
T h e s p o o l i s a n a c c u r a t e l y m a c h i n e d r o u n d b a r. c o v e r a n d u n c o v e r p o r t s i n t h e v a l v e b o d y. The reduced diameter or UNDERCUT between the lands allows fluid to flow through the valve. T h e S P O O L s l i d e s i n a b a r r e l m a c h i n e d i n t h e v a l v e b o d y. The LANDS

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TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics Directional valves for controlling the movement of cylinders and motors can have several types of configuration.

2 - W a y D i r e c t i o n a l C o n t r o l Va l v e A 2-way directional control valve has two main connections, an inlet and an outlet. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e v a l v e m a y b e N O R M A L LY C L O S E D o r N O R M A L LY O P E N . The NORMAL position is the position that the spool takes when there is no power (manual, electric, pneumatic or hydraulic) o p e r a t i n g t h e vA l v e T a OU. A
OUT

The CLOSED or OPEN position is associated with whether the pump port P is connected to the output port A or not. P IN N o r m a l l y O p e n 2 - W a y Va l v e NON-ACTUATED
A

IN

ACTUATED
A

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P

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Figure 37

Figure 37 shows a 2-way normally open direction control valve in the non-actuated and actuated positions. diagram. f l o w. The ENVELOPES show how this valve would be indicated on a hydraulic circuit N o t e t h a t t h e l e t t e r s a r e s h o w n O N LY o n t h e n o r m a l position envelope and that the arrow shows the direction of fluid

A OUT N o r m a l l y C l o s e d 2 - W a y Va l v e

OUT

IN

IN

NON-ACTUATED
A

ACTUATED
A

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Figure 38
Figure 38 shows the positions and envelopes for a 2way

## normally closed valve.

N o r m a l l y O p e n 3 - W a y Va l v e

OUT

IN

IN

OUT

IN

OUT

NON-ACTUATED
A

ACTUATED
A

## Figure 39 MARINE TRAINING

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Engineering Officer Refresher Course This type of valve leaves the cylinder or output port A under TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics pressure when the valve is not actuated. The pressure port P is open when the valve is in the normal or non-actuated position.

N o r m a l l y C l o s e d 3 - W a y Va l v e

IN

OUT

OUT

IN

OUT

IN

NON-ACTUATED
A

ACTUATED
A

## Figure 40 MARINE TRAINING

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Engineering Officer Refresher Course T h i s t y p e o f v a l v e l e a v e s t h e c y l i n d e r, o r o u t p u t p o r t A v e n t e d TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics when the valve is in the normal or non-actuated position, and oil from the pump passes to port A when the valve is actuated.

4 - W a y D i r e c t i o n C o n t r o l Va l v e

P B

P B

P B

Figure 41
Although there are several types of directional control valves, the most common spool type is as shown in Figure 41.

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Engineering Officer Refresher Course With the spool in the center position, all ports A, B, P and T are TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics closed. This traps the oil in the actuator so can be used to stop the cylinder in any position. When the spool moves to the left P connects with B and A connects with T. When the spool moves to the right P connects with A and B connects with T.

## This is acceptable for

On larger systems, or where the operator is remote from the valve, other types of valve movement are used. By air signal By electric solenoid By hydraulic pilot pressure These are:

Operation by Air Signal The operator at the remote position controls the movement of the control valve by sending an air signal to the valve. The air signal acts on a piston fitted at either end of the spool valve.

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Operation by Electric Solenoid The electric solenoid consists of two electric coils, one at each end of the spool valve. An armature passes through each of the coils and is attached to the spool valve.

PUSH ROD

SPOOL COIL

WHEN THE COIL IS ENERGISED, THE ARMATURE IS PULLED AGAINST THE PUSH ROD. THE PUSH ROD MOVES THE SPOOL

ARMATURE

Figure 43

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Operation by Hydraulic Pilot (Servo) Pressure Most large direction control valves are actuated by hydraulic pilot (servo) pressure acting against either end of the spool.

## PILOT OIL PUSHED OUT OF CYLINDER

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Figure 44

Pilot hydraulic oil pressure is supplied either from a SERVO PUMP or bled off from the MAIN HYDRAULIC PUMP. When the pilot valve spool is shifted to the right, pilot oil

pressure is directed against the left hand piston on the main spool valve. At the same time, the pilot valve allows pilot oil from the right hand side piston of the main spool valve to be returned to the r e s e r v o i r. The pilot oil return is pushed back to the reservoir by the action of the main spool moving over to the right. Changing the position of the main spool valve changes the main hydraulic flow through the main valve. When the pilot valve spool is shifted to the left, the pilot oil flow is reversed to the main spool end pistons. main spool to valve to move to the left. This causes the

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## PILOT OIL PRESSURE TO MOVE SPOOL TO LEFT

SUPPLY PRESSURE

PILOT VALVE

Figure 45

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PAGE 61 OF 80 When the pilot valve is centered, the pilot oil trapped between POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course the pilot valve and the main spool valve will hold the main spool TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics valve in the shifted position.

There

are

different

methods

of

holding

the

spool

valve

in

position.

## Some of these methods are:

Friction positioning Spring return Detenting Spring centering Friction Positioning Some spool valves depend on the friction properties of the spool to keep it held in position.

Figure 46
Spring Return Tw o p o s i t i o n v a l v e s m a y u s e a s p r i n g t o p r o v i d e r e s i s t a n c e a n d help position the spool valve. The spring returns the spool to

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PAGE 62 OF 80 either of its side positions when the valve is non-actuated or POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course de-energized. TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics

Figure 47

Detenting Dtente grooves may be in two positions. may be detented. On 3-way valves,

## each spool position may be detented or the center position only

Figure 48

Spring Centering Spring centering is usually only used on 3-position valves. offset side position when the valve is non-actuated or A de-

## spring arrangement returns the spool to center neutral from an energized.

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Figure 49

S e r i e s - P a r a l l e l Va l v e The series-parallel valve controls the flow of oil to two hydraulic motors in order to obtain two operating speeds. used on hydraulic winches, capstans and windlasses. The valve operates in two modes: Series mode Parallel mode It is widely

Series Mode In the series mode, the spool valve is moved to cause oil flow to go to the first motor and, after passing through the m o t o r, f l o w i n g i n t o t h e s e c o n d m o t o r. r e s e r v o i r. As one flow is being used to drive each motor in turn, the motors are acting in SERIES. reduces the POWER available. This gives a high speed but When the oil leaves the second

## motor it drains through the series-parallel valve and back to the

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PAGE 64 OF 80

Parallel Mode In the parallel mode, the spool valve is moved to cause oil flow to go to the first and second motors at the same time. v a l v e a n d b a c k t o t h e r e s e r v o i r. As one flow is being used to drive both motors at the same time, t h e m o t o r s a r e a c t i n g i n PA R A L L E L . but reduces the speed available. See figure 44. This gives high POWER When the oil leaves the motors, it drains through the series-parallel

A pilot valve moves the series-parallel valve spool. 2-position 4-way dtente valve.

This valve

## may be a 3-position 4-way direction control valve but is often a

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F I LT E R S A N D S T R A I N E R S Hydraulic fluids are kept clean in the system by devices known as filters and strainers. Magnetic plugs are also used in some reservoirs to trap iron and steel particles carried by the fluid. The strainer is fitted to the pump suction line or inside the r e s e r v o i r. I t i s a r e l a t i v e l y c o a r s e f i l t e r, a s a f i n e f i l t e r w o u l d This filter cause a restriction to the flow of oil into the pump. is used to protect the pump from damage. The filter can be installed in two main parts of the system: Pressure line Return line

Pressure Line

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PAGE 66 OF 80 A number of filters are designed for installation in the pressure POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course line (after the pump). This filter is used to trap smaller TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics particles that leave the pump and is used to protect the system components.

PUMP

RELIEF VALVE

FILTER

TO SYSTEM

INLET LINE

Figure 52

Return Line Return line filters trap very small particles before the fluid

r e t u r n s t o t h e r e s e r v o i r. Return line filters are usually fitted in systems that do not have a large reservoir (a large reservoir allows dirt to settle out of the fluid).

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Engineering Officer Refresher Course A return line filter is always used in a system with a high TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics performance pump. The clearances in these pumps cannot be s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o t e c t e d b y a n i n - l i n e f i l t e r o n l y.

## RETURN FROM SYSTEM

Figure 53

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HYDRAULIC SYMBOLS Hydraulic circuits and their components are shown in various ways in drawings.
HYDRAULIC MOTOR No.1

## Figure 54 shows a BLOCK DIAGRAM.

HYDRAULIC MOTOR No.2

SERIES-PARALLEL VALVE

PILOT VALVE

CHECK VALVE

## HYDRAULIC PUMP ELECTRIC MOTOR STRAINER RESERVOIR

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Figure 54

Block diagrams are good for showing the general layout of the system function and of supplying the information such as design other pressures, of pipe sizes etc. H o w e v e r, f o r m o r e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e components there are methods

representing the system. Almost simple all hydraulic (and pneumatic) show the drawings function use and the the

GRAPHICAL SYMBOL AND DIAGRAM. geometric figures that intersection of lines and components.

## Graphical symbols are

R O TAT I N G C O M P O N E N T S A circle is the basic symbol for rotating components. p u m p o r a m o t o r. Tri angl es

## are placed in the circle to indicate whether the symbol is a

THE TRIANGLE POINTS OUT SHOWING THE PUMP IS A SOURCE OF THE OIL

## THE TRIANGLE POINTS IN SHOWING THE MOTOR IS A RECEIVER OF THE OIL

PUMP

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Figure 55

## A pump or a motor that is REVERSIBLE has two triangles.

THE TWO TRIANGLES POINT OUT SHOWING THE PUMP CAN OPERATE IN REVERSE

THE TWO TRIANGLES POINT IN SHOWING THE MOTOR CAN BE TURNED IN BOTH DIRTECTIONS

REVERSIBLE PUMP

REVERSIBLE MOTOR

Figure 56

HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS

## DENOTES A PISTON ROD

DENOTES A PISTON

PORT CONNECTIONS

SINGLE-ACTING CYLINDER

DOUBLE-ACTING CYLINDER

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Figure 57

LINES Hydraulic pipes, tubes and fluid passages are drawn as single lines. There are three basic types of line:

## Working line Pilot line Drain line

Working Line A working line is drawn as a SOLID LINE. The working line In the

## graphical diagram, this includes the pump suction line, pressure

Pilot Line A pilot line is drawn as a series of LONG DASHES. or other component. The pilot

## line carries fluid that is used to control the operation of a valve

Drain Line

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PAGE 72 OF 80 A drain line is drawn as a series of SHORT DASHES. The drain POI: Engineering Officer Refresher Course l i n e c a r r i e s l e a k a g e o i l b a c k t o t h e r e s e r v o i r. TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics

RELIEF VALVE

Figure 58

## VA LV E A C T U AT O R S Va l v e a c t u a t o r s m u s t b e s h o w n o n d r a w i n g s . actuator used are: Solenoid Manual lever The main types of

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Solenoid A solenoid shifts the valve spool one way and a spring returns the valve when the solenoid is de-energized. Double solenoid actuators will shift the spool in both directions.

Figure 59
Manual Lever Manual lever spring return: To k e e p t h e v a l v e s p o o l s h i f t e d , t h e o p e r a t o r m u s t h o l d t h e lever actuated. When it is released, a spring returns the spool to its NORMAL state.

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Figure 60

Manual lever with detente: The detente is a click stop mechanism that holds the spool in a set position when the lever is released.

Figure 61
Pilot Operated The valve spool is shifted by the application of fluid pressure to the end of the spool. spool in both directions. Double pilots can be fitted to move the

Figure 62

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VA LV E S The basic symbol for a valve is a square. the ENVELOPE. paths shown, earlier a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f l o w. in the module. These are: The square is called

Arrows are added to the envelope to show flow Some have already been There are two groups of

hydraulic valve.

## Finite positioning valve (as already shown) Infinite position valve

F i n i t e P o s i t i o n i n g Va l v e s Finite positioning valves are directional valves. example a 4-way 3-position direction control Their symbols For 3 valve has

contain an envelope for each position the valve can take. positions it can be in, so has three envelopes.

Figure 63

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envelopes.

## between fully closed and fully open.

Figure 64

RESERVOIR The reservoir tank symbol is drawn as a small open box. r e f e r t o t h e s am e r e s e r v o i r. There

## may be several of these symbols on the drawing but they all

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Figure 65

## F I LT E R S Filters shape. are represented in graphical drawings as a diamond

T h i s s y m b o l c a n a l s o r e p r e s e n t a s t r a i n e r.

Figure 66

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## Filter and Bypass

Figure 67

F i l t e r, B y p a s s a n d C l o g g i n g I n d i c a t o r

Figure 68

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TITLE: Basic Principles of Hydraulics The BLOCK DIAGRAM shown earlier can now be depicted as a G R A P H I C A L R E P R E S E N TAT I O N .

Figure 69

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