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Organizational Management & Information Systems (M10M)

Chapter 01 Components of a Computer Systems

Understanding a Computer System A computer system consists of a number of components, including the computer hardware and software used to operate a computer unit

Main components could be viewed as Hard ware - physical components of a computer system Software - as set of programs used to run the computer system

Hardware Components of a Computer System Main components of hardware used in a computer system

Central Processing Unit Input Devises Data Capture Devisers Output Devisers Storage Devisers

Central Processing Unit The 'heart' of the computer system which consists of 3 elements:

1. The control unit - directs the operations of the whole computer system. 2. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU). - executes the operations identified by the control unit and is designed to perform all computations and ail logic operations (e.g. comparisons) and both numeric and alphabetic operations.

Central Processing Unit 3. Main storage - provides a storage place for the executable instructions of a computer program and provide areas for storing data processed by the program. Main storage is also called 'primary storage' or 'main memory It is made out of a RAM & ROM,
RAM - Provides the processor with short-term storage from programs and data currently in use, which the processor then manipulates. ROM - A special type of internal memory, called read only memory which cannot be altered by a programmer.

Input Devices
a)

Input devices are the communication links between the computer and the user .
Keyboard. - works as a terminal in primary data entry.

b) Mouse and trackball devices. - these use the rolling motion of a ball to act as a cursor control or to move data around the screen quickly. c) Voice data entry (VDE) - uses a microphone to accept input. vocal

d) Touch screens - Devices which one could communicate with the system by touching the designated signal locations in the VDU.

Data Capture Devices

a)

Devices designed to allow input of large volumes of routine data, often with little human intervention.
Optical character recognition (OCR) - ability to read printed information into a computer system. OCR documents are printed on special stylized forms using standard type fonts.

b) Optical mark recognition (OMR) - This is the use of documents that are designed so that '8' mark made in a particular position represents data. c) Scanners - These read, capture text, graphics and pictures from normal documents and can be: used within the office environment to scan images into documents created by (for instance) desktop publishing software.

Data Capture Devices d) Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) - MICR systems use human readable characters, which are preprinted in special ink .on to a document with iron oxide. e) Bar-code readers - These display a uniq4e identification code in a series of lines of differing widths. This sequence can be translated into digits that uniquely identify a product or unit. f) Digital cameras - These allow the input of high quality images directly into the computer which can then be manipulated as required by image processing software.

Output Devices a) The visual display unit (VDU) - Allows the operator to monitor the input from the key-board, etc., and display. The machine generated immediately on-screen. b) Hard-copy devices - Including printers and plotters are the most common form of out-put device c) Audio output devices - Speakers either inbuilt or attached which provide sound output often from CD-ROMs or voice recordings.

Storage Devices Most types of computer systems will have two types of storage, Main (primary) memory (discussed earlier under CPU) Backing (secondary) storage. o There is a variety of backing storage devices, Floppy disks, Flash drives DVDs (digital video/versatile disks) which have high-capacity storage and allow data access at high speed.

Software Components of a Computer System

Computer software that brings the hardware to life as software controls the activities of the hardware.

Software can be classified as Systems software, which allows the system to provide basic operational services to the user . Applications software, which carries out specific user requirements.

Software Components of a Computer System

Systems software includes


a) The operating system.- Set of computer programs that directs the operations of the entire computer system. Examples MS-DOS, Windows XP, Linux, Utility programs. - Designed into the operating system by the manufacturer, as a support for programmers to help writing, storing and running their programs. Examples - Microsoft Visual Studio Communications software. - Primarily designed to network computer systems such as word processing, sales invoice support

b)

c)

Applications software - designed to perform specific

tasks processing, tax planning

Computer System Configurations The 'system configuration' describes how a , specific organization combines hardware devices to support the applications utilized by its computer system. Centralized Processing - use large mainframe computers to process data, connected to remote, terminals that communicated with the central machine. Distributed processing - uses a data communications system to create and maintain a network of computers, which are equally capable of independent operation and of resource sharing as required.

Centralized Processing Vs Distributed Processing

Centralized Processing

Distributed Processing
Processing activities can be shared Independent and flexible Sense of personal ownership Costly to maintain Results in duplication Responsibility and control becomes unclear

Merits

Economies of scale Speed and capacity Ideal for routine processing

Demerits

Inflexible Long time to implement Can become technologically obsolete

Computer Networking A network is where a number of computers and other devices are linked in such a way that anyone device can communicate with any other so enabling resource sharing between a numbers of users. Networks could be mainly viewed as o WAN (wide area networks) - Networks may link computers in different organizations and can involve widely distributed geographical sites o LAN (local area networks) - Computers within the same local site

Network Topology

Refers to the physical arrangement of a particular network Star networks - The star configuration consists of a single central computer as a server that transfers data among all of the other computers in the network Ring networks - Consists of a number of computers, each connected to two others in the ring Tree networks - Known as a hierarchical network because it contains a hierarchy of processors

Network Components
The network hub - A central point for physically connecting the other components of the LAN. . Workstations - Include a microcomputer, a keyboard, a disk storage device and a printer. . File server - A processor connected to a high-speed- online form of secondary storage. All workstations on the LAN may place files on the file server. . Print server - A device that controls the high-speed printers connected to the network and can again be used by all workstations on the LAN. . Communications server - A processor on the LAN that handles communications with other systems or networks outside the LAN

Client Server Computing

A client would be any workstation attached to the network. A server is another networked computer that provides a specific service, such as managing files (a file server) or rooting messages on the network (network server).

Internet, Intranet and Extranet

Internet - The Internet is a public and global communication network that provides direct connection to anyone over a LAN. Intranet - is an internal organizational network that is based on the Internet technologies, and can be accessed only by authorized employees Extranet - refers to an extended Intranet of an organization that links to its business partners (e.g. customers, suppliers, or other trade organizations) with authorized access

Database

Traditional approaches to file management have taken an applications approach to data structure which leads to Data redundancy (duplication of data in two or more files, and may lead to inconsistencies of the same data and an increase in storage costs). A database is a collection of structured data, and the structure of that data is completely independent of any one application which can' reduce data redundancy

Database Management Systems (DBMS)


A DBMS is a set of integrated programs designed to organize and simplify the creation, management and access of data held within a database structure

Database Management Systems (DBMS)

Objectives
Provide data for a number of users Be shared Maintain data integrity Connect to a web server through a data access

Advantages
Reduction of data redundancy Reduced storage cost Data integrity Data independence, privacy

Disadvantages
Data ownership issues DB failure Contingency planning issues Implement database considering benefits

Office Automation
The term refers to the use of computers, communications and technology in managing the organization's operations and information resources. Examples o Tele Working (or Telecommuting). o Electronic Data Interchange - EDI is the computer-to computer transmission of data contained in standard business documents and reports, such as customer invoices and purchase orders

Office Automation Technology

Electronic mail (e-mail). Facsimile (fax). Teleconferencing and videoconferencing oThe ability to conduct meetings, business negotiations and presentations without the participants having to be at the same location. Internet

Organizational Management & Information Systems (M10M)

Chapter 02 Systems Theory, Systems Analysis, Design & Implementation

Systems Theory

Systems Theory

Process Internal Environment External Environment

Systems Theory
System - A system is a set of related parts accomplish a set of goals coordinated to

Elements of a System (Key Features of a System) 0 Inputs - May take the form of people, energy, materials, equipment, money or data 0 Process - Activities carried out with the aim of adding value to that input 0 Outputs. - The finished, processed product or service is passed out to the environment

Systems Theory
0 Environment - Those external elements that have direct or indirect influence on the process and the elements of a system .

0 Boundary - Separates the system and its components from its environment

0 Subsystems - parts of a systems each which consists of a process whereby component parts are coordinated to achieve a set of objectives

Systems Theory
0 Interfaces - Whenever systems or subsystem boundaries meet 0 Coupling - measures linkages between systems (or subsystems) and the extent of the speed of impact from one to another 0 Decoupling - Interfaces which separates component parts or subsystems

Types of Systems
Closed systems - A system which is totally isolated from its environment Semi-closed systems - One that reacts with its environment in a known and controlled way. Open systems - An open system is one that interacts with its environment in both a controlled and an uncontrolled way. Feedback control systems - A part of the system is returned as an input to the system as feedback. Feed forward control systems - The environment, processes and system output both monitored in order to provide corrective action if required

Types of Systems
Complex systems - Business organizations contain a large number of components and subsystems and follow a range of objectives. Viable system model - A system is viable if it is capable of responding to environmental changes even if the changes could not have been foreseen at the time the system was designed. Entropy - Is the amount of randomness in a system that may lead to system breakdown unless controlled in some way

Feedback Control Loops


Control within systems is exercised by feedback loops that gather information on past performance from the output side of a system. Terms of the parts of this cycle 0 Sensors - measuring and recording devices of the system 0 Comparator - the mechanism by which actual results are compared with plan 0 Effecter - is a manager acting on the report containing the results of the comparison between actual and standard, and issuing the instructions for adjustment to be made

Feedback Control Loops


Terms of the parts of this cycle Single loop feedback - the existing performance standards and plans remain unchanged Double loop feedback - is a higher order of feedback designed to ensure that plans, budgets and the control systems themselves are revised to meet changes in both internal and environmental conditions

System Analysis, Design & Implementation


Systems Analysis Systems analysis is a detailed analysis of the problem/system under review, to assess and develop potential options and to provide management with greater information to decide the most appropriate system options Systems Design Structured systems design converts the logical specifications in to a workable design that can be implemented by the org Systems Implementation Is a separate project involving formal project management techniques

Systems Analysis

Functional & Physical requirements of the new system


Functional Requirements .Objectives and benefits of the new system.. A narrative of each system function. Each input. output and file must be described in terms of volume, frequency, purpose, origin and major components. . Specifications for features such as editing, file maintenance controls Physical Requirements .Data storage .File size, access needs, update frequency, growth requirement. .Transaction volumes and growth, source. .Peripherals required (printers, scanners, etc.).. .Communications requirements. .Processing requirements .Output, distribution, formats. .Response times. .Layout of enquiry and input screens

System Selection

Systems selection uses the new system's functional (logical) specifications and the physical requirements used in the analysis phase to decide what resources will be necessary for the new system

Invitation to Tender
Tender document is sent to suppliers to invite them to submit plans for providing the hardware, software and specifications as proposed in the systems analysis phase. Items contained in a typical invitation to tender 0 A definition of the nature and scope of the request. 0 Brief description of required hardware and software. 0 Description of the logical specifications. 0 Description of the physical specifications. 0 Anticipated cost (budget constraints). 0 System growth requirements. 0 Criteria for supplier evaluation. 0 Timescales & Financing alternatives.

Choice of a Computer
The purchase of hardware will normally depend on a number of factors including: 0 The cost if the hardware. 0 The user requirements. 0 Compatibility with existing systems. 0 Reliability and support of the manufacturer of the computer. 0 The specification the computer. 0 Appropriate built in security systems 0 Availability of appropriate ports and expansion slots

In-house versus purchased systems


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Software External Features Quality Cost

Internal

Compatibility

Support
Nature of development Satisfaction of use needs

Need to manage. development effectively Often costly, difficult to estimat if new software Should be completely compatible Organization must provide and perform training & maintenance Develop in-house if unique requirement

Tailored - maximum satisfaction


b cost budget) ]41 Contract must specify quality standard and performance criteria Usually less costly than internal

I Less flexibility (more determined

May require amendments to fit in with current system. Vendor likely to support both own training and maintenance Purchase if industry standard

Systems Design

Aims of a System Design

To convert the specifications proposed in systems to a workable design. To develop a test program. To develop an implementation" plan. To develop training programmed and user manual

Final outcome of a System Design

Detailed descriptions and plans . An implementation plan. A test plan. A training program. A user manual

Design Documentation Techniques


Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) - used to describe the flow of data between entities, processes and data stores. Entity Relationship Modeling (ERM Diagram) - is a tool used within data analysis, mainly for database. Entity Life Histories Analysis (ELH) - An entity life history (ELH) is a representation of the processes that occur in the life of each individual entity, and is designed to show the way in which information within a system changes over time. Decision Tables - used to describe the processing logic of a system.

Systems Implementation

Testing
A critical activity prior to changeover is testing the new system to ensure that it is working correctly before going live Types of tests 0 Realistic tests present the system with a realistic example of the environment in which the system is to operate. 0 Contrived tests present the system with as many unusual and unexpected events as possible 0 Volume tests present the system with a large volume of transactions to see how it reacts, particularly in operating and response times.

Training
Decisions Will need to be made over the training needs of those who either operate the new system and those who manage the operators, The training requirements of the new system users are likely to involve the following: 0 Training in basic computer' literacy and user skills. 0 Learning how to use specific applications and modules 0 On-the-job training, (ie: training while staff are actively using the new system) 0 Training updates as the users become more familiar with the system

Training
Some of the training methods may include the following: 0 Attending training courses 0 Reading the user manual. 0 Online computer-based training 0 Help lines and dedicated support teams. 0 Lectures and discussion forums held internally for users to discuss problem areas 0 Short demonstrations of particular business related features of the new system; 0 DVD or video demonstrations to provide an overview; 0 Formal executive training seminars on systems features such as executive information systems.

Change over Approaches

The Parallel approach whereby old and new systems operate together for a period of time, processing the same current data. Direct approach. This approach to conversion has the highest risk, as at a predetermined point in time the old system entirely ceases to operate

Change over Approaches


Pilot approach to changeover can be implemented in two ways: 0 A restricted data pilot involves taking one whole part of the complete system and running it as the new system 0 A retrospective pilot, by comparison, involves operating the new system with old data already processed by the existing system. The Phased or Modular approach involves gradual implementation and is often used in large systems projects or in organizations that are geographically dispersed

Systems Review

Systems Review

Once implemented, the organization should periodically examine the system to ensure that it is continuing to operate as expected and that it still satisfies user needs. The organization is likely to undertake two different types of systems review

a. Post Implementation Review

The post-implementation review is a thorough review of a new system which should be carried out soon after implementation, in order to establish whether the system is operating as expected and to confirm whether the user's needs are being satisfied

Goals of a Post Implementation Review

Establish, whether the new system satisfies user needs. Evaluate the actual performance of the new system compared with anticipated performance. Recommend improvements to the systems development procedures if necessary. Review original cost benefit analysis to ascertain if costs have been met/exceeded. Suggest any other changes that might improve system

Contents of the Post Implementation Report


The system's goals and an analysis of how successfully the new system achieved these. A summary of the system's overall quality. A summary of those areas where the system is considered to be unsatisfactory, together with recommendations for improvement. An assessment of overall systems performance. An assessment of the quality of the project management and recommendations for improvement if necessary. A cost benefit analysis

Post Implementation Challenges


Implementation may be met with employee resistance either direct or passive. . Some of this could be 0 Fear of new system's effect on jobs 0 Fear of the unknown 0 Reluctance to use the new system 0 Errors in processing (either deliberate or accidental) 0 Slower processing due to a lack of confidence, unfamiliarity or covert sabotage 0 Staff turnover or increased absence arising from avoidance of the new change

Overcoming Resistance

Education and communication; Participation and involvement; Facilitation and support; Negotiation and agreement; Manipulation and co-optation; Explicit and/or implicit coercion (Kotter and Schlesinger (1992)

Overcoming Resistance to Change Education and Communication


Parties subjected to charge are educated about the need to change and the consequences of not changing. A constant dialogue takes place in making them understand the need and implications of change.

Participation and Involvement


If people are committed to implementing the change and, if their views are taken into account, this may enhance the effectiveness of the change programme. This attempts to get the participants to get involved in the change process

Overcoming Resistance to Change Facilitation and Support


The use of techniques such as training, counseling and group discussions designed to reduce fear and anxiety of change

Negotiation and Agreement


Where the parities who initiates change and the effected parties would negotiate and agree on the implications from the change process.

Overcoming Resistance to Change


Manipulation and Co-optation Manipulation is an approach that relies on presenting partial or misleading information to the people resisting the change. Co-optation involves identifying key individuals resisting changes and buying them off by giving them positions of authority to help implement the changes Explicit and Implicit Coercion This involves the use of force, or the threat of force, to enforce the implementation of change. This could be in explicit form or in implicit form.

b. System Maintenance

System maintenance is the repair, correction or further enhancement of systems one in operation. The goals of systems maintenance are to: 0 Ensure systems changes are carried. out quickly and effectively 0 Ensure that systems changes are appropriate to the organization's current processing environment; 0 Perfect systems maintenance and development procedures

Forms of System Maintenance


Corrective maintenance, which must be carried out in order to correct errors within a system. Perfective maintenance is carried out in order to improve performance of an application, so that performance is enhanced and inefficiencies are eliminated. Adaptive maintenance is carried out in order to adjust applications to reflect changing business operations and environmental opportunities or threats