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AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES
Fascist Japan

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CHAPTER OUTLINE

What is Fascism? Japan before 1930s The beginnings of Fascist Japan in 1930s What were the external factors that contributed to the rise of Fascism in Japan What were the internal factors that contributed to the rise of Fascism in Japan

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WHAT IS FASCISM?

FASCIST

Mussolini (Italy)

Hitler (Germany)

Franco (Spain)
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FASCISM
Extreme nationalism A totalitarian system of government A one-party state Economic self-sufficiency (autarky) Military strength and violence

Japan

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JAPAN BEFORE 1930


Tokugawa (Edo) Period 16031868 Unification and centralization Social class system The government of more than 250
years had been overthrown.

Meiji Period 18681912 The opening of Japan European/ US forced Japan to open up ports to foreign trade in 1853 The drive for Modernization

Taisho Period (1912- 1926)


Showa Period (1926- 1989)

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JAPAN IN THE MID 19TH CENTURY


Closed to the western world for about 2 centuries Japanese society and technological advances progressed very slowly

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COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY

1853: Commodore Matthew C. Perrys Black ships defied the shogun and sailed directly to the bay of Japan Japan was a convenient refueling stop on the San Francisco to Shanghai route Industrial Revolution in the West required new markets Used guns to threaten the Japanese

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1853- 1868

Time of confusion and instability Japanese leaders and foreigners were assassinated By the end of the 15th Tokugawa shogun, Yoshinobu (1837-1913) resigned and the rule came to an end.

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THE OPENING OF JAPAN


The new leaders of Meiji Period were now convinced that Japan had to modernize itself Adopt western technologies, system and knowledge The Meiji restoration Enlightened Rule

Culture

and Education Fashion Government and Society Army

1872

1873

Emperor Mutsuhito

THE OPENING OF JAPAN


However, to keep Japan from being vulnerable to the threat of Western colonisation Most impt aim: growth of national identity to unite the country Nationalism led to the increase in Japans military power

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ARMY
a strong military tradition that imitated the Samurais code of behavior They were proud to be Japanese (extreme nationalist) They felt that Japan must be independent, superior to other countries and rule over them.

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A Samurai

Samurais

Code of Conduct for Samurais

AFTER MEIJI PERIOD..

The Meiji period came to an end with the death of the Emperor in 1912. Taisho period (1912-1926): short period under democratic rule, rise in the influence of military Showa period (1926- 1989): Emperor Hirohito Emperor as a leading figure that actually had no power.

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1868 1912 Meiji Period

1912 1926 Taisho Period

1926 1989 Showa Period

Modernisation of Japan

Democratization of Japan Height of Japanese militarism

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SO WHO REALLY RULED JAPAN BEFORE 1930S?

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General Hideki Tj

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto

JAPANESE MILITARY

Japanese Diet (Democratic Govt)

Authoritarian Regimes: Japan

From Democracy to Fascism


*SEQ Examinable

Internal factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan


Showa Restoration Militarys influence Failure of democracy Loyalty Movement/ Campaign Patriotic Societies Successes in wars (Korea, WWI, Sino-Jap, Russo- Jap) Strong public support Democratic leaders were assassinated

Limited powers of Diet


Corrupt politicians Could not solve economic problems Failure to meet the needs of peasants and workers Failure to solve trade imbalance Great Depression caused sufferings and led to the support of Fascist ideas

Reasons for Failure of Japanese Democracy (Diet)

Limited powers of Diet Corruption Could not solve economic problems

Taisho Emperor - son of the Meiji Emperor. His reign was known as the era of Taisho Democracy (Reigned from 1912 1926)

The Diets Limited Power

2 houses House of Peers members of imperial family, Japanese nobles whore nominated by Emperor House of Representatives Elected by Japanese pple. Emperor can dissolve house.

The Imperial Diet in session

The Diets Limited Power


However, real power was with Emperor, prime minister, army & navy ministers Japan had no democratic tradition Emperor usually appointed ministers who were loyal to him many of these were old & conservative. Many saw civilian politicians as weak & soft, esp. in Jp foreign policy

The Japanese Government

Prime Minister CABINET

- Emperor had power to dissolve the Diet. - Military generals had more power than the cabinet => Veto power - PM and cabinet appointed by the Emperor - Diet did not have powers to make decisions

DIET (Japanese Parliament)

EFFECT OF LIMITED POWERS OF DIET


Diet had little power to Push through with its decisions Overshadowed by the Emperor and military

Internal factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan


Showa Restoration Militarys influence Failure of democracy Loyalty Movement/ Campaign Patriotic Societies Successes in wars (Korea, WWI, Sino-Jap, Russo- Jap) Strong public support Democratic leaders were assassinated

Limited powers of Diet


Corrupt politicians Could not solve economic problems Failure to meet the needs of peasants and workers Failure to solve trade imbalance Great Depression caused sufferings and led to the support of Fascist ideas

Corruption
Zaibatsus (wealthy companies) were supporting & bankrolling politicians & their election campaigns Had a lot of influence in the govt. Could influence law-making in their favour. Close ties between zaibatsu and democratic leaders led to rumours of corruption Diet was unable to gain support of ordinary Japanese

Internal factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan


Showa Restoration Militarys influence Failure of democracy Loyalty Movement/ Campaign Patriotic Societies Successes in wars (Korea, WWI, Sino-Jap, Russo- Jap) Strong public support Democratic leaders were assassinated

Limited powers of Diet


Corrupt politicians Could not solve economic problems Failure to meet the needs of peasants and workers Failure to solve trade imbalance Great Depression caused sufferings and led to the support of Fascist ideas

Economic Problems

Rice farmers had little land & had to pay high rental Workers also had to put up with low wages, long hours & harsh working conditions

Japanese rice farmers faced very harsh working conditions

Economic Problems

Trade imbalance had to import more raw materials to manufacture goods and more food for the increasing population. This caused Japan to spend more than it earned

Money needed for imports

Money earned from exporting goods to the west

Great Depression

West stopped buying goods from Japan Japanese exports suffered= no income High unemployment & inflation Japanese began to blame the democratic govt.

Japanese silk farmers feeding silk worms silk was Japans major export in the early 1900s.

Internal factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan


Showa Restoration Militarys influence Failure of democracy Loyalty Movement/ Campaign Patriotic Societies Successes in wars (Korea, WWI, Sino-Jap, Russo- Jap) Strong public support Democratic leaders were assassinated

Limited powers of Diet


Corrupt politicians Could not solve economic problems Failure to meet the needs of peasants and workers Failure to solve trade imbalance Great Depression caused sufferings and led to the support of Fascist ideas

SHOWA RESTORATION

Showa Restoration education emphasized intense nationalism & antiforeign sentiments Also focused on blind loyalty to the emperor.

Showa Emperor or more commonly known by his name, Hirohito. (Reigned 1926 1989)

New education policies

From the 1890s, the education system of Japan emphasized nationalism, loyalty to the Emperor, self-sacrifice and obedience The movement produced youths who were blindly loyal to the Emperor and nation They were taught to believe in militarism and an aggressive foreign policy

Defending Stand up to Japans western Economic powers Interests Strong &Brave

Internal factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan


Showa Restoration Militarys influence Failure of democracy Loyalty Movement/ Campaign Patriotic Societies Successes in wars (Korea, WWI, Sino-Jap, Russo- Jap) Strong public support Democratic leaders were assassinated

Limited powers of Diet


Corrupt politicians Could not solve economic problems Failure to meet the needs of peasants and workers Failure to solve trade imbalance Great Depression caused sufferings and led to the support of Fascist ideas

Patriotic Societies

Ultra-nationalistic organisations Pushed for aggressive foreign policy & militarism Believed Japans destiny was to go forth, conquer & rule! Many of these societies worked against the civilian govt whom they believed were soft

The rising sun flag of Imperial Japan. A symbol of Japanese aggression & imperialism

Black Dragon Society

Cherry Blossom Society

Internal factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan


Showa Restoration Militarys influence Failure of democracy Loyalty Movement/ Campaign Patriotic Societies Successes in wars (Korea, WWI, Sino-Jap, Russo- Jap) Strong public support Democratic leaders were assassinated

Limited powers of Diet


Corrupt politicians Could not solve economic problems Failure to meet the needs of peasants and workers Failure to solve trade imbalance Great Depression caused sufferings and led to the support of Fascist ideas

Increasing Military support

Military had been successful in battles since 1895. Made military very influential People saw military action as the answer to their probs, also saw civilian govt as weak Military were soon acting independently from civilian govt.

Sino Japanese War 1894-95 Gained Liaodong Peninsula & Taiwan

Military Takeover of Japan

PM Hamaguchi wanted to reduce naval arms, reduce military budget and improve ties with China betray Japan! (wounded in assassination) PM Ki Inukai was also assassinated by army in 1932 His murderers served light sentences Succeeding PMs felt increasingly pressured by militarys ambitions.

By the mid 1930s, Japan had become a military controlled government.

Internal factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan


Showa Restoration Militarys influence Failure of democracy Loyalty Movement/ Campaign Patriotic Societies Successes in wars (Korea, WWI, Sino-Jap, Russo- Jap) Strong public support Democratic leaders were assassinated

Limited powers of Diet


Corrupt politicians Could not solve economic problems Failure to meet the needs of peasants and workers Failure to solve trade imbalance Great Depression caused sufferings and led to the support of Fascist ideas

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JAPAN AND THE WORLD IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY


Japans power in East Asia grew in the first 30 years of the 20th century. However, it began to gather enemies and as it began to modernise, Japans eye for raw materials become bigger and bigger

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Britain, France and LON -Japan joined Br. And Fr. Against Germany in WWI 1914- 1918 -During PPC (1919), LON refused to acknowledge the equality of races

Germany -After WWI, the Kaiser abdicated and Germany came under the rule of the provisional government (democracy) however was it popular?

Russo Japanese War (1905- 1945)


Korea colonised by Japan 19051945

USA -Japan became a threat to USAs trade and investments in China -American control over Hawaii and Philippines threaten Japanese military and economic interests. -Washington Naval Conference (1921) Japanese received unfavorable naval ratio. USA (5): Britain (5): Japan (3) -Strict immigration laws (1920s) -Protectionism: imposed high taxes for Japanese (foreign) goods

China -First Sino-Japanese war (1894-95) -Second Sino-Japanese war (1937- 1945) -Relationship rarely friendly -Japan wanted to obtain as much resources from China as possible before it became too strong (rise of Chinese Nationalism) -Wanted to replace China as Asias no.1 power

Asia - a land area rich in raw materials

Japan and the world in the early 20th century

External factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan

Washington Naval Conference Immigration laws Tax policies

Economic competition in the Asia-pacific region

Gain colonies in China before it became strong under united Nationalist government Paris Peace Conference

Worsening foreign relations


Need to remove obstacle to solution
Need to be more superior, gain status Need to solve over-popn prob Need to gain markets and raw materials

Rise of Chinese Nationalism


Need to gain markets and raw materials

Worsening Foreign Relations

Competition with America over Asia and Pacific islands American control over Hawaii and Philippines threaten Japanese military and economic interests
Competition over the Pacific Islands strained Japanese relations with America.

Need to remove threat

USA

Asia

???

Japan

Worsening Foreign Relations

LON refused to acknowledge the equality of races during Paris Peace Conference, 1919 Washington Naval Conference (1921) Japan received unfavourable naval ratio USA (5) : Britain (5) : Japan (3)

Need to be more superior, gain status

The Imperial Navy resented being treated as a 2nd rate power, especially when it had defeated the Russians & Chinese in naval battles. They felt that it was a deliberate attempt by the USA to restrict Japanese power and growth

Worsening Foreign Relations


Strict American immigration laws (1920s) due to isolationist and protectionist policy: forbade entry of all Asian immigrants No American citizenship, no land also made Japanese feel inferior

By the early 1900s, many Japanese immigrants or issei had flocked to America in search of a better life

Why were the Japanese angry? Need to solve to ease its Japan needs population growth so over-population problem

Japanese Militarys Reaction?

Worsening Foreign Relations

USA imposed high import taxes to protect its industries, making Japanese goods very expensive in the USA and hurting the Japanese economy badly.
Need to gain more markets and raw materials

External Rise of Chinese Nationalism

Japan defeated China in 1894-95 SinoJapanese War Since then, exploited Chinas weakness TOV awarded Shantung Peninsula to Japan sparked off May 4th Movt & anti-Japanese sentiments Saw Chinas vast resources as answer to economic problems Wanted to replace China as Asias no. 1 power

Rise of Chinese Nationalism


Chinese protestors take to the streets in outrage over Japanese seizure of Shantung.

The giant killer

The foreign powers helping themselves to a piece of China

External Rise of Chinese Nationalism

1920s: KMT (Nationalist) vs. CCP (Communist) 1927: KMT joins CCP to fight warlords and end all special concessions given to the Westerners and Japanese They demonstrated and boycotted Japanese goods The Japanese army stationed in Manchuria proposed that Japan Chiang Kai Shek occupy Manchuria and North China (leader of KMT) before China became too strong Need to gain more markets and raw materials

Qing/Manchu Rule

1911 Revolution

Foreign powers

KMT Rule

External factors that contributed to the Rise of Fascism in Japan

Washington Naval Conference Immigration laws Tax policies

Economic competition in the Asia-pacific region

Gain colonies in China before it became strong under united Nationalist government Paris Peace Conference

Worsening foreign relations


Need to remove threat
Need to be more superior, gain status Need to solve over-popn prob Need to gain markets and raw materials

Rise of Chinese Nationalism


Need to gain markets and raw materials

The Manchurian Incident (18 September 1931)


What happened?
Japanese soldiers patrolling the Japanese-owned railway line near Mukden heard an explosion and gunfire Believing they were under attack by Chinese, they called for backup and began firing back Large scale fighting broke out

Many people believed that the explosion in the Manchurian Incident was deliberately set by the Japanese to give them an excuse to fight back and seize control of Manchuria

Manchukuo
By end of January 1932, Japan was in control of south Manchuria and large parts of northern China renamed Manchukuo Announced as an independent state
Not belonging to China, USSR or Japan However, its leader Pu Yi was chosen by the Japanese

Only Italy and Germany recognised Japans control of Manchukuo


Pushed Japan into closer ties with these fascist countries

Political power
In 1932, Prime Minister Inukai was assassinated for openly disagreeing with the army From this point on, the military was more open in its control of the government More assassinations took place to remove undesirable threats to military power The army, with the emperor at the head as a puppet, was in charge

Summary

Effects of Japanese Fascism by 1939

Every Exam Question

Every Exam Question

Step 1: Address the Question Step 2: Provide Evidence Step 3: Explain

SEQ homework

Do you agree that the impact of the Great Depression was the most important reason for the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931? Explain your answer.