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REPRODUCTION

HUMANS: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MENSTRUAL CYCLE FERTILIZATION & PREGNANCY IMPORTANCE OF PRENATAL CARE RESEARCH IN HUMAN REPRODUCTION PLANTS: REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OF FLOWERING PLANTS POLLINATION DEVELOPMENT OF FRUITS & SEED GERMINATION OF SEEDS VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION IN FLOWERING PLANTS

What is REPRODUCTION?
Ability to PRODUCE INDIVIDUALS of the
SAME SPECIES.

WHY ORGANISMS NEED TO REPRODUCE?


PASS DOWN PARENTS CHARACTERISTICS TO
OFFSPRING TO ENSURE OFFSPRINGS SURVIVAL IN THE EVER-CHANGING ENVIRONMENT. PREVENT THE EXTINCTION OF SPECIES. MULTIPLY IN NUMBER & REPLACE THOSE THAT DIE. MAINTAIN BALANCE IN NATURE AS DIFFERENT ORGANISMS DEPEND ON ONE ANOTHER.

Types of reproduction:

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION Involves 1 parent only. Binary fission Budding Spore formation Regeneration Vegetative reproduction

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
- Involves 2 parents of different sexes.

Binary fission
Paramecium

Budding
Hydra
Yeast

Spore formation
Mold Fern

Regeneration
Starfish Planaria

Vegetative reproduction
Bryophyllum (by leaf) Sweet potato (by roots)

Vegetative reproduction
Onion (by stem/ bulb) Ginger (by stem)

Differences
Asexual reproduction Aspects
Number of parents Involvement of sex cells (gametes) Characteristics of offspring

Sexual reproduction

HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


FALLOPIAN TUBE UTERUS

OVARY
ENDOMETRIUM

FIMBRIA

CERVIX
VAGINA VULVA

No.
1

Structure Scrotum

Function

2 5
6 7 9 10

Testes/ testicles Vas deferens/ sperm duct


Prostate gland Seminal vesicles Urethra Penis

13

Fallopian tube

14
15

Uterus
Cervix

16
17

Vagina
Vulva

GAMETE ~ reproductive/ sex cell.


Sperm~ male gamete Ovum~ female gamete

Differences between the male & female gametes


Sperm/ sperms are produced by the millions daily in the testis/ testes of males. Carry genetic information of the male. Motile- can move by swimming. Ovum/ ova is produced once in about 28 days from the ovaries of females. Carry genetic information of the female. Static- cannot move on its own.

Puberty

~ the stage in life when reproductive organs start to produce sex hormones & gametes.

Sex hormones cause physiological, physical & emotional

changes. In boys,
It happens around the age of 12 to 14. Male sex hormones is released into the bloodstream. Testes produce sperms. Penis enlarges. Growth of coarse body hair (armpit, chest, beard, pubic). Height increases, body muscles develop & vocal chord thickens making the voice deepens. More interest in girls.

In girls,
It happens around the age of 10 to 12. Female sex hormones is released into the bloodstream. Ovaries produce ovum. Breasts develop. Growth of body hair (armpit & pubic) & finer hair. Height increases, body fats develop, hip widens & vocal chord thins making the voice high-pitched. More interest in boys.

Menstrual cycle

~ a regular cycle of menstruation/ bleeding & ovulation only experienced by females.


Day 1-5
Menstruation phase. Bleeding occurs. Day 6- 10 Repair phase. Uterine lining starts to thicken. Day 11- 18 Fertile phase. Ovulation (the release of ovum from ovary) occurs on the 14th day). Day 19- 28 Premenstrual phase. Ovum disintegrates together with uterine lining.

Facts to remember
Only 1 ovum is released at a time. The ovaries take turn to release ovum. The number of days in the menstrual cycle
of every female is different. Some females have less than 28 days, others have more than 28 days. When the number of days differ, the ovulation period also differs.

How does ovulation occur?

What happens after ovulation?


Ovum enters the fallopian tube through
the fimbria. Then, ovum travels toward the uterus with the help of peristaltic wave in the wall of fallopian tube.

Copulation
~The process of dispensing semen containing sperms of the male into the cervix through the vagina of the female. Sperms then travel toward the fallopian tube to meet the ovum.

Fertilisation
Upon reaching the
fallopian tube, only 1 sperm can penetrate the ovum. The head of the sperm enters the cytoplasm of ovum, leaving the tail outside. The nucleus of sperm in the head & nucleus of ovum fuse to form a zygote.

What happens after fertilization?

Zygote divides repeatedly to form embryo. Embryo continues the journey along the fallopian tube

toward the uterus. As it reaches the uterus, it implants itself into the uterine lining.

Prenatal development
Birth

Zygote

Embryo

Foetus

Baby

After implantation, the embryo develops placenta for

allowing exchange of materials between the mother & the foetus. Foetus is connected to placenta by an umbilical cord which contains blood vessels.

Foetus sends CO2 & wastes through the umbilical cord to placenta

so that these materials will be diffused into the mothers blood to be excreted. The mother sends O2 & nutrients through placenta then the umbilical cord, eventually to the foetus.

During birth.
About 9 months after fertilization,
the fully-developed foetus rotates its head towards the cervix. The uterus contracts pushing the foetus into the cervix, the cervix dilates to allow the foetus to pass through. After birth, the umbilical cord is cut. Then, placenta will detach itself from the uterine lining & also come out through the cervix.

Prenatal care
Why is it important?
Ensure healthy foetal growth & mothers excellent health. What should be done? Enough nutrients for both mother & foetus. Antenatal check-ups. Avoid cigarettes, alcohol & drugs.

More intake of these in

nutrients: o Proteins- for rapid growth o Iron & Folic acid- for building more RBC o Calcium, phosphorus & D vitamin- for building bones & teeth

Research in Human Reproduction


Sterility ~ inability to reproduce. Can be experienced by both male & female. Birth control ~ ways to prevent pregnancy. Done by using contraception (devices or methods). Used by both male & female.

Causes of sterility in
Males
Absence of sperm Low sperm count Abnormal sperms Impotence/ erectile dysfunction Antibodies against sperms

Females
Failure to ovulate Blocked fallopian tubes Damaged cervix Antibodies against sperms

Treatments for Sterility - refer to textbook on page 58

In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)


~ fertilization between sperm & ovum occurring outside the female body. - zygote divides to form embryo. - embryo is implanted into the uterine wall.

Birth Control~ ways to prevent pregnancy.


Natural method

Rhythm method Barrier method Condom Diaphragm/ cervical cap Mechanical method Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD)

Hormonal method

Contraceptive pills Chemical method Spermicides Surgical method BTL Vasectomy

Flower
~ a specialised organ which bear the reproductive structures of an angiosperm.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Cross section of Hibiscus sp.

Reproduction in flowering plants


Female reproductive
system
Carpel/ pistil Stigma Style Ovary Ovule

Male reproductive
system
Stamen Anther Filament

Other parts of the flower helping in reproduction:


Petals- attract the attention of the agent
of pollination Sepal- protects the petals and reproductive organs Calyx Stalk- supports the flower Nectary- produce sugary solution. Why?

Function of female reproductive structures


Stigma Style Ovary Ovule

Function of male reproductive structures


Anther Filament

Pollination ~ the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma.


Self-pollination From anther to stigma of the same flower, or another flower of the same tree. Cross-pollination From anther of a flower of one tree to stigma of flower of another tree.

Figure 4.21 of page 64 in text book

Pollination

Agents of pollination
Insects/ animals Eg: Butterfly, small birds

Wind Characteristic of the flower


Small flowers White petals Odourless Hairy stigma Long style Large amount & light pollen grain Big anther, long filament Long stalk Absent nectary

(hummingbird) Characteristics of the flower


Big flower Bright-coloured petals Fragrant flower Sticky stigma Short style Small amount & sticky pollen grain Small anther, short filament Short stalk Present nectary

Wind-pollinated flower

What happens after pollination?


Sugary solution on
surface of stigma stimulate pollen grains to germinate. Pollen grains grow pollen tube. Nucleus inside pollen grain divides to produce 2 male gametes.

Germination of pollen tube

Fertilization
Pollen tube grows
through style, toward ovary. Pollen tube grow toward micropyle of ovule. One of the male gametes enter the ovule through micropyle to fuse with the female gamete (egg nucleus)= FERTILIZATION.

Fruits

Fruit and seed

embryo

Seeds
A zygote is formed &
develop into an embryo. An embryo consists of plumule, radicle and cotyledon is contained in the seed (was the ovule). The ovary becomes the fruit.

Parts in a seed & fruit


Part Embryo Radicle Cotyledon (dicot)/ stores food for germination endosperm (monocot) Plumule Testa Hilum Micropyle Fruit Epicarp (later becomes fruit skin) Pericarp (becomes flesh) Function

Seed

Germination