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Contents

Introduction Causes Diagnose Treatment Summary

What is ADHD?
A medical condition characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity ADD is no different from ADHD but it refers to adults in the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) One of the most common mental disorders among children, affecting approximately 5-7% of school-age children and 2-5% of adults. ADHD is a diagnosis applied to children and adults who consistently display certain behaviors such as distractibility, impulsivity, and hyperactivity over a period of time.

Classification of ADHD
developmental disorder behavior disorder disruptive behavior disorder oppositional defiant disorder conduct disorder antisocial disorder

Causes
Specific cause is unknown Twin studies showed that 75% of ADHD cases are genetically inherited Twin studies also suggested that 9-20% is also due to environmental factors Diet: European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) conclude in their study that food additive such as artificial food coloring and preservative significantly affects children with ADHD
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/what-causes-adhd.shtml

Pregnancy: smoking, alcohol, and premature birth

Diagnose
DSM-IV Criteria for ADHD

I. Either A or B:

A. 6 or more of the following symptoms of inattention have been present for at least 6 months to a point that is disruptive and inappropriate for developmental level: Inattention: poor attention to detail, keeping up with tasks, doesnt listen when spoken to, forgetful, easily distracted, avoid things that take effort to perform, lose things needed for a task, often does not follow instructions http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/symptom.htm

Diagnose cont.
DSM-IV Criteria for ADHD B. Six or more of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have been present for at least 6 months to an extent that is disruptive and inappropriate for developmental level: Hyperactivity: Often fidgety or squirms in seat, often runs about or climbs when and where it is not appropriate, act loudly, driven (always on the go), often talks excessively.

Diagnose cont.
Impulsivity blurts out answers before questions have been finished trouble waiting one's turn. interrupts or intrudes on others Some symptoms that cause impairment were present before age 7 years. Some impairment from the symptoms are present in two or more settings (e.g. at school/work and at home). There must be clear evidence of significant impairment in social, school, or work functioning.

Diagnose cont.
Based on the these criteria, three types of ADHD are identified: 1. ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type: if criterion A is met but criterion B is not met for the past six months Pooh type- Inattentive, sluggish, slow-moving, unmotivated, daydreamer

Diagnose cont.
2. ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: if Criterion B is met but Criterion A is not met for the past six months. Rabbit Type - over focused, obsessive, argumentative

Diagnose cont.
3. ADHD, Combined Type: if both criteria A and B are met for the past 6 months.
Tigger type-Hyperactive, restlessness, disorganized, inattention, impulsivity

Treatment
treatment focuses on reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning through medications, behavioral therapies, and psycho therapy.

Medications
Most are treated with stimulant but nonstimulants are also used Medication help to improve focus, thinking, ability to learn and work It also reduces symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficithyperactivity-disorder/medications.shtml

Behaviors Therapy
Goal: change/monitor child behaviors Intervention includes: practical assistance with organizing tasks or completing schoolwork, or working through emotionally difficult events allow child to give oneself praise or rewards for acting in a desired way Parents and teachers also can give positive or negative feedback for certain behaviors. Set clear rules, chore lists, and other structured routines can help a child control his or her behavior
http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/psychotherapy.shtml

Summary

End

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