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-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
Sec 9.2 In section 9.1, we talked
about parametric equations.
Parametric equations can be
used to describe motion that is
not a function.
( ) ( )
x f t y g t = =
If f and g have derivatives at t, then the parametrized
curve also has a derivative at t.

The formula for finding the slope of a parametrized


curve is:

dy
dy
dt
dx
dx
dt
=
This makes sense
if we think about
canceling dt.
We assume that the
denominator is not
zero.
The formula for finding the slope of a parametrized
curve is:

dy
dy
dt
dx
dx
dt
=

If we consider the curve traced out by a moving


particle, then dy/dt and dx/dt are the horizontal and
vertical velocities of the particle.

dy/dx, the slope of the tangent line at (x, y) is the
ratio of the horizontal and vertical velocities.
To find the second derivative of a parametrized curve,
we find the derivative of the first derivative:

dy
dt
dx
dt
'
=
2
2
d y
dx
( )
d
y
dx
'
=
1. Find the first derivative (dy/dx).
2. Find the derivative of dy/dx with respect to t.
(This is the second derivative of y with respect to t.
3. Divide by dx/dt.

-1
-0.5
0
0.5
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0.5
Example:
2
2 3
2
Find as a function of if and .
d y
t x t t y t t
dx
= =

Example:
2
2 3
2
Find as a function of if and .
d y
t x t t y t t
dx
= =
1. Find the first derivative (dy/dx).

dy
dy
dt
y
dx
dx
dt
'
= =
2
1 3
1 2
t
t

2. Find the derivative of dy/dx with respect to t.


2
1 3
1 2
dy d t
dt dt t
' | |

=
|

\ .
( )
2
2
2 6 6
1 2
t t
t
+
=

Quotient Rule

3. Divide by dx/dt.
2
2
d y
dx

dx
dt
dy
dt
'
=
( )
2
2
2 6 6

1 2
1 2
t t
t
t
+

( )
2
3
2 6 6
1 2
t t
t
+
=

Example: Find the points on the curve where the


tangent is horizontal or vertical.

x = cos3, y = 2sin
dx/d = -3sin(3)
dy/d = 2cos
To find the horizontal tangent, set dy/d = 0:

0 = 2 cos
0=cos
= /2 + n (n is an integer)
x = cos(/2 + (n)) = 0
x = 0
y = 2sin(/2 + (n))
y = 2, -2
Points where horizontal tangents are (0,2) and (0, -2)
To find vertical tangent: Set dx/d = 0
0 = -3sin(3)
0 = sin (3)

= 0 or (/3)n
3 = 0 or n
= 0, :
x= cos (30); y = 2sin(0)
x = 1, y = 0
=(/3)n :
x= cos3(/3)n
x= cos(n)
x= -1, 1
y = 2sin(/3)n)
3, 3 y =
The equation for the length of a parametrized
curve is similar to our previous length of curve
equation:

(Notice the use of the Pythagorean Theorem.)


2 2
dx dy
L dt
dt dt
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
Likewise, the equations for the surface area of a
parametrized curve are similar to our previous
surface area equations:
( )
Revolution about the -axis 0 x y >
2 2
2
b
a
dx dy
S y dt
dt dt
t
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
}
( )
Revolution about the -axis 0 y x >
2 2
2
b
a
dx dy
S x dt
dt dt
t
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
}

( )
Revolution about the -axis 0 x y >
2 2
2
b
a
dx dy
S y dt
dt dt
t
| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
}
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-4
-2
0
2
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-6 -4 -2 2 4 6
This curve is:
( )
( ) ( )
sin 2
2cos 5
x t t t
y t t t
= +
= +
t