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A MINI-PROJECT REPORT

ON

BUSBAR PROTECTION
Is submitted to

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ANANTAPUR,

ANANTAPUR Under the guidance of Mr. SHAIK MOHAMMED RAFI, M.E , Assistant Professor, Department of E.E.E.,

SIDDHARTHA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY,PUTTUR. (An ISO 9001:2000 Certificate Institution) (Approved by A.I.C.T.E. New Delhi & Affiliated to J.N.T.U.A., Anantapur)
01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

OBJECTIVE :
o BUSBAR faults are rare but if they occur there can be interruption of supply, considerable damage and loss to the equipment, property and people working around. o Hence busbar protection must be fast in operation, stable and reliable. o This project deals with busbar arrangements, protection schemes used in 220KV substation RENIGUNTA.
01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

BUSBARS :
Conductors to which a number of circuits are connected. The material used should have low resistivity,higher softening temperature, good mechanical properties and low cost. Supported on post or strain Insulators. The flexible bus is held at higher level above the various sub-station Equipment.
01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

BUSBAR ARRANGEMENTS :
SINGLE BUSBAR :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

WITH SECTIONALIZING BREAKER :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

DOUBLE MAIN BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

DOUBLE BUS WITH SECTIONALIZE SYSTEM :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

ONE AND A HALF BREAKER ARRANGEMENT :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

MESH ARRANGEMENT :

01/08/2011

Dept. of EEE,SISTK

VARIOUS CAUSES FOR A FAULT IN BUSBAR:


Busbar faults are generally single line to ground faults, phase to phase faults

The main causes for a fault in a busbar :


Failure of support insulator resulting in earth fault. Flashover across support insulator during over voltages. Heavily polluted insulator causing flashover. Failure of connected equipment to the busbar. Various environmental conditions.
01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

DESIRABLE FEATURES OF BUS PROTECTION:


High speed operation. Discrimination between fault in its protected section and fault elsewhere. Stability for external faults. Freedom from unwanted operation. No operation due to CT saturation or power swings. Separate control trip circuit of each circuit breaker. Main and check protection to ensure the isolation only when desirable.

01/08/2011

Dept. of EEE,SISTK

TYPES OF BUSBAR PROTECTION SCHEMES:


Depending upon the rating of the machine, its location, relative importance, probability of faults and abnormal conditions etc., each power system component is covered by a protective zone. Differential protection High impedance protection Low impedance protection
01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

HIGH IMPEDANCE BUSBAR PROTECTION :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

LOW IMPEDANCE BUSBAR PROTECTION :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

CT SATURATION :

SATURATION CURVE :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

VOLTAGE DIFFERENTIAL RELAY WITH LINEAR COUPLERS :


The problem of CT saturation is eliminated at its source by air-core CTs called linear couplers.
01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

BREAKER FAILURE RELAYS :


LBB: Local Breaker Backup Relay. BFR: Breaker Failure Relay. CBF: Circuit Breaker Failure Relay. LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP PROTECTION Remote back-up Local back-up Relay back-up Breaker back-up
01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

LBB/BFR FLOW CHART :

MAIN PROTECTION OPERATED

YES

TRIP MAIN BREAKER

FAULT CLEARED

YES

RESET BREAKER FAILURE SCHEME

RETRIP

NO

YES

INITIATE BFR

WAIT FOR FAULT CLEARENCE

AND

TRIP BACK-UP/ Adjacent BREAKERS

01/08/2011

Dept. of EEE,SISTK

BUSBAR PROTECTION SCHEME AT 220KV SUBSTATION RENIGUNTA :

01/08/2011

Dept. of EEE,SISTK

CTS ARRANGEMENT FOR BUSBAR PROTECTION :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

CT RATIOS OF 220KV FEEDERS AND TRANSFORMERS :


S.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulars Ratio available 800/1-1-1-1-1A Ratio Adopted For Buabar 800/1-1A

220KV manubolu feeders 1&2 220KV mahadeva mangalam feeders 1&2 220KV c.k.palli 220Kv koduru feeder 220KV bus coupler HV breakers of

800/1-1-1-1-1A 800/1-1-1-1-1A 800/1-1-1-1-1A 800/1-1-1-1-1A

800/1-1A 800/1-1A 800/1-1A 800/1-1A

100MVA, 220/132KV
7 8
01/08/2011

300/1-0.66-.375-.375-1A

300/0.375-0.375A
800/1A 800/1A

transformers 1, 2 &3 Bus-1 C.T Bus-2 C.T


Dept. of EEE,SISTK

800/1-1-1-1-1A 800/1-1-1-1-1A

PBDCC SCHEME AT 220 KV SS RENIGUNTA :


The existing PBDCC scheme at 220 KV SS Renigunta mainly comprises of 3 panels. CT Switching panel Busbar protection panel Auxiliary relay panel

The full form of PBDCC/PBDCB is as follows:


P- Protection B- Busbar D- Differential principle C- Check zone B/C- No additional function/additional function (bus 01/08/2011 supervision relay)Dept. of EEE,SISTK

CT SWITCHING PANEL :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

BUSBAR PROTECTION PANEL :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

AUXILIARY RELAY PANEL :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

RELAY SETTINGS FOR PBDCC TYPE :


S.no Particulars Ratio available Ratio Adopted For Buabar 800/1-1A

220KV manubolu feeders 1&2 220KV mahadeva mangalam feeders 1&2 220KV c.k.palli 220Kv koduru feeder 220KV bus coupler HV breakers of 100MVA, 220/132KV

800/1-1-1-1-1A

800/1-1-1-1-1A
800/1-1-1-1-1A 800/1-1-1-1-1A 800/1-1-1-1-1A 300/1-0.66-.375-.375-1A

800/1-1A
800/1-1A 800/1-1A 800/1-1A

3 4 5 6

300/0.375-0.375A

transformers 1, 2 &3
7
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Bus-1 C.T Bus-2 C.T

800/1-1-1-1-1A
Dept. of EEE,SISTK

800/1A 800/1A

800/1-1-1-1-1A

GENERAL SCHEMATIC PROTECTION (HIGH IMPEDANCE) :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

DIFFERENTIAL RELAY TEST RESULTS :

BUS SUPERVISION RELAY TEST RESULTS :

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Dept. of EEE,SISTK

CONCLUSION :
Busbar has a great importance in the power system and its protection is essential for smooth stabilised and safer operation of the network. In this project,a basic understanding of bus arrangements and types of busbar protection schemes and the study extended to BUSBAR PROTECTION IN 220KV SS RENIGUNTA. The busbar arrangement used in 220KV SS RENIGUNTA is double bus arrangement. Even we made some relays testing related to busbar protection i.e. bus supervision relay test and differential relay test.
01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

BIBLIOGRAPHY :
A course in Power systems - J.B.GUPTA Switch Gear Protection and Power System - SUNIL S. RAO Technical Reference Book - APTRANSCO Power Systems Protection and Switchgear - BADRI RAM ,D. N. VISHWAKARMA

WEBSITES :
www.electricity-today.com/et/Novdec96/busbar.html www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~npsc2008/NPSC_CD/Data/Oral/CIC2/p110.html www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC30301050.aspx www.fecime.org/referencias/npag/chap15-232-253.html 01/08/2011 Dept. of EEE,SISTK

01/08/2011

Dept. of EEE,SISTK