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INTEGUME NTARY SYS TEM

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Integument -consist ary sytem-of the skin and accessory structures


such as hair, nails, skin And glands. -integument means covering Skin (Integumentary -considered an organ or an organ System) system bodys largest organ organ of greatest surfacearea:15-20 sq ft. (1.5-2 m
- Is a layer of dense connective tissue.

Layers of Skin: 1.de

rmis

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DERM IS

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-strong, flexible, connective tissue gives skin its strength and resilience gel-like matrix contains collagen, elastic and reticular fibers rich in nerves, receptors, blood vessels, lymph vessels *collagen follicles and sweat glands hair and elastic fibersinto it for the structural extend -responsible strength of the dermis. *if the skin is over stretched the dermis can be damaged , leaving a lines stri that are Visible through the epidermis , this line are ae called two a. Papillary layer
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layers: -the upper part projection of the dermis

DERMI S

DERMAL PAPILLAE DERMAL


PAPILLAE

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2.Epid -stratified squamous ermis

epithelium *during the movement the cells change shape and chemical composition This is called keratinization , because cells become filled with the protein keratine Which makes the cells hard. Layers/st

rata a. stratum basale -lowermost layer of epidermis single cell layerget adequate nutrition and -only cells that thick. oxygen by diffusion from tissues below actively dividing cells bordered below by basement membrane -Consist of cuboidal or columnar cells that that undergo mitotic divisions about every 19 days. 7/22/12

b. stratum spinosum -several layers thick less mitosis flattened, irregular, spinelike projections c. stratum granulosum -very thin; 2-3 cell layers thick as cells move up from s. basale they die & get flatter and thinner keratinization begins here d. stratum lucidum -thin translucent band only found in thick areas of epidermis: soles of feet palms of hand e. stratum corneum -thickest of all 7/22/12 layers;

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3. hypodermis or superficial fascia -below skin


-mainly adipose tissue (ie subcutaneous fat) -insulation -infants and elderly have less of this than adults and are therefore more Skin Color -sensitive to cold -Also called subcutanoeuse tissue -Is a loose connective tissue that contains about the bodies stored fat. -functions as a padding and insulation and is responsible for some of the Differences in appearance between men and women.

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HYPODER MIS

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Skin Color & Texture in 1.Eythe ma Diagnosis -erythema = redness emotional,


hypertension, inflammation 2.Pall or - paleness emotion, anemia, low blood pressure 3.Jaund ice -yellowing liver disorder, >bile pigments in blood 4.bruising (hematoma) - escaped blood has clotted
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5.cyan osis - bluish cast poor oxygenation

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6.mela nin

7.hemato mas -deficiency in Vit C or hemophilia 7/22/12

SK IN ACCESS ORIES
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HAIR MAGNIFIED 200X

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-covers entire body except palms, soles, lips, nipples, parts of external genitals hormones account for the development of hairy regions: eg. head, axillary and pubic areas -Produced in -humans are born with as many follicles as hair bulb they will ever have hairs are among the fastest growing tissues in the body formation similar to epidermis heavily keratinized A. visible consists of: shaft: part b.roo t: c.folli sheath cle: d.papillsurrounding root vascularized, growing ae: part of hair 7/22/12

1. HAI R

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2.oil glands:

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a. Sebaceou -produces SEBUM an oily white substance rich in lipids s gland the hair surface of the skin -lubricates
which prevents drying And protects against some bacteria

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b. Sweat KINDS OF SWEAT TWO GLANDS gland


1. Eccrine sweat glands -simple coiled tubular glands located in almost every part of The skin numerous in the soles and palms. -produces secretion that is mostly water with a few salt. 2.Apocrine sweat glands -Yellow color, produce thick secretion rich in organic substances They open into hair follicles but only in the axilae and genitalia.
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Apocrine sweat gland

Eccrine sweat gland

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3. musl es

Arrector pili muscle

E. Arrector Pili muscles attached to follicle causes hair to stand on end (cold, fright) - produces a raised area of skin called goose flesh 7/22/12

4.nai ls -scale-like modification of the epidermis fingernails and toenails are clear,hard derivatives
of stratum corneum very thin, dead, scaly cells, densely packed together corresponds to hoof or claw of animals most mammals have claws, flat nails are a primate characteristic more fleshy:and sensitive fingertips growth zone beneath >nail still can be used for skin proximal digging and picking apart matrix: :composed of >nail food, etc bed features: stratum basale >nail : visible portion plate >fingern of nail ~1 mm/wk; toenails more -grow ails slowly >lun :whitish crescent shape area at the ula base of the nail. >cuti :is a stratum corneum that extends cle onto the nail body

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Human Anatomy

THE INTEGUMENTA RY SYSTE M


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