Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

Objectives

1. Describe the basic types of point defects found in crystalline materials. 2. Explain the rules for alloy substitutional solubility. 3. Describe the basic line and area defect types in crystals. 4. Explain etching process and effects of grain boundary and surface energy on behavior of atoms

Crystalline Defects

Defects occur any time the crystalline structure is interrupted or distorted. The scale of disruption determines the energy level of neighboring atoms:
Atom Energy Level = F(degree of disruption)

Crystalline Defects
1.

Point Defects
A. Vacancy

Number of Vacancies (Arhennius Expression)


Nv = N exp (QV / kT)

QV, k Tables
N total number of atoms

T Temperature (Kelvin)

Crystalline Defects
1. Point Defects
A. Vacancy B. Self-Interstitial

Crystalline Defects
1. Point Defects
A. Vacancy B. Self-Interstitial C. Alloying Elements i. substitutional solid solution

Requirements for Elemental Solubility


1.

Atomic Size Factor +/- 15%

Requirements for Elemental Solubility


1. 2. 3. 4. Atomic Size Factor +/- 15% Matched _____________ Same crystalline structures Similar __________ (ionization state)

Substitutional Solubility

Means that one element can simply ________________ for atoms of another. Poor solubility doesnt mean you cant mix, only___________________________.

Crystalline Defects
1. Point Defects
A. Vacancy B. Self-Interstitial C. Alloying Elements i. substitutional solid solution ii. interstitial solid solution

Application of Substitutional Atoms

Dental Ceramics (ionic crystals) Tensile strength improved by doping with larger atoms. Doped layer prestressed
Tension

Crystalline Defects
2. Line Defects A. Edge Dislocations

Crystalline Defects
2. Line Defects A. Edge Dislocations B. Screw Dislocations

Crystalline Defects
3. Interfacial or Area Defects A. Free Surfaces Surface Energy

Crystalline Defects
3. Interfacial or Area Defects A. Free Surfaces B. Grain Boundaries

Grain Boundary Etching

Etching takes advantage of the elevated energy of grain boundary atoms. Grain boundary atoms will dissolve (react) more rapidly than others on an exposed surface.

Microscopy of Etched Grain

Light Beam Surface

Boundary

Crystalline Defects
3. Interfacial or Area Defects A. Free Surfaces B. Grain Boundaries C. Twin Boundaries

Twinning

Annealing Twins form during casting or heat treating typical in FCC alloys Deformation Twins form during mechanical deformation usually in BCC or HCP alloys.