Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 48

BDA 3043

APPLIED THERMODYNAMIC

CHAPTER 5
INTERNAL
COMBUSTION ENGINES

1
5.1 INTRODUCTION
 One of the most significant
inventions of the 20th century is
the internal combustion (IC)
engine
 Definition
 An engine in which the
chemical energy of the fuel
is released inside the
engine and used directly for
mechanical work E : Exhaust cam shaft
I : Intake Cam shaft
S : Spark plug
V : Inlet and exhaust valve
W : Water Jacket for cooling flow
P : Piston
R : Connecting Rod
C : Crank shaft

2
 IC engines use reciprocating
piston in a cylinder (block) bore

 The piston operates between the tdc


“top dead center” (TDC) and the
“bottom dead center” (BDC) stroke
 Valves are used to control the flow
bdc
of gas into and out of engine

l
 Stroke is the largest distance the
piston travels
 Bore is the diameter of the piston θ
a
 Other components are piston,
block, crankshaft, connecting rod
etc.
l = connecting rod
a = crank shaft
θ = crank angle

3
5.2 TYPES & CLASSIFICATIONS OF IC ENGINES
 IC engine can be classified according to:
 applications
 Automobile, truck, locomotive, light aircraft, marine,
portable, power system etc
 basic engine design
 Reciprocating engine, rotary engine

 no of cylinders
 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 etc.

 arrangement of cylinder
 In-line, V-type, opposed, radial

 working cycle
 4-stroke, 2-stroke

 fuel
 Gasoline, diesel, nitro methane, alcohol, natural gas,
hydrogen etc

4
ENGINE DESIGN & CYLINDER ARRANGEMENT

Inline, 4-cylinder
(Straight 4)

V-type, 6 cylinder
(V6)

5
ENGINE DESIGN & CYLINDER ARRANGEMENT

Opposed, 4-cylinder
(Flat 4)

Rotary egine

6
4-STROKE ENGINE
4-Stroke
2. Requires 4 stroke of piston to complete a
cycle
1-2 Induction stroke
Inlet valve open. Exhaust valve is closed. BDC to
TDC. Air + fuel is induced.
2-3 Compression stroke
Air + fuel is compressed to TDC. Spark occurred at
S and combustion occurs mainly at constant volume.
Large increase in pressure and temperature.
3-4 Working stroke
Hot gas expand pushing the piston down to BDC.
Exhaust valve open at E to assist exhaustion. Inlet
valve is still closed.
4-1 Exhaust stroke
The gas is force to exit the cylinder. Piston moved to
TDC. Inlet valve is still closed.

3. 2 revolution of crank shaft per cycle

7
START INTAKE COMPRESSION SPARK

EXHAUST POWER

8
2-STROKE ENGINE
2-Stroke
2. Requires 2 stroke of piston to complete a cycle
First stroke : BDC – TDC (Both compression and
induction stroke)
As piston ascends on the compression stroke, the next
charge is drawn into crankcase C as the spring loaded
valve, S open automatically. Ignition occur before TDC.
Both transfer and exhaust port is uncovered.
Second stroke: TDC – BDC ( Both working and exhaust
stroke)
At TDC working stroke begin. As the piston descend
through about 80%, the exhaust port is uncovered and
exhaust begin. The transfer port is uncovered later due to
the shape of the piston and the position of the port. The
descending piston push the air to enter the cylinder
through the transfer port.
7. 1 revolution of crank shaft per cycle
8. Less efficient compared to 4 stroke
9. High power-to-weight ratio
10. Suitable for small applications

9
5.3 THE AIR STANDARD CYCLES

 Before we could discuss in depth about IC engines, let us look at


several types air standard cycles.
 We will discuss three standard cycles :
 Otto cycle
 Diesel cycle
 Dual combustion cycle

 The air standards cycles are ideal cycles used as a yardstick for the
actual cycles.
 There are few assumptions applied to the cycles:
 Working fluid is air behaving as ideal gas
 All process in the cycle are internally reversible
 Combustion process is replaced by a heat addition process from an
external source
 Exhaust process is replaced by a heat rejection process
 No chemical reaction

10
OTTO CYCLE
 The Otto cycle is the ideal cycle P
for the petrol engine, the gas 3
engine and the high speed oil
engine.
PV γ = C

1-2: Isentropic compression 2 4


2-3: Reversible constant volume PV γ = C
heating
3-4: Isentropic expansion 1
4-1: Reversible constant volume V
cooling

11
OTTO CYCLE – ENERGY BALANCE
1 − 2 : Isentropiccompressio
n
P
From1stLaw 0
ΔU = δQ − δW 3
W12 = mCV (T 2 − T1 )
For isentropicprocess,
γ PV γ = C
P2 V 
=  1  2
P1 V2  4
V1 Vs +Vc PV γ = C
= = Γv = compressio
n ratio
V2 Vc
1
= P1 ( Γv )
γ
P2
Also,
Vc Vs V
γ −1
γ −1
T2 V  P  γ
=  1  =  2 
T1 V2   p1 
= T1 ( Γv )
γ −1
T2

12
OTTO CYCLE – ENERGY BALANCE

P
2 - 3 : Isometricheeting
3
No workis involved
Qin = Q23 = mCV (T 3 − T 2 ) PV γ = C

3 - 4 : Isentropicexpansion 2
1− γ
4
T4 V 
=  1  = ( Γv )
γ
1− γ PV = C
T3 V2 
P4 1 −γ
1
= γ = Γv
P3 Γv
V
4 − 1 : Isometriccooling
No workis involved
Qout = −Q41 = mCV (T 4 − T1 )

13
OTTO CYCLE – THERMAL EFFICIENCY
Wnet Q
 Thermal efficiency can be found using ηth = = 1 − out
Qin Qin
therefore
mCv (T 4 −T1 )
ηth = 1 −
mCv (T 3 −T 2 )

γ −1 γ −1
T 2 V1  T V 
= ( Γv )
γ −1
 Since 1-2 and 3-4 are isentropic =  and 3 =  4 
T1 V2  T 4 V3 

Then T 2 = T1( Γv ) andT 3 = T 4 ( Γv )


γ −1 γ −1

 Hence substituting

ηth = 1 −
(T 4 −T1 ) = 1−
1
(T 4 −T1 ) Γv γ −1 Γv
γ −1

14
OTTO CYCLE – MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE

 To understand MEP, let us look at P


the PV diagram given. 3

 The diagram can be translated


into a constant pressure pi
diagram which reflect the same
amount of work between V1 and 2

V2
4
 That pressure, pi is called the Pb
mean effective pressure.

Wnet V
pi = imep = or
V1 −V2 V2 V1

Wnet = pi × (V1 −V2 )

15
EXAMPLE 5.1
Calculate the ideal air standard cycle efficiency based on Otto cycle for
petrol engine with cylinder bore of 50 mm, a stroke of 75mm and a
clearance volume of 21.3 cm3

SOLUTION 50mm
We know φ = 50mm andL = 75mm
Vc
1mm = 1 × 10 cm
3 −3 3 tdc

75mm
Cycle efficiency can be determine using formula
bdc
1
ηth = 1 − γ −1
Γv

Find Γc
Vs +Vc
Γc =
Vc

16
π × ( 50)
2
πd 2
× 75 = 147,262.15mm or 147.26cm
3 3
Vs = ×L =
4 4

Vs +Vc 147.26 + 21.3


Γv = = = 7.9
Vc 21.3
1 1
ηth = 1 − =1− = 0.56 atau56%
Γv
γ −1
( 7.9) 1.4−1

17
EXAMPLE 5.2

An ideal Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8:1. At the beginning of


the compression process, air is at 100 kPa and 17ºC and 800 kJ/kg of
heat is transferred to air during the constant-volume heat –addition
process. Accounting for the variation of specific heats of air with
temperature, Determine:
ii. The maximum temperature ,
iii. The maximum pressure,
iv. The net work out-put
v. The thermal efficiency
vi. The mean effective pressure (MEP),Pe

18
DIESEL CYCLE
P
 Invented by Rudolph Diesel in
1892. 2 3
 It works on the idea of
spontaneous ignition which PV γ = C

blasted into the cylinder by


compressed air. PV γ = C 4
 Also known as a modified
constant pressure cycle 1

1-2: Isentropic compression V


2-3: Reversible constant pressure
heating
3-4: Isentropic expansion
4-1: Reversible constant volume
cooling

19
DIESEL CYCLE – ENERGY BALANCE
1 − 2 : Isentropic compression P
From 1st Law 0 2 3
ΔU = δQ − δW
W12 = mCV ( T2 − T1 )
PV γ = C
For isentropic process,
γ
P2 V  4
=  1  PV γ = C
P1  V2 
V1 Vs + Vc
= = Γv = compression ratio
V2 Vc 1
= P1 ( Γv )
γ
P2
Also,
Vc Vs
V
γ −1
γ −1
T2 V  P  γ
=  1  =  2 
T1  V2   p1 
= T1 ( Γv )
γ −1
T2

20
DIESEL CYCLE – ENERGY BALANCE
P
2 - 3 : Isobar heating 2 3
W23 = p(V3 − V2 )
Qin = Q23 = mC p ( T3 − T2 ) PV γ = C

3 - 4 : Isentropic expansion PV γ = C 4
1−γ
T4 V 
=  1  = ( Γv )
1−γ

T3  V2  1
P4 1 −γ
= γ = Γv V
P3 Γv

4 − 1 : Isometric cooling
W =0
Qout = −Q41 = mCV ( T4 − T1 )

21
DIESEL CYCLE – THERMAL EFFICIENCY
Wnet Q
 Thermal efficiency can be found using ηth = = 1 − out
Qin Qin
therefore
mCv (T 4 −T1 )
ηth = 1 −
mCp (T 3 −T 2 )

 Besides using the above formula, thermal efficiency can also be


determine using βγ −1
ηth = 1 −
( β − 1) Γv γ −1γ

V3
 Where β = = cut- off ratio
V2

22
EXAMPLE 5.3
An ideal Diesel cycle with air as the working fluid has a
compression ratio 18:1 and a cutoff ratio of 2:1. At the beginning
of the compression process, the working fluid is 0.1 MPa and
300K.
Determine:
iii. Thermal efficiency
iv. The mean effective pressure

23
5.4 THE DUAL-COMBUSTION CYCLE
 Known as the mixed cycle or semi-diesel cycle
 The working cycle of modern diesel engine invented by Ackroyd-stuart in
1888, where it is a combination of the otto and diesel cycle.
1-2: Isentropic compression (adiabatic and reversible)
2-3: Heat addition at constant volume
3-4: Heat addition at constant Pressure
4-5: Isentropic expansion
5-1: Heat rejection at constant volume
P Qin 4
(bar) 3

Isentropic
Qin

5
Qout
1

24
V(m3)
5.4 THE DUAL-COMBUSTION CYCLE
 The air standard efficiency of the dual combution cycle can defined;
 ηthDual=net work output/heat supplied=Wnet/Qin
 Heat supplied,Q32+Q34
 Q32=mCv(T3-T2)
 Q34=mCp(T4-T3)
 Heat rejected, Q51
 Q51=mCv(T5-T1)
 Apply the first thermodynamics to the cycle , the net work is,
 Wnet=Net heat energy transferred
 =(Q32+Q34)-(Q51) Wnet = mC v (T3 −T2 ) + mC p (T4 −T3 ) − mC v (T5 −T1 )
Hence
mC v (T3 −T2 ) + mC p (T4 −T3 ) − mC v (T5 −T1 )
η=
mC v (T3 −T2 ) + mC p (T4 −T3 )

(T5 −T1 )
η =1 −
(T3 −T2 ) + γ (T4 −T3 )
 Simplication gives

25
5.4 THE DUAL-COMBUSTION CYCLE

 Or

γ
kβ − 1
η thdual = 1−
[ (k − 1) + γk (β − 1]ε γ −1

 Where ; ε=V1/V2 is Compression ratio


 β=V4/V3 is cut-off ratio
 k=P3/P4 is pressure ratio

26
EXAMPLE 5.4
A diesel engine works on the dual combustion cycle and has a compression
ratio of 18/1. At the start of compression the air is at the temperature of 22ºC.
In the cycle, heat is added at constant volume until the pressure has increased
by 50% and then at constant pressure for 7% of the stroke.
Calculate the air standard efficiency of the cycle. For air assume γ
=1.4;Cp=1.005 kJ/kgK;Cv=0.718 kJ/kgK.

27
5.5 PERFORMANCE CRITERIA OF IC ENGINES
Performance Criteria I C Engine
 Indicated Power (iP) VC
 Brake Power (bP)
b
 Thermal efficiency (ηTh)
 Volumetric efficiency (ηV) tdc
Vs
 Specific fuel Consumption (sfc)
GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS L

 Referring to the diagram


π bdc
 Displacement; V s= b2L
4

l
 Compression Ratio,ε or Γv= V s +VC
VC

 Note: θ
 “Indicated” refers to the values obtained by analysis on the a
cycle (i.e. Indicated Power, Indicated MEP)
 “Brake” refers to the values obtained through experimental
methods (i.e. Brake Power, BMEP)
 Vs is multiplied by no of cylinder for multi-cylinder engines

28
INDICATED POWER
 Definition: The rate of indicated cycle work.
 How it’s being measured: Using indicator diagram obtained
from the engine.
P

 Net work done per cycle =


area of power loop – area of
pumping loop
 Therefore indicated mean POWER LOOP

effective pressure, Pi
 Pi=(a/l)load x s PUMPING LOOP

area of indicator diagram


pi = × stiffness of the indicator spring
length of diagram

Note: the constant will depends on the scales of the recorder.


Normally the units of the constant are either bar/mm or kPa/mm

29
INDICATED POWER
 For one cylinder engine,

Indicates mean effective pressure (MEP); pi = Wnet = Wnet = Wnet


V1 −V2 Vs A ×L
where L = stroke
A = area of piston

 For N rpm and n cylinder, indicated power can be written as:

N
ip = pi × A × L × n × for 4 - strokeengine
2
ip = pi × A × L × n × N for 2 - strokeengine

30
31
EXAMPLE 5.5

In the test on four-stroke four-cylinder automobile engine an indicator diagram


is taken and found to have an area of 670 mm2 and a length of 82 mm. The
spring in the indicator has a stiffness of 0.9 bar/mm.
Determine
i. the indicated power, iP of the engine at a crankshaft speed of 3200 rev/min
ii. If the cylinders have a bore of 80 mm and the piston stroke is 105 mm,
What is the capacity of the engine.

32
BRAKE POWER

 It is the measured output of the engine (actual power).


 The engine is connected to a brake dynamometer which can be
loaded in such a way that the torque exerted by the engine can be
measured.
 The torque is obtained by reading off a net load, W at a known
radius, r from the axis rotation and hence the torque is given by

τ =W × r
 The brake power is given by

bp = τ × ω = τ ( 2πN )
bp = 2πNτ
 Nowadays torque can be measured directly and bp is obtained
directly using above equation.

33
ENGINE
DYNAMOMETER

34
35
36
37
FRICTION POWER & MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY

 The difference between the ip and bp is the friction power, fp.


 It is defined as the power required to overcome the frictional
resistance of the engine parts.
fp = ip − bp
bp
 The mechanical efficiency is defined as ηm =
ip
 The value lies between 80 to 90%.

38
Example 5.6
 A basic test engine 4-stroke and 4 cylinder are got
the reading as a following: Brake Load, 320.8 N,
Torque Arm, r=60 cm, engine speed=1500 rev/min.
Taken Pi and iP from example 5.5
 Calculate:
 i. Brake Power
 Ii. Friction Power
 Iii. Mechanical efficiency
 Iv. Brake mean effective pressure.
 V. if brake power of a engine is 50 kW, specific fuel
consumption, sfc=3.2 liter of 10 minute, and fuel
viscoscity,0.8 kg/liter. Take LCV as a 40200 kJ/kg.
Determine thermal break efficiency

39
BRAKE MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE

 The brake power of an engine can be obtained accurately using


dynamometer.
 From equation bp = η × ip and ip = p ALnN or ip = p ALn N
m i i
we will get 2

N
bp = ηm × pi ALnN or bp = ηm × pi ALn
2
 Since ηm and ip are difficult to obtain, they may be combined and
replace by a brake mean effective pressure pb.

N
bp = pb ALnN or bp = pb ALn
2

40
BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY
output
 Generally we define efficiency as η =
input

 For IC engine, the actual output is brake power and the input is
the chemical energy of the fuel supplied

brakepower
ηbt =
m f × NKR
where
m f = massflowrateof fuel
NKR = low calorificvalue

 The value of NKR/LCV is a standard value. For diesel, NKR =


45.5 MJ/kg and for petrol, NKR = 44.2 MJ/kg

41
INDICATED THERMAL EFFICIENCY

 Indicated thermal efficiency is defined as


indicatedpower
ηit =
m f × NKR

 If we divide ηbt with ηit


BP
ηbt
= mf ×NKR
ηit IP
mf ×NKR
ηbt BP
= =ηm
ηi t IP
ηbt =ηm ×ηit

42
SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION

 It is defined as mass flow rate of fuel per unit power output.


 It is a criterion of economical power production

mf kg
sfc = 3600× ( )
bp kW . jam

43
5.5 OTHER TYPE OF ENGINE TESTING-MORSE TEST

 Since it is very difficult to obtain indicated power, Morse Test is


introduce to give alternative solution.
 The test is suitable for multi cylinder engine.
 Testing procedures:
6. Engine is set to run at certain speed, N and torque is measured
7. One cylinder is cut out by shorting the plug.
8. When the speed falls, load is reduced to restore the engine speed.
9. The torque is measured again.
10. The plug is placed back and another cylinder is cut out by shorting its
plug.
11. Speed is again restored and torque is again measured.
12. The procedures is repeated until all cylinder is simultaneously cut out.

44
MORSE TEST

 If it is a 4 cylinder engine:
BP = BPS 1 + BPS 2 + BPS 3 + BPS 4
BP = ( IPS 1 − FPS 1 ) + ( IPS 2 − FPS 2 ) + ( IPS 3 − FPS 3 ) + ( IPS 4 − FPS 4 )
BP = IPS 1 + IPS 2 + IPS 3 + IPS 4 − FPtotal
 When cylinders are cut off

BP1−off = 0 + IPS 2 + IPS 3 + IPS 4 − FPtotal


BP2−off = IPS 1 + 0 + IPS 3 + IPS 4 − FPtotal
BP3−off = IPS 1 + IPS 2 + 0 + IPS 4 − FPtotal
BP4−off = IPS 1 + IPS 2 + IPS 3 + 0 − FPtotal

45
MORSE TEST

 Subtracting the equations, for cylinder 1


BP − BP1−off = ( IPS 1 + IPS 2 + IPS 3 + IPS 4 − FPtotal ) −
( 0 + IPS 2 + IPS 3 + IPS 4 − FPtotal )
BP − BP1−off = IPS 1

 So for each cylinder,


IPS 1 = BP − BP1−off IPS 2 = BP − BP2−off
IPS 3 = BP − BP3−off IPS 4 = BP − BP4−off

 Then for the engine


IP = IPS 1 + IPS 2 + IPS 3 + IPS 4
IP = 2πNR[ (W − W1−off ) + (W − W2−off ) + (W − W3−off ) + (W − W4−off ) ]

46
EXAMPLE 5.5
A Morse test is carried out to a 4 cylinder, 4 stroke petrol engine. Based
on the data given, determine the mechanical efficiency of the engine:
W = 120N
W1-off = 86.8N
W2-off = 81.4N
W3-off = 88.6N
W4-off = 82.1N

47
 END

48