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DESIGN CONCEPTS OF COAL & GAS BASED THERMAL POWER GENERATION

- Group-B1 D. Dilip Desamitra Uttam Goyal Vishal Bansal N. Pranay Kumar Mantu Kumar
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THERMODYNAMICS OF RANKINE STEAM CYCLE AND BRAYTON CYCLE


Rankine Cycle

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How efficiency can be improved?


The overall thermodynamic efficiency (of almost any cycle) can be increased by raising the average heat input temperature of that cycle Rankine cycle with reheat

Group B1 ETEs ppt-2 Advantage of Reheating over the normal cycle

Rankine Regeneration:

Regeneration not only improves cycle efficiency, but also provides a convineant means of deaerating the feed water (removing the air that leaks in at the condenser) to prevent corrosion in the boiler It also helps control the large volume flow rate of the steam at the final stages of the turbine (due to the large specific volumes at low pressures)

Brayton cycle (Open cycle)

th = (Heat added Heat rejected) / Heat added

th

m C p T 3 T 2 m C p T 4T 1 m C p T 3T 2

SUB CRITICAL AND SUPER CRITICAL UNITS


Super Critical units:
Supercritical" is a thermodynamic expression describing the state of a substance where there is no clear distinction between the liquid and the gaseous phase (i.e. they are a homogenous fluid). Water reaches this state at a pressure above 22.1 mega pascals (MPa) The Temperatures are around 565 degree Celsius. Efficiency ratings for supercritical coal plants range from 37% to 40%.
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Sub critical units:


Up to an operating pressure of around 19 MPa in the evaporator part of the boiler, the cycle is sub-critical. In this case a drum-type boiler is used because the steam needs to be separated from water in the drum of the boiler before it is superheated and led into the turbine. The Temperature is below 550 degree Celsius. Subcritical units have efficiencies of between 33% and 37%; i.e. between 33% and 37% of the energy in the coal is converted into electricity

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Ultra super critical units:


In ultra-supercritical units, pressures are at 32Mpa and temperatures of 600-610 degrees Celsius. current research and development is targeting pressures of 36-38 Mpa and temperatures of 700-720 degrees Celsius , with the possibility of raising generating efficiency to the 44-46%.

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COGENERATION AND COMBINED CYCLE


Combined cycles:

Combining two or more thermodynamic cycles results in improved overall efficiency, reducing fuel costs
A widely used combination is a gas turbine(operating by the Brayton cycle) burning natural gas or syngas, whose hot exhaust powers a steam power plant (operating by the Rankine cycle). This is called a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plant, and can achieve a thermal efficiency of around 60%, in contrast to a single cycle steam power plant which is limited to efficiencies of around 35-42%
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Cogeneration:
In general, co-generation means the simultaneous production of more than one useful form of energy (such as process heat and electric power). Either a steam turbine (Rankine) cycle or a gas turbine (Brayton) cycle or even a combined cycle can be used as the power cycle in a co-generation plant A plant which producing electricity whilst meeting the process heat requirements of certain industrial processes, is called a co-generation plant

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Cogeneration and combined cycle:

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Design Concepts:
In a thermal power station, high pressure and high steam conditions require components to be made from alloys like Nickel or Cobalt which limit practical steam temperatures to about 655 C The lower temperature of a steam plant is fixed by the boiling point of water In an open circuit gas turbine cycle, the input temperature to the turbine (the firing temperature), is relatively high (900 to 1,400 C). The output temperature of the flue gas is also high (450 to 650 C). This is therefore high enough to provide heat for a second cycle which uses steam as the working fluid (a Rankine cycle)

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Advantages:
Cogeneration system helps to locate manufacturing facility in remote low cost areas Cogeneration helps reduce CO2 emissions significantly which in turn helps in gaining carbon credits

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INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE


Since coal is by large the main source of fuel for power plants, there is a definite need to use technologies that result in lower emissions An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a technology that uses a gasifier to turn coal and other carbon based fuels into synthesis gas From the syngas impurities (like Sulfur, Mercury etc) are removed before combustion resulting in lower emissions of SO2 etc The carbon in the syngas can be shifted to hydrogen via the water-gas shift reaction, resulting in nearly carbon free fuel Excess heat from the primary combustion and syngas fired generation is then passed to a steam cycle
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INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

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POLLUTION FROM THERMAL PLANTS

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Pollution from thermal power plants


1) 2) 3) 4) Air Pollution Water Pollution Land Degradation Noise Pollution

Standards for Liquid Discharge from Gas/Naptha TPPs

Technology

SubCritical PC

Super Critical PC (SC PC)

Advanced / Ultra Supercritical (USC- PC)


Under consideration for 13TH Plan

Circulating FBC (CFBC)


125 MW 250 MW for NLC TPS ii

Atmosphe ric FBC/ AFBC


2 X 10 MW operating

IGCC

Use in India

Almost in all Indian TPS

660 MW Unit at Sipat ( tendering of 11 X 660 MW In 13th plan)

Not successf ul with Indian coal


Developm ent plans in Europe, Brazil

World wide

All over

Japan , China

Nether lands, Japan, Denmark

U.S., Japan , China

Developmen t plans in Europe

Maturity Efficiency (India) Worldwide

Commercial 31-34 %

Commercial 35 %

Commercial

Commercial

Pilot / R&D

Demons tration

36-39 %

39-41 %

40-44 %

34 -40 %

34 %

Upto 48 % 12501270

Capital cost : World ($/KW)

930-1090

1090-1290

960-1340

1070-1340

1410

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POWER PLANT SUPPLIERS AND PACKAGES

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No. of Construction Agencies executing TPPs during 11th Plan (Coal Based)

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Packages and Suppliers

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Number of Packages/Projects under execution by different Agencies

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Number of Packages/Projects under execution by different Agencies

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Status of BOPs for 11th Plan Projects

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Tentative Estimated No. of BOPs for 12th Plan Projects

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Growth Comparison of Different Packages


Package CHP AHP DM Plant Cooling Tower Chimney 11 th Plan 68 69 69 145 117 12th Plan 148 148 211 218 77 Increment % 117.6471 114.4928 205.7971 50.34483 -34.18803

Fuel Oil System


PT Plant

71
76
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148
160

108.4507
110.5263

Development of New TPP


Project Development Phase Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) Phase

Project Development Phase


Opportunity analysis Market assessment Power sales contract structuring Cost development Environmental permitting Interconnection coordination Power sales bid preparation Sales contract negotiation

Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) Phase Detailed project design Project construction Sales contract monitoring

THANK YOU !

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