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A STUDY ON ACHIEVING HIGHER STRENGTH CONCRETE USING CRUSHED BRICK AS COARSE AGGREGATE

A Thesis
Submitted to the Department of Civil Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in civil Engineering

By
MOHAMMAD ASIF IQBAL Under the Supervision of
Prof. Dr. MOHAMMAD ABDURE RASHID

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, DUET, GAZIPUR, BANGLADESH JUNE, 2012.

AGENDA
Objectives of the Study

Brief Overview On Literature Review


Test Program Different Analyses Summary of Results Conclusion

Recommendation

OBJECTIVES WITH SPECIFIC AIMS AND POSSIBLE OUTCOMES


Motivation of the Study:
Limited study conducted separately on the major parameters to achieve higher strength concrete using crushed brick as coarse aggregate .

Objectives with Specific Aims:


To know the Influence of Water-Cement Ratio on the Strength of Concrete. To know The Influence of Aggregate-Cement Ratio on the Compressive Strength. To know the Influence of the coarse aggregate to fine aggregate ratio on concrete strength. To know the Influence of Maximum Size of Coarse Aggregate on the Strength of Concrete.

To know the Influence of the coarse aggregate to fine aggregate ratio on concrete strength.
To make a comparative study among the influences of major parameters of brick aggregate concrete in increasing its strength.

Scope of the Study


Cylindrical compressive strength (fc) of concrete made with brick aggregate and Ordinary Portland cement (ASTM Type-I) has been studied. Aggregate to cement ratio (by volume) considered are 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0. Water to cement ratio (by weight) considered are 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60. Coarse aggregate to fine aggregate ratio (by volume) considered are 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. Maximum sizes of coarse aggregate used in the concrete are 12.5 mm, 19.0 mm, and 25.0 mm. Replacements (by weight) of cement by fly ash considered are 10% and 20%.

OUTLINES OF METHODOLOGY

Study and review the typical steps involved in a water-cement ratio. Study and review the typical steps involved in a total aggregate-cement ratio. Study and review the typical steps involved in a coarse aggregate-fine aggregate ratio. Study and review the typical steps involved in a maximum size of coarse aggregate. Study and review the typical steps involved in a partial replacement of Replacing

Cement by Fly ash on Concrete Strength


Study and review the typical mix ratios for first phase of study. Study and review the typical mix ratios for second phase of study.

OUTLINES OF METHODOLOGY
Test and review the coarse aggregate for different approaches. Test and review the fine aggregate and fly ash. Casting cylindrical specimens. Curing of specimens Preparing the test specimens Testing cylinders Test results Conduct production data analysis. Conduct conventional decline curve analysis.. Analysis and review the different approaches for performance prediction.

BRIEF OVERVIEW ON LITERATURE REVIEW


WATER-CEMENT RATIO

AGGREGATE-CEMENT RATIO

Fig. 2.1: The relation between strength and water-cement ratio of concrete (Neville A M, 1995)

Fig 2.3 Effect of aggregate-cement ratio on the strength of concrete (Neville A M, 1995)

Fig 2.2 Strength versus various combinations of cements and pozzolans (M. A. Caldarone, 2009

Fig. 2.4 Typical relation between concrete strength and aggregate-cement ratio for various compacting factors (Bureau of Indian Standards, 1990)

Brief Overview On Literature Review


Influence of the coarse aggregate to fine aggregate ratio on concrete strength Max Size of Coarse Aggregate Replacing Cement by Fly ash Chandaprasirt et. al. (2005) studied on concrete with fly ash as the partial replacement of Portland cement at 0%, 20%, and 40% by weight. Monmohan and Mehta, (1981) The slower reaction rate of many fly ashes is a real help in limiting the amount of early temperature. S K Duggal, (2008) The puzzolanic action is very slow, an addition of fly ash up to 30 per cent may result in lower strength at 7 and 28 days, but may be about equal at 3 months and may further increase at ages greater than 3 months provided curing is continued
Fig 2.5 Influence of maximum size of aggregate on concrete strength (M S Shetty, 1988)

Test Program
Phase 1
Table-3.1 Mix ratios and related variables for the first phase of study
Mix designation % rep fly ash (by weight)

Phase 2

Table-3.2 Mixes of the second phase of experimental study


Age of concrete 3 7 14 0.0 MF-4 MF-5 28 60 90 3 7 14 10.0 MF-10 28 60 90 3

Mix designation

Concrete mix ratio (by volume)

ratio (by vol.)

ratio (by vol.)

MF-1 MF-2 MF-3

M-1 M-2 M-3 M-4 M-5 M-6 M-7

1:2:4 1 : 1.5 : 3 1:1:2 1 : 2.4 : 3.6 1 : 1.8 : 2.7 1 : 1.2 : 1.8 1 : 1.714 : 4.286

6.0 4.5 3.0 6.0 4.5 3.0 6.0

2.0 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.5

MF-6 MF-7 MF-8 MF-9

MF-11 MF-12 MF-13

MF-14
MF-15 20.0 MF-16

7
14 28 60 90

M-8

1 : 1.286 : 3.214

4.5

2.5

MF-17 MF-18

M-9

1 : 0.857 : 2.143

3.0

2.5

NB: For all of the above mixes the mix ratio, the maximum size of coarse aggregate, and the water-cement ratio considered are 1:1.5:3 (by vol.), 19.0 mm, and 0.50 respectively.

PROPERTIES OF INGREDIENTS
Table 3.3 Properties of the cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate used in the experiment respectively
Property of cement Normal consistency Initial setting time Test value 28% 3 hr. 17 min.

Final setting time


Compressive strength (7 days) Compressive strength (28 days) Property of aggregate Fineness modulus Water absorption (%) Unit weight ( Kg /m3)

5 hr. 45 min.
29.19 MPa 36 .52 MPa Test value 3.48 2.0 1492.36

Property of aggregates
25.0 mm down graded khoa Fineness modulus Water absorption (%) Unit weight ( Kg /m3) 7.073 11.4 1075.66

Test value of
19.0 mm down graded khoa 6.782 11.4 1091.87 12.5 mm down graded khoa 6.258 11.4 1100.88

Properties of fly ash used (as provided by the supplier)


Property of fly ash
Fineness Residue Moisture Loi (Loss on ignition)

Test value
2808 cm2/gm 24.75 % 0.23 % 3.6 %

(a) 25 mm down graded

(b) 19 mm down graded

(c) 12.5 mm down graded

Fig. 3.1: Coarse aggregate used in the study

Fig 3.2 Fine aggregate

Preparation of Test Specimens


1. Preparation of Coarse Aggregate

2. Casting Cylindrical Specimens

3. Curing of Specimens

Grinding of Cylindrical Specimens

(a) Specimen under grinding

(b) Grinded specimens

Testing Cylinders
During testing Failure point

a) Concrete cylinder under testing

(b) Failure of specimen

Fig. 3.6: Testing of concrete cylinder

Test Results
Mix designation (Mix ratio) M-1 (1 : 2 : 4) W/C ratio Maximum size of CA (mm) 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.50 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.60 25.0 19.0 12.5 M-2 (1 : 1.5 : 3) 0.40 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.50 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.60 25.0 19.0 12.5 Concrete compressive strength (MPa) 28.43 36.64 29.83 29.52 28.57 28.49 33.88 24.57 28.48 33.74 36.62 35.31 30.30 32.69 32.66 17.89 29.97 29.31

Max value
0.40 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.50 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.60 25.0 19.0 12.5 34.68 35.29 35.57 33.66 36.56 37.97 25.66 26.70 28.96 27.31 32.98 26.81 24.91 25.11

M-3 (1 : 1 : 2)

0.40

M-4 (1: 2.4 : 3.6)

0.40

25.0 19.0 12.5

0.50

25.0 19.0

12.5
0.60 25.0 19.0

23.67
19.57 21.86

12.5

21.60

Test Results
M-5 (1: 1.8 : 2.7) 0.40 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.50 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.60 25.0 34.72 28.04 34.35 25.19 29.86 29.13 23.39 0.60 0.50 M-7 (1: 1.714 : 4.286) 0.40 25.0 19.0 12.5 25.0 19.0 12.5 25.0 28.21 28.36 26.16 17.28 21.35 21.79 17.38

19.0
12.5 M-6 (1: 1.2 : 1.8) 0.40 25.0 19.0 12.5 0.50 25.0 19.0

21.16
23.11 37.74 37.37 34.44 28.46 34.26 0.50 M-8 (1: 1.286 : 3.214) 0.40

19.0
12.5 25.0 19.0 12.5 25.0 19.0

16.03
14.93 32.44 32.74 29.50 20.62 25.26

12.5
0.60 25.0 19.0 12.5

32.93
22.09 20.32 19.72 0.60

12.5
25.0 19.0 12.5

25.39
19.65 19.19 17.45

Test Results
Table 3.8: Fly ash concrete mix variables and their compressive strengths
Mix designation % replacement of OPC by fly ash (by weight) Age of concrete (day) Compressive strength (MPa)

M-9 (1: 0.857 : 2.143)

0.40

25.0 19.0 12.5

31.7
MF-1

3 7 14 0.0 28 60 90 3 7 14 10.0 28 60 90 3 7 14 20.0 28 60 90

12.04 20.67 24.54 28.24 33.94 35.59 9.347 17.22 21.14 25.55 31.40 34.48 7.236 15.55 17.25 25.43 30.67 33.00

27.05 34.10

MF-2 MF-3 MF-4 MF-5 MF-6 MF-7 MF-8 MF-9 MF-10 MF-11 MF-12 MF-13 MF-14 MF-15 MF-16 MF-17 MF-18

0.50

25.0
19.0 12.5

30.68
26.74 27.93 19.54 23.34 18.69

0.60

25.0 19.0 12.5

NB: For all of the above mixes the mix ratio, the maximum size of coarse aggregate, and the water-cement ratio considered are 1:1.5:3 (by vol.), 19.0 mm, and 0.50 respectively.

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


Influence of Various Parameters on Concrete Strength
f c 30.83 38.7w / c 88.0w / c
2

(4.1)

f c 34 .185 1.463 A / C

(4.2)

Where, f c/ = Compressive strength. W / C = Water to cement ratio.


40
40

Where, f c/ = Compressive strength A / C = Aggregate to cement ratio..

Compressive strength (MPa)

Compressive strength (MPa)

35 30 25 20 15 10 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Water-cement ratio (by weight) y = -88x + 38.7x + 30.83 R2 = 1
2

35 30 25 20 15 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 Aggregate-cement ratio (by volume)


y = -1.4633x + 34.185 R2 = 0.9955

Fig. 4.1 Variation in concrete strength with the variation in water-cement ratio

Fig. 4.3 Variation in concrete strength with the variation in aggregate-cement ratio

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


Influence of Various Parameters on Concrete Strength
f c 21.5CA / FA 82.79CA / FA 48.4 Where,
2
/ f c= Compressive strength CA/FA= Coarse aggregate to fine aggregate ratio.

(4.3)

f c 22.31 0.68MaxS 0.02MaxS Where,

(4.4)

f c/ = Compressive strength MaxS= Maximum size of coarse aggregate.

40

40

Compressive strength (MPa)

Compressive strength (MPa)

35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 CA-FA ratio (by volume)


y = -21.5x2 + 82.79x - 48.4 R =1
2

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 Maximum size of CA (mm)


y = -0.0196x2 + 0.6774x + 22.305 R2 = 1

Fig. 4.5 Variation in concrete strength with the variation in CA-FA ratio

Fig. 4.7 Variation in concrete strength with the variation in max size of CA

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


( Max size = 12.5 mm , A / C ratio = 3.0 )
( Max size = 12.5 mm , A / C ratio = 4.5 )

( Max size = 12.5 mm , A / C ratio = 6.0 )

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.6

CA/FA ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

45

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.6

CA/FA ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.6

CA/FA ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

0.7

0.7

0.7

(a)
( Max size = 19 mm , A / C ratio = 3.0 )
Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

(b)
( Max size = 19 mm , A / C ratio = 4.5 ) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.7
Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

(c)
( Max size = 19 mm ,A / C ratio = 6.0 ) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.6 0.7

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.6

CA/FA ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

CA/Fa ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

CA/FA ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

0.7

(d)
( Max size = 25 mm , A / C ratio = 3.0 )

(e)
( Max size = 25 mm , A / C ratio = 4.5 )

(f)
( Max size = 25 mm , A / C ratio = 6.0 )

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.6

CA/FA ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.6

compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

CA/FA ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0.3 0.4 0.5 Water-cement ratio ( by w eight ) 0.6

CA/FA ratio = 1 .5 CA/FA ratio = 2.0 CA/FA ratio = 2.5

0.7

0.7

0.7

(g)

(h)

(i)

Fig. 4.2 Influence of water - cement ratio on compressive strength of concrete

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


( Max CA size = 12.5 mm , W / C = 0.40 ) 45 40
45 ( Max CA size = 12.50 mm , W / C = 0.50 )
( Max CA size = 12.5 mm , W / C = 0.60 ) 45
CA/FA=0.60 CA/FA=2.0 CA/FA=2.5

40

40

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )

35 30 25 20 15 10 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5


CA/FA=1 .5 CA/FA=2.0 CA/FA=2.5

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )


CA/FA=1 .5 CA/FA=2.0 CA/FA=2.5

35

35

30

30

25

25

20

20 15

15

6.5

10 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5

10 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

6.5

A / C ratio ( by volume )

A / C ratio ( by volume )

A / C ratio ( by volume )

(a)
( Max CA size = 19.0 mm , W / C = 0.40 )
45 40

(b)
( Max CA size = 19 mm , W / C = 0.50 )
45 40

(c)
( Max CA size = 19.0 mm , W / C = 0.60 )
CA/FA=1 .5 CA/FA=2.0

45

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )

Compressive strengt, f'c ( Mpa )

35 30 25 20 15 10 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 A / C ratio ( by volume )


CA/FA=1 .5 CA/FA=2.0 CA/FA=2.5

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5


CA/FA=1 .5 CA/FA=2.0 CA/FA=2.5

CA/FA=2.5

35 30 25 20 15 10 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

6.5

6.5

A / C ratio ( by volume )

A / C ratio ( by volume )

(d)
( Max CA size = 25 mm , W / C = 0.40 ) 45
45

(e)
( Max CA size = 25.0 mm , W / C = 0.50 )

(f)
( Max CA size = 25.0 mm , W / C = 0.60 )

45
CA/FA=1 .5 CA/FA=2.0 CA/FA=2.5

40

CA/FA=1 .5 CA/FA=2.0 CA/FA=2.5

40

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )

40

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )

35 30 25 20 15 10 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5


CA/FA=1 .5 CA/FA= 2.0 CA/FA=2.5

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )

35 30 25 20 15 10

35 30

25 20 15 10 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

5.5

6.5

A / C ratio ( by volume )

A / C ratio ( by volume )

A / C ratio ( by volum e )

(g)

(h)

(i)

Fig. 4.4 Influence of aggregate - cement ratio on compressive strength of concrete

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


( Max size = 12.5 mm , w / c = 0.40 )
45 ( Max size = 12.5 mm , w / c = 0.50 )
A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

(Max size = 12.5 mm ,w / c = 0.60 ) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

Compressive strength ,f'c ( MPa )

Compressive strength ,f'c ( MPa )

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 CA / FA ratio 2.5


A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 CA / FA ratio 2.5

1.5

2 CA / FA ratio

2.5

(a)
( Max size = 19.0 mm , w / c = 0.40 )
45
Compressive strength ,f'c ( MPa )

(b)
( Max size = 19 mm , w / c = 0.5 )
45
Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

(c)
( Max size = 19 mm , w / c = 0.60 )
A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 CA / FA ratio 2.5


A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 CA / FA ratio 2.5


A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 CA / FA ratio 2.5

(d)
( Max size = 25 mm , w / c = 0.40 )

(e)
(Max size = 25 mm , w / c = 0.50 ) 45
A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

(f)
( Max size = 25 mm , w / c = 0.60 ) 45
A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 CA / FA ratio 2.5

Compressive strength , f'c ( Mpa )


3

Compressive strength ,f'c ( MPa )

compressive strength ,f'c ( MPa)

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 CA / FA ratio 2.5


A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 1 1.5 2 CA / FA ratio 2.5

(g)

(h)

(i)

Fig. 4.6 Influence of coarse aggregate fine aggregate ratio on compressive strength of concrete

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


( W / C = 0.40 , CA / FA = 1.5 ) 45
45 ( W / C = 0.50 , CA / FA = 1.5 )

( W / C = 0.60 , CA / FA = 1.5 ) 45
A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

A/C ratio = 6.0 A/C ratio = 4.5 A/C ratio = 3.0

Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 10 15 20 Maximum size of CA (mm) 25 30


A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 10 15 20 Maximum size of CA (mm) 25

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 10 15 20 Maximum size of CA (mm) 25

30

30

(a)
( W / C = 0.40 , CA / FA = 2.0 ) 45
Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

(b)
( W / C = 0.50 , CA / FA = 2.0 ) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 10 15 20 Maximum size of CA (mm) 25 30
A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

(c)
( W / C= 0.60 , CA / FA = 2.0 ) 45
Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

40 35 30 25 20
A/C ratio= 6.0

Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 10 15 20 Maximum size of CA (mm) 25

A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

15 10 10 15 20 Maximum size of CA (mm) 25

A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

30

30

(d)
( W / C = 0.40 , CA / FA = 2.5 ) 45 45
A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

(e)
( W / C = 0.50 , CA / FA = 2.5 )

(f)
( W / C = 0.60 , CA / FA = 2.5 )

Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

Compressive strength, f'c ( MPa )

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 10 15 20 Maximum size of CA (mm) 25

40 35 30 25 20 15 10

A/C ratio= 6.0 A/C ratio= 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10

A/C ratio = 6.0 A/C ratio = 4.5 A/C ratio= 3.0

30

10

15

20 Maximum size of CA (mm)

25

30

10

15

20 Maximum size of CA (mm)

25

30

(g)

(h)

(i)

Fig. 4.8 Influence of maximum size of CA (mm) on compressive strength of concrete

ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


( W / C = 0.50 , Max size =19 mm , CA / FA = 2 ) 45

Compressive strength , f'c ( MPa )

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 14 28 42 56 70 Curing time ( Days ) o % fly ash 10 % fly ash 20 % fly ash 84 98

Fig. 4.9 Influence of fly ash on compressive strength of concrete

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


1. The compressive strength of brick aggregate concrete is found to increase with the decrease in w/c ratio (from 0.60 through 0.40). 2. Concrete compressive strength increases linearly with the decrease in total aggregate (fine aggregate plus coarse aggregate) to cement ratio (A/C, by volume). 3. The compressive strengths of brick aggregate concretes are found to be highest for the coarse aggregate to fine aggregate (CA/FA) ratio (by volume) of 2.0. 4. Within the test parameters considered in this study, the maximum size of coarse aggregate is found to have no significant influence on the concrete compressive strengths. 5. At early ages the rate of strength development is lower for concrete containing fly ash (partial) and the difference between the strengths of concretes with and without fly-ash is found to decrease with the increase of concrete age. 6. The water-cement ratio has the highest influence on the compressive strength of brick aggregate concrete. Next influential parameter is seen to be the total aggregate-cement ratio followed by that of the maximum size of coarse aggregate. Where as, the coarse aggregate-fine aggregate (CA/FA) of 2.0 has been found to yield the highest strength of concrete. 7. Concrete compressive strength of 37.97 MPa has been found using good quality brick aggregates and without using any admixture for a water-cement ratio of 0.5, maximum size of CA of 12.5 mm and a mix ratio of 1:1: 2 by volume.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTUR STUDY


On the basis of the present study following recommendations are suggested for future study.

Achieving higher strength brick aggregate concrete considering water-cement ratio as low as 0.25 (by weight) along with using appropriate admixture.
Tensile strength and stiffness of brick aggregate concrete can be studied considering the same parameters as have been used in this study. Effect of the grading of coarse aggregate on the properties of brick aggregate concrete. Effect of fly-ash on the properties of brick aggregate concrete considering partial replacement of cement with fly-ash at an increment of 5% and up to 50%.