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4th Generation Mobile Networks An Overview

Presented by, Syed Ali Nauman Gilani

Evolution to 4G - Background
2

Introduction Technologies and Architecture Scenarios

Services and Applications

Evolution to 4G Background
Mobile Wireless Telephone Systems Generations

0th Generation
No Cells (One cell with radius of hundreds of KM) Introduced in 1946 Transceivers were big and only carried by vehicles Inefficient way of Spectrum usage No SDM or TDM Manual call switching IMPROVEMENTS in MTS leads to : IMTS Improved MTS Better channel utilization more channels then MTS Automatic switching

1st Generation
Introduced in late 1970s Cellular Architecture (Space Division Multiplexing) Small handheld Terminals not so power efficient Analog communication. Limited data connectivity (SMS). Circuit switched. Suffers the draw back of Analog communication. Spectrum Inefficiency
Inferior call quality No use of Encryption

Examples: (Different Countries Adopted Different Standards) AMPS (Advance Mobile Phone System)
NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony)

2nd Generation
Introduced in late 1980s Digital communication. Limited data connectivity (SMS). Circuit switched. Advantages of Digital communication. Encryption
Use of error correction Efficient use of spectrum and power control Good voice quality

Example: (Region vise standards)


GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) , Digital AMPS IS 54 - 95 (Interim Standard 54 and 95)

2.5th Generation
Data connectivity with internet access. Packet switching overlaid on circuit switched technology. Data rates 14.4 Kbps to 115 Kbps Examples:
GPRS (General Packet Radio System) HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data) CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) CDMA TWO (IS-95B)

3rd Generation
Introduced in late 1990s Digital communication. High Data connectivity (60 to 500 Kbps). Circuit switched and Packet switched. Advantages: Supports Symmetric and Asymmetric Traffic
High performance Multimedia Traffic supported Support of running several services on same terminal Ability to create a personalized set of services via Virtual Home Environment)

Example: (Almost Universal Standard)


UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) Standards and Radio Interfaces in UMTS: W-CDMA , CDMA2000, TD-CDMA, UWC, EDGE, DECT

3.5th Generation
3rd Generation + Interactivity = 3.5th Generation

Supports IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem)

Data rates more than 1 Mbps

Examples: (3GPP and 3GPP2) WiMAX ( Wireless Microwave Access ) HSDPA( High Speed Data Packet Access )

Evolution Path Time Line 1G to 4G

Evolution Path 1G to 4G contd

Videos

Ericsson IMS

Ericsson IMS Demo

Introduction to 4th Generation

Note These Important Points!


1
New Generations are coming in the time period of 10 years so 4G is expected to be deployed in 2010.

Work on Next Generation starts with the Deployment of previous Generation. 4th Generation integrates the evolution of Mobile Telephony and Data Networks and is the Part of NGNs (Next Generation Networks) Advancements and Evolution in Generations depends on Technological Advancements and Requirements and Needs of Users. All these factors collectively set the TRENDS.

Explaining Point 3

Defining 4th Generation


4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks. Convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computer, consumer electronics, communication technology, and several other convergences. Capability of providing 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s, respectively, in outdoor and indoor environments. A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bits/s/Hz/site) Guarantees on end-to-end quality of service. Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks High security, High Processing with efficient Power Control system Services at Anytime, Anywhere basis (Ubiquitous). Affordable cost and one billing for all services.

From user driven perspective, the user has freedom and flexibility to select the service, at a reasonable QoS and price, anytime, anywhere Reconfigurability: Next-generation wireless network interfaces need to be able to switch seamlessly between different communications standards, in order to provide the most suitable level of service while the user moves across different environments. Convergence is what 4G is about Fixed, Celluar phone systems, WPANs,WLANs ,Broadcasting/Satellite Communication Hierarchy of wireless networks: 4G will consist of a hierarchy of quality/bandwidth modes

Candidate Architectures and Technologies

4G Conceptual Architecture

Architecture

latency, packet loss and signaling overhead experienced during handoff

4G Provides Mobility & Capacity

LTE - Long Term Evolution


LTE targets requirements of next generation networks including downlink peak rates of at least 100Mbit/s, 50 Mbit/s In the uplink and RAN (Radio Access Network) round-trip times of less than 10ms. LTE supports flexible carrier bandwidths, from 1.4MHz up to 20MHz as well as both FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) and TDD (Time Division Duplex). The goals for LTE include improving spectral efficiency, lowering costs, improving services, making use of new spectrum and reframed spectrum opportunities, and better integration with other open standards. The architecture that will result from this work is called EPS (Evolved Packet System) and comprises E-UTRAN (Evolved UTRAN UMTS Terristrial Radio Acces Network) on the access side and EPC (Evolved Packet Core) on the core side.

Long Term Evolution contd


EPC is also known as SAE (System Architecture Evolution) and EUTRAN is also known as LTE. The main advantages with LTE are high throughput, low latency, plug and play from day one, FDD and TDD in the same platform, superior end-user experience and simple architecture resulting in low Operating Expenditures (OPEX). LTE will also support seamless connection to existing networks, such as GSM, CDMA and WCDMA. However LTE requires a completely new RAN and core network deployment and is not backward compatible with existing UMTS systems.

Multi Carrier Modulation Techniques

OFDM (Orthogonal Division Multiplexing) To mitigate the problems in air interface. To increase the Data rates by removing
Multipath Fading Inter Symbol Interference

Design Goals for 4G and Beyond and Related Research Issues

System Interoperability Multimode Terminals Terminal Bandwidth and Battery Life Packet-Switch Fixed Network Varying Quality of Bandwidth for Wireless Access Distribution Layer Cellular Layer Hot-Spot Layer Personal Network Layer Fixed Layer Advanced Base Stations Higher Data Rates

4G Services and Applications


Tele-Presence Information Access Inter-Machine Communication Intelligent Shopping Security Location-Based Services

Trends for NGN Wireless Networks: Scenarios

Scenarios: Visions of Future


Trends for Next-Generation Wireless Networks Globalization of Products, Services and Companies Communicating Appliances Services become more Independent of the Underline Infrastructure Information Trading/Overflow Standardization Diversification

Scenario 1: Anything Goes


This Scenario has the following characteristics: High Development Rate of Telecommunications. Transparent Access to the Network. Manufacturing Companies Have a Strong Market Power. Large Number of de facto Standards. Generic Hardware Equipment will run Software Enabling Specialized Services. Self-Configuring Systems.

Scenario 2: Big Brother


This Scenario has the following characteristics: Privacy is the First Priority. Governmental Organizations Ensure Privacy. Limited Telecommunications Market. Low Development Rate of Telecommunications. Very Few Operators.

Scenario 3: Pocket Computing


This Scenario has the following characteristics: Social and Political Differences. Existence of Highly Differentiated Service and Pricing Categories. Service Providers offering Specialized Services also provide equipment for specialized Purposes.