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BDA 3043

APPLIED THERMODYNAMIC

CHAPTER 6
MIXTURE AND
PSYCHROMETRY

1
6.1 INTRODUCTION

• A pure substance is defined as a substance having uniform


chemical composition where no chemical reaction will take place.
• Until now, thermodynamic analysis always assume that system to
be studied is or are always consist of only one pure substance……2
kg steam in a cylinder….0.5 kg/min air induced in a compressor…..
• In practical condition, thermodynamic analysis always involve one or
more substance. which we call a mixture.
• The mixture to be considered in this chapter are those of perfect
gasses and perfect gases and vapors.

2
6.2 DALTON’S LAW

• If we fill a vessel (volume V) with m1 kg of gas A at T, we will get p1.


• If we remove all of gas A and fill it in with m2 kg of gas B at the same
temperature T, we will get p2.
• If then both gas A and B were put together at temperature T, the
pressure of the vessel will be p = p1 + p2.
• p1 and p2 are called partial pressure (tekanan separa).

3
• Dalton law stated:

“..the pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of
the constituents…The partial pressure of each constituent is that the pressure
which the gas would exert if it occupied alone that volume occupied by the mixture
at the same temperature…”

p = ∑ pi

Note:
From the conservation of mass m = ∑m i

Dalton’s law is found to be obeyed more accurately by gas


mixtures at low pressure

4
EXAMPLE 6.1
A vessel of volume 0.4 m3 contains 0.45kg of CO and 1 kg of air at 15oC.
Calculate the partial pressure of each constituent and the total pressure
in the vessel. The gravimetric analysis of air is to be taken as 23% O2,
76.7% N2. Take the molar mass of CO, O2 and N2 as 28,32 and 28
kg/kmol

5
Solution Ex:1
• Jisim O2, mO2=(23.3/100)(1)=0.233kg
• mN2=(76.7/100)(1)=0.767 kg
• Dari persamaan RM=R’/M; RM=pemalar gas tertentu
• Pv=mRT; P=mR’T/Mv
• Pi=miR’T/Miv

• Isipadu,V=0.4m3, suhu T=15+273=288K


• Pecahan separa Untuk O2;
• PiO2=(0.233 x 8.3145 x 288)/(32 x 0.4) =43.59 kN/m2=0.4359 bar
• Pecahan separa Untuk N2;
• PiN2=(0.767 x 8.3145 x 288)/(28 x 0.4) = 163.99 kN/m2=1.6399 bar
• Pecahan separa Untuk CO2
• PiCO2=(0.45 x 8.3145 x 288)/(28 x 0.4) =(96.21 kN/m2=0.9621 bar
• Jumlah tekanan/Tekanan campuran dalam bekas, Pm
• Pm=ΣPi=0.436+1.640+0.962
• =3.038 bar
6
6.3 GIBSS-DALTON’S LAW

• Dalton’s law was reformulated by Gibbs to include a second


statement on properties of mixtures.
• Gibbs-Dalton’s law stated:

“..the internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of gaseous mixture are respectively
equal to the sum of the internal energies, enthalpies and entropies of the
constituents…Each constituent has that internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy
which it have if it occupied alone that volume occupied by the mixture at the
temperature of the mixture..”

This statement leads to the equations:


mu = ∑ mi ui
mh = ∑ mi hi
ms = ∑ mi si

7
6.4 VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GAS MIXTURE

• The mixture of gas is often quoted by volume as this is the most


convenient for practical determination
• Consider a volume V of gaseous mixture at T consisting of gas A,B
and C as in fig A:

• Each then, is compressed until it reaches the total pressure of the


mixture p although maintaining the initial temperature T (fig B).

8
• From fig B, the partial volume of each constituents will be VA, VB and
VC.
• From equation pV=mRT,
pAV pVA
mA = mA =
RAT and RAT

fig A fig B

pAV pVA
=
RAT RAT

pA
pAV = pVA or VA = V
p
• In general, therefore
pi
Vi = V
p

piV V
∑ Vi = ∑ p
= ∑ pi
p

9
• Since, p = ∑ pi therefore
V
∑V = p × p
i

V = ∑V i

“…Therefore, the volume of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the volumes
of individual constituents when each exist alone at the pressure and the
temperature of a mixture…”

• This is the statement of another empirical law which is the law of


partial volume (sometimes called Amagat’s Law or Leduc’s law)

• By Avogardo’s law, the amount of substance, n (mol) of any gas


is propotional to the volume of gas at a given p and T.

10
• Looking back at fig. A;
The volume V at p and T will contains an
amount of substance n

• Looking back at fig. B;

The gas A occupies a volume of VA at p and


T will contains an amount of substance nA

• Therefore, the total amount of substance in the vessel must equal


the sum of the amount of substance of individual constituent

n = ∑ ni

11
6.5 THE MOLAR MASS AND SPECIFIC GAS
CONSTANT
• Molar mass is defined as mass of substance per its amount, n;
m
M =
n
• Molar mass for carbon is 12kg/kmol.
• For n kmol, the mass of the substance is m = n x M kg
• 1.3 kmol of carbon will have 1.3 x 12 = 15.6 kg of carbon.
• From equation pV=mRT, since m = n x M, therfore pV=nMRT

• Since R = Ro therefore pV = nM  Ro T and pV = nR T


o
M M 
• From Dalton’s law, for each constituent; pV = n R T
i i o

∑ ( pV ) = ∑ ( m R T )
i i i

V ∑ p =T ∑mR
i i i
12
• Since p = ∑ pi

∑mR
pV = T i i = mRT
mR = ∑ m R i i

• Or
mi
R=∑ Ri
m

Where mi = mass fraction of a constituent used in gravimetric


m analysis

13
EXAMPLE 6.2
The gravimetric analysis of air is 23.14% oxygen, 75.53% nitrogen, 1.28
% argon, 0.05% carbon dioxide. Calculate the specific gas constant for
air and molar mass. Take the molar mass of oxygen, nitrogen, argon and
carbon dioxide as 32 kg/kmol, 28 kg/kmol, 40 kg/kmol and 44 kg/kmol

SOLUTION
Ro
From equation R =
M
8.314 kJ
RO2 = = 0.2598
32 kg.K
8.314 kJ
RN2 = = 0.2969
28 kg.K
8.314 kJ 8.314 kJ
RAr = = 0.2079 RCO2 = = 0.1890
40 kg.K 44 kg.K

14
mi
From equation R = ∑ m Ri
 mO2   mN2   mAr   mCO2 
R =  × RO2  +  × RN2  +  × RAr  +  × RCO2 
 mmix   mixm   mixm   mixm 

R = ( 0.2314× 0.2598) + ( 0.7553× 0.2969) + ( 0.0128× 0.2079) + ( 0.0005× 0.1890)


kJ
R = 0.287
kg.K
Ro
The molar mass can be calculated using R =
M
Ro 8.314
M = =
R 0.287
kg
M = 28.96
kmol

15
6.5 THE MOLAR ANALYSIS

• We have from Dalton’s law; piV = ni RoT (constitue


nt)
pV = nRoT (mixture)

• The ratio of both will become;


piV ni RoT pi ni
= =
pV nRoT p n

• From the volumetric analysis (page 8),


pi pi Vi pi Vi ni
Vi = V = = =
p p V p V n

16
m
• Another way to fine molar mass besides using formula M = is as
n
below:
pV
• We have from Gibbs law; mi = i (constitue nt)
RiT
pV
m= (mixture)
RT

• Since m = ∑ mi then pV = piV


RT
∑ RT
i

Ro pM pi Mi pi
• With R = , we get =∑ , where M = ∑ Mi
M Ro Ro p

• Since pi = Vi = ni M =∑
pi
Mi
p V n p
V
M = ∑ i Mi
V
n
M = ∑ i Mi
n
17
EXAMPLE 6.3
A mixture of 1 kmol CO2 and 3.5 kmol of air is filled in a vessel at 1 bar
and 15oC. The volumetric analysis of air is to be 21% O2 and 79%
N2.Determine:
a. mass of constituent and mixture
b. % carbon in the mixture
c. molar mass and gas constant of mixture
d. specific volume of the mixture.

Take molar mass: oxygen = 32 kg/kmol,


nitrogen = 28 kg/kmol,
carbon dioxide= 44 kg/kmol.

18
SOLUTION
a. mass of constituent and mixture

From equation m = n × M
mCO2=nCO2×M CO2
mCO2= 1 × 44 = 44kg

ni V
We know = i
nmix Vmix
VO2 VN2
nO2 = × nair = 0.21× 3.5 nN2 = × nair = 0.79× 3.5
Vair Vair
nO2 = 0.735kmol nN2 = 2.765kmol

mO 2=nO 2×M O 2 mN 2=n N 2×M N 2

mO 2= 0.735× 32 = 23.55kg mN 2= 2.765× 28 = 77.5kg

19
mmixture=mCO2+mO 2+mN 2
mmixture= 44 + 23.55 + 77.5
mmixture= 145.05kg

b. % carbon in the mixture

Since n for carbon dioxide is 1 kmol, it must consist of 1 kmol of carbon


and 2 kmol of oxigen. So since molar mass of carbon is 12 kg per kmol,
then mC = 12kg
mC
%mC = × 100%
mmixture
12
%mC = × 100%
145.05
%mC = 8.27%

20
c. molar mass and gas constant of mixture
ni
We know Mmix = ∑ × Mi
nmix

n mixture=nCO2+nair = 1 + 3.5 = 4.5kmol

 nCO2   nO2   nN2 


Mmix 
=  
× MCO2  +  × MO2  +  × MN2 
 nmix   nmix   nmix 
 1   0.735   2.765 
Mmix =  × 44 +  × 32 +  × 28
 4.5   4.5   4.5 
kg
Mmix = 32.2
kmol
R Note:
We know Rmix = o
Mmix The M and R can also
8.314 kJ determine using solution as
Rmix = = 0.2581 in Example 6.2 (page 13)
32.2 kg.K

21
d. specific volume of the mixture.

We know pv = RT
RmixT mix 0.2581× (15 + 273)
v mix = =
pmix 100
m3
v mix = 0.7435
kg

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6.5 THE SPECIFIC HEAT FO MIXTURE
• We know mu = ∑ miui (Gibbs- Dalton) and u = CVT
mi
• Combining both equation mCVT = ∑ miCViT or CV = ∑ CVi
m
• To obtain the specific enthalpy, h and entropy s we will use the
same approach to obtain
m
CP = ∑ i CPi
m
• From equation CP − CV = R
mi m
CP − CV = ∑ CPi + ∑ i CVi
m m
m
CP − CV = ∑ i (CPi − CVi )
m
m
CP − CV = ∑ i Ri
m
23
EXAMPLE 6.4

The gas in an engine cylinder has a volumetric analysis of 12% CO2,


11.5% O2 and 76.5% N2. The temperature at the beginning of expansion is
1000oC and the gas mixture expands reversibly through a volume ratio 7 to
1, according to a law PV1.25=C. Determine the work done and heat transfer
per unit mass of gas mixture. The value of Cp for each constituent are as
below
CP(CO2) = 1.271 kJ/kg.K
CP(O2) = 1.11 kJ/kg.K
CP(N2) =1 .196 kJ/kg.K

24
SOLUTION
Assumption: The amount of mixture is 1 kmol. This can be done since the
work and heat transfer is per unit mass.
VCO2 VO2 V
We know = 0.12, = 0.115and N2 = 0.765
v mix v mix v mix

The system is a close system, so

Rmix (T 2 − T1 ) γ −n
w12 = andq12 = w12
1− n γ −1

To solve the problem, we must first find R and Cv


Ro
R=
Mmix

V
Mmix = ∑ i × Mi
Vmix

25
 VCO2   VO   VN 
M mix =  × M CO2  +  2 × M O2  +  2 × M N 2 
 Vmix   Vmix   Vmix 

Mmix = ( 0.12× 44) + ( 0.115× 32) + ( 0.765× 28)


kg
Mmix = 30.38
kmol
Ro
R=
Mmix
8.314 = 0.274 kJ
R=
30.38 kg.K

Find Cpmix
mi
CPmix = ∑ × CP i
mmix
 mCO2   mO2   mN2 
CP mix =  × CP CO2  +  × CP O2  +  × CP NO2 
 mmix   mmix   mmix 

26
ni V
We know = i and n mixture is 1 kmol
nmix Vmix

VCO2 VO2
nCO2 = × 1 = 0.12kmol nO2 = × 1 = 0.115kmol
Vmix Vmix
VN2
nN2 = × 1 = 0.765kmol
Vmix

Since mi = ni × Mi
mCO2 = nCO2 × MCO2 = 0.12× 44 = 5.28kg
mO2 = nO2 × MO2 = 0.115× 32 = 3.68kg
mNO2 = nN2 × MN2 = 0.765× 28 = 21.4kg

mmix = mCO2 + mO2 + mN2


mmix = 5.28 + 3.68 + 21.4
mmix = 30.36kg

27
 5.28   3.68   21.4 
CP mix =  × 1.271 +  × 1.11 +  × 1.196
 30.36   30.36   30.36 
kJ
CP mix = 1.199
kg.K

We know CV = CP − R
CV mix = CP mix − Rmix = 1.199− 0.274
kJ
CV mix = 0.925
kg.K

Before we can calculate w12,, we must first find T2 using equation


n −1
T 2 V1 
=  
T1 V2 

V2
We know =7
V1

28
1.25−1
 1
T 2 = (1000+ 273)  
 7
T 2 = 782.6K

Rmix (T 2 − T1 ) 0.274( 782.6 − 1273)


w12 = =
1− n 1 − 1.25
kJ
w12 = 537.5
kg
Find γ before we can determine q12
CP 1.199
γ = = = 1.296
CV 0.925

γ −n  1.296− 1.25
q12 = w12 =   × 537.5
γ −1  1.296− 1 

kJ
q12 = 83.53
kg

29
6.6 GAS AND VAPOUR MIXTURE
Dry and Atmospheric Air

• Air is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and small amount of some other


gases.
• Air in atmosphere normally contains some water vapour (moisture)
and is referred as atmospheric air.
• By contrast air that contains no water vapour is called dry air.
• It is important to treat both as a mixture of vapour and dry are since
the composition of dry air will remain constant, but the amount of
water vapour will vary as a result of condensation and evaporation.
• Although the amount if water is small, it plays a major role in human
comfort especially in air conditioning application.
• Since the temperature of air conditioning system ranges at low
temperature, we can treat air as ideal gas.

30
• Therefore, the change of enthalpy will be ∆hdry air = CP ∆T
• It certainly will be convenient to treat the vapour as ideal gas since
at low temperature the error can be negligible.
• As a result we can say that it will obey pv = RT
• From Dalton Law, if dry air is mix with water vapour at T and V, the
total pressure P can be written as; p = pa + pv
where;
pa = partialpressureof dry air
pv = partialpressureof wet vapour

• For example, assume that in a quantity of atmospheric air, the


vapour pressure is 0.01 bar at 15oC and the total pressure is 1.013
bar. The dry air pressure will be
pa = p − pv = 1.013− 0.01 = 1.003bar

31
Specific and Relative Humidity of Air

• The amount of vapour in the air can be specified in various ways


• The specific humidity (moisture content) is a ratio of mass of water
vapour to the mass of dry air in a given volume of mixture and is
denoted ω; m
ω= v
ma
• Since both masses occupy the volume V;

mv 1
vv v a
ω= V = =
ma 1 vv
V v a

• Since both are considered as perfect gases, the


pV paV
mv = v ma =
RVT RaT

32
Specific and Relative Humidity of Air
Ro Ro
• We know that Rv = and Ra =
Mv Ma
paVMa p VM
• Therefore ma = and mv = v v
RoT RoT

• Substituting the equations, we will get

pvVMV
RoT Mv pv
ω= = ×
paVMa Ma pa
RoT

• Since Mv = 18kJ / kmol and Ma = 28.96kJ / kmol we can simplify into;


pv pv
ω = 0.622× = 0.622
pa ( p − pv )

33
• By definition, dry air contains no water vapour and thus its specific
humidity is zero.
• Let us add some water vapour, the specific humidity will increase
until it the air can hold no more moisture.
• At this point it will be the maximum amount of moisture the air can
hold and is called the saturated air.
• Any moisture introduce into saturated air will condense.
• The amount of moisture in the air has a definite effect on how
comfortable we feel in an environment.
• However, the comfort level depends more on the amount of
moisture the air holds, mv relative to the maximum amount of
moisture the air can hold, mg (saturated condition)
• The ratio is called relative humidity,φ where

mv p V RvT p pg = psat @T
φ= = v = v
mg pgV RvT pg

34
• Substituting the equation, we will get;
0.622φpg ωp
ω= φ=
( p − φpg ) ( 0.622+ ω ) pg

35
Specific Enthalpy and Specific Heat Capacity
• The total enthalpy (extensive property) of the atmospheric air is the
sum of the enthalpy of the enthalpies of dry air and water vapour;
H = Ha + Hv = maha + mv hv

• Dividing with mass of dry air; h = maha + mv h and h = ha + ωhv


v
ma ma

• h is actually the mixture enthalpy per unit dry air kJ


kg dry air

hv can be obtained using


• ( )
hv = 2500( kJ / k ) g + 1.88 kJ / kg.o C ×T
where the value 2500 kJ/kg is the enthalpy at 0 C and 1.88kJ/kg.oC
o

is the value of average specific heat capacity of water vapour.

• ha can be obtained using ha = CPT


where Cp = 1.005kJ/kg.oC and it is the value of average heat
capacity of dry air
36
EXAMPLE 6.5
A 5m X 5m X 3m room contains air at 25oC and 100kPa at relative
humidity of 75%. Determine:
a. the partial pressure of dry air
b. the specific humidity
c. the enthalpy per unit mass of the dry air
d. the masses of dry air and water vapor in the room

37
SOLUTION
For water, at 25oC, psat=0.03166 bar and hg=2546.6 kJ/kg

a. the partial pressure of dry air


pa = p − pv
pv = φpg = φpsat @25o C = 0.75× 0.03166
pv = 0.0237bar

pa = p − pv = 1 − 0.0237= 0.9763

b. the specific humidity

pv 0.0237
ω = 0.622 = 0.622
( p − pv ) (1 − 0.0237)
kgH2O
ω = 0.0151
kg dry air

38
c. the enthalpy per unit mass of the dry air
h = ha + ωhg ≅ CPT + ωhv
( )
hv = 2500( kJ / k ) g + 1.88 kJ / kg.o C T = 2500+ 1.88( 25)
hv = 2547kJ / kg

hmix = CPT + ωhv = (1.005× 25) + ( 0.0151× 2547)


hmix = 63.58kJ
kg dry air

d. the masses of dry air and water vapor in the room

Both dry air and water vapour fill the entire room completely.

Vmix = Va = Vv = 5 × 5 × 3 = 75m3

39
So the mass of dry air will be;

paVmix 97.63× 75
ma = =
RaT mix 0.287( 25 + 273)
ma = 85.53kg

The mass of water vapour will be;

mv = ωma = 0.0151× 85.53


mv = 1.29kg

40
Dew-Point Temperature
• Every morning, we can see that the grass T
is always wet although it did not rain. This
is because the excess moisture in the air 1
simply condensed on cool surface forming
what we call dew.
• What happen is that, when the
temperature falls at night, so does the 2
moisture capacity of air, which is the
maximum amount of moisture can hold. s
After a while the moisture capacity will be
equal to the moisture content (φ = 100%).
Any further in temperature drop will result Example:
in condensation, and this is the beginning Droplet on cold can is result by:
of dew formation.
T water in can < Tdp (of surrounding air)
• Dew temperature, Tdp is defined as the
temperature of which begin when air is
cooled at constant pressure.

T dp = T s @ p
V

41
Adiabatic Saturation and Wet Bulb Temperature
• It is easy to obtain water vapour pressure
Unsaturated
if we know the dew-point temperature but air
Saturated air
it is not practical. T1, ω1, 1 2 T2,ω2
• Another way to determine the relative and φ2 = 100%
φ1
Liquid water
specific humidity is using the
understanding of an adiabatic saturation Liquid water
process. at T2
• The system consist of a long insulated
channel that contains a pool of water.
• A steady stream of unsaturated water with
ω1 and T1 is passed through this channel. Adiabatic saturated
• As the air flows, some water evaporates T temperature
resulting in temperature decrease and
increase of moisture content (φ increase).
1
• If the channel is long enough, φ will
become 100% at T2(adiabatic saturated
temperature. 2
Dew-point
temperature
s
42
• If makeup water is supplied at the rate of Unsaturated
the evaporation, it will become a steady Saturated air
air
flow process. 2 T2,ω2
T1, ω1, 1
φ2 = 100%
• From the principle of mass; φ1
Liquid water

a = m
m  a ( no massaddedfor dry air)
a = m Liquid water
1 2 at T2
mv + m f = m  v or
1 2 2
 a ω1 + m
m f = m  a ω2 thus
1 2 2

mf = ma ( ω2 − ω1 )

2

Adiabatic saturated
T temperature
∑ m hin in = ∑m
 outhout

 ah1 + m
m  f hf = m
 ah2 or
2 2
1
m  a ( ω2 − ω1 ) hf = m
 ah1 + m  ah2
2

Dividing by m  a gives 2
h1 + ( ω2 − ω1 ) hf = h2 Dew-point
(CPT1 + ω1hg ) + (ω2 − ω1 )hf = (CPT 2 + ω2hg
1 2 2
) temperature
s

43
Rearrange the formula will give; Unsaturated
Saturated air
air
T2,ω2
CP (T 2 − T1 ) + ω2hfg2 T1, ω1, 1 2
φ2 = 100%
ω1 = φ1
hg1 − hf2 Liquid water

where Liquid water


pg2 at T2
ω2 = 0.622
(p2 − pg2 )
• We can conclude that to find to find ω and
φ, we only have to know the pressure and
temperature at inlet and outlet
∀ φ can be determine using the formula;

ω1p2
φ1 =
( 0.622+ ω1 ) pg1
• The process discuss above involve long channel.
• A more practical approach is to use a sling
psychrometer which have the dry bulb thermometer
and a wet bulb thermometer which is soak with
water

44
• Comparison with the system used before: CP (T 2 − T1 ) + ω2hfg2
ω1 =
hg1 − hf2
The dry bulb thermometer will give the temperature
at the inlet, that is T1. pg2
ω2 = 0.622
From the value of T1, we can get the value of pg , hg
1 1
(p 2 − pg2 )
The dry bulb temperature will give the desired ω1
that we want to find. ω1p2
φ1 =
( 0.622+ ω1 ) pg1

The wet bulb thermometer will give the temperature


at the inlet, that is T2.
From the value of T2, we can get the value of pg , hf andhfg
2 2 2

The value of p2 is the atmospheric pressure.

45
EXAMPLE 6.6
The dry-wet bulb temperature of atmospheric pressure at 1 atm are
measured with sling psychrometer and determined to be 25oC and 15oC
respectively. Determine:
a. the specific humidity
b. the relative humidity
c. the enthalpy per unit dry air.

46
SOLUTION
From the table:
pg2 = psat @15o C = 0.01704bar hf2 = hf @15o C = 62.9kJ / kg pg1 = psat @25o C = 0.03166bar
hfg2 = hfg @15o C = 2465.5kJ / kg hg1 = hg @25o C = 2546.6kJ / kg

a. the specific humidity


pg2 0.01704
ω2 = 0.622 = 0.622
(p2 − pg2 ) (1.01325− 0.01704)
ω2 = 0.0106kgH2O/kg dry air

CP (T 2 − T1 ) + ω2hfg2 1.005(15 − 25) + 0.0106× 2465.5


ω1 = =
hg1 − hf2 1546.6 − 62.9
ω1 = 0.00648kgH2O/kgdry air

b. the relative humidity


ω1p2 0.00648× 1.0135
φ1 = =
( 0.622+ ω1 ) pg1 ( 0.622+ 0.00648) 0.03166
φ1 = 0.33 or 33%

47
c. the enthalpy per unit dry air

h1 = CPT1 + ω1hg1 + (1.005× 25) + ( 0.00648× 2546.6)


h1 = 41.62kJ/kg dry air

48
Psychrometric Chart
• The state of atmospheric air at a
specific pressure is completely
specified by two independent intensive
properties.
• Since calculations create tedious jobs,
using chart is much more simpler……..
but we have to compromise with
accuracy.
• Psychrometric chart is introduce to
ease all the scientist and engineering
so that fast result can be obtained and
it is used extensively in air-conditioning
application.
• The chart given is the chart for 1 atm
only. Charts for other pressure are also
available its not my job to give to
you…..

49
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

50
EXAMPLE 6.6
Considered a room that contains air at 1 atm, 35oC and 40% of relative
humidity. Using the psychrometric chart , determine:
a. the specific humidity
b. the enthalpy
c. the wet-bulb temperature
d. the dew-point temperature
e. the specific volume of the air.

51
a. the specific humidity
b. the enthalpy
c. the wet-bulb temperature
d. the dew-point temperature
e. the specific volume of the air

Wet bulb temp


Enthalpy

Specific humidity

Dew temp

Spesific volume = 0.89m3

52
COOLING TOWER

• A device to use water as a cooling which


in the cycle cooling systems the heat from
the component are remove.
• Two types of the cooling tower
• i. Induced-draught cooling tower
• Ii. Natural draught cooling tower

53
COOLING TOWER
Air
Exit
Air Exit

Fan

Hot
Water In

Packing

Hot Water In

Cold
Air Inlet
Water Out Air In

Cold Water Out


Make-up water
(a) (b)

Schamatic Diagram of Cooling Tower: (a) Induced-draught and (b) Natural Draught
54
COOLING TOWER
• Example 6.7
• The cooling water from condenser of the power plant enters a
cooling tower at 35ºC at the rate of 100 kg/s. The water is cooled to
22ºC in the cooling tower by air that enters the tower at 1 atm, 20ºC,
and 60 % relative humidity and leaves saturated at 30ºC. Neglecting
the power input to the fan. determine:
• (i) the volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower
• (ii) the mass flow rate of the required makeup water.

• Example 6.8
• A small-size cooling tower is designed to cool 5.5 liters of water per
second, the inlet temperature of which is 44ºC. The motor-driven fan
induces 9 m3/s of air through the tower and the power absorbed is
4.75 kW. The air entering the tower is at 18ºC, and has a relative
humidity 60% and its temperature is 26ºC. Assuming that the
pressure thought the tower is constant at 1.013 bar, and make-up
water is added outside the tower, Calculate:
• (i) the mass flow rate of make-up water required;
• (ii)the final temperature of the water leaving the tower.

55
Cooling Tower
Solution 6.7
2 T2=30ºC;ø2=100%
Air
Exit Assumption:
• m’ dry air in~out are constant-
T3=35ºC;
Fan • Dry air and water vapor is ideal gas
m3=100kg/s 3 • K.E and P.E ~Δ are Neglecting
Hot • Cooling Tower is adiabatic
Water In

Packing

m3=m4=100kg/s;
T4=22ºC 4 1
Cold
Air Inlet
Water Out
1 atm;T1=20ºC;
ø1=60%;v1=?
Make-up water

56
Cooling Tower
• From assumption:
• Dry air mass balance;
• m’a1=m’a2=m’a
• Water mass balance;
• m’3=m’aω1=m’4+m’a2 ω2
• Or m’3-m’4 =m’a (ω2-ω1) = m’makeup water
• Energy balance;
. .
∑mi hi =Σm e he
. . . .
m a1 h1 +m3 h3 =m a 2 h2 +m a 4 h4
. . . .
hence m3 h3 =m a (h2 −h1) +(m3 −m makeup water )h4

• From psychrometric chart:


• Getting the data: 57
• h1=42.2 kJ/kg dry air;ω1=0.0087 kgH2O/kg dry air; v1=0.842 m3/kg dry air
• Define flow rate of air into cooling tower
from equation
. (100kg / s)[(146.68 − 92.33)kJ / kg ]
m=
[(100.0 − 42.2)kJ / kg ] − [(0.0273 − 0.087)(92.33)kJ / kg ]
.
m = 96.9 kg / s

•To define volume flow rate of air into the cooling tower
V1=mav1
=(96.9 kg/s)(0.842 m3/kg)
=81.6m3/s

To define mass flow rate of the required makeup water


M’makeup=m’a(ω2-ω1)
=(96.9 kg/s)(0.0273-0.0087)
=1.80 kg/s
58
Cooling Tower
Solution 6.8 Ta2=26ºC;ø2=100%
2 m’aha2;m’s2hs2
Air
Exit Assumption:
m’w1hw1; Tw1=44ºC
m1=5.5 liter • m’ dry air in~out are constant-
Fan • Dry air and water vapor is ideal gas
1 • K.E and P.E ~Δ are Neglecting
Hot • Cooling Tower is adiabatic
Water In

Packing

m1=m2=5.5 liter
Tw2=? 2 1
m’w2hw2 Cold
Water Out
Air Inlet

1 atm;Ta1=18ºC;
ø1=60%;m’aha1
Make-up water
m’s1hs1

59
Cooling Tower
• i. At air inlet @18ºC
• Ø=Ps/pg and Pg@18ºC=0.02063 bar
• Ps1=(0.6)(0.02063)=0.01238 bar
• Pa1=P-Ps1
• =1.013-0.01238=1.0006 bar
• m’a=(105 x 1.0006 x 9)/(103x 0.287)(18+273)=10.78 kg/s
• And
• m’s1=(105x0.01238 x 9)/(103x 0.4618 x 291)=0.0829 kg/s
• At air Exit@ 26ºC
• Pg=0.03360 bar and ø=1
• Ps2=Psg=0.03360 bar
• From equation ω2=0.622[(Ps2)/(P-Ps2)]
• =(0.622 x 0.0336)/(1.013 – 0.0336)
• =0.02133

60
Cooling Tower
• From equation m’s2=10.78 x 0.02133 [ω2=ms2/ma]
• m’s2=0.23 kg/s
• Hence makeup water required is, mmakeup=m’s2-m’s1
• =0.23-0.0829=0.1471 kg/s
• Ii. Water
• m’w1=5.5 x 1 =5.5 kg/s and
• m’w2=m’w1-m’makeup
• =5.5 – 0.1471
• =5.353 kg/s
• From SFEE with Δ K.E and P.E are Neglecting and all of losses heat
• W’+m’w1hw1+m’a1ha1+m’s1+hs1=m’a2ha2+m’s1hs2+m’w2hw2 …..(1)
• But given W’=4.75 kW=4.75 kJ/s
• Evaluating the enthalpies from a datum of 0ºC we have;
• hw1=hf @ 44ºC=184.2 kJ/kg
• ha1=1.005(18-0)ºC=18.09 kJ/kg [CpΔT]
• hs1=2519.4 + 1.86(18-10.3)=2534 kJ/kg [Patm)
• hs2=hg @ 26ºC = 2548.4 kJ/kg
• ha2=1.005(26-0)=26.13 kJ/kg [CpΔT] 61
Cooling Tower
• The vapor is superheated at 1, being above @10.13ºC,
the saturation temperature corresponding to 0.01238
bar;
• Substituting in (1)
• 4.75 +(5.5 x 184.2)+10.78 x 18.09) + (0.0828 x 2534) =
(10.78 x 26.13) + (0.23 x 2548.4) + 5.353hw2
• 5.353hw2=556.3
• Hw2=104 kJ/kg=hf
• By interpolotion
• Hf Ts
• 101 24.1
• 104 Tw2
• 112 26.7
• Tw2=[(104-101)/(112-101)] [26.7-24.1] +24.1=24.80ºC
• =temperature of water leaving tower
62