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Long Term Evolution in 3GPP Architecture

Handover Management in 3G LTE

Conclusion References

The Third Generation Partnership Program (3GPP) has defined Long

Term Evolution (LTE) as part of the 3GPP Release 8 specifications. One of the main goals of LTE, or any wireless system for that matter, is to provide fast and seamless handover from one cell (a source cell) to another (a target cell). The impact of the LTE handover procedures on the overall user experience depends very much upon the type of application that is being used. 3G Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the next-generation mobile wireless technology designed to deliver ultra high-speed mobile broadband. The primary goals of 3G LTE are increasing bandwidth, improving spectral efficiency, reducing latency, lowering the cost per byte, and enabling improved mobility.


The functions of the various network elements are as follows:

Mobility Management Entity (MME): Serving Gateway (S-GW) :

Packet Data Network Gateway (P-GW):

C-Plane and U-Plane protocol stacks.

Handover Management In 3G LTE

Handover refers to the process of transferring a mobile station

from one base station (BS) to another while a session is in progress. Several parameters are used to make the handover decision, some examples are signal to interference ratio, received signal strength (RSS), distance from BS and velocity. Handovers are procedures used to keep one or more communicating connection(s) of a mobile user alive, even when the user roams from one network access point to another access point.

Handover Mechanisms
Handovers are used to keep mobile clients connected to their
service network, even when these clients roam from a network access point to another network access point. To supply this service there are two types of handovers, horizontal and vertical. The central goal of the handover mechanisms is to maximize overall network utilization and allow each client to remain best connected at all times.

Handover can be categorized as

Soft Handover Connect-Before-Break Handover Hard Handover Break-Before-Connect Handover Handover in LTE

Handover Execution
Backward Handover
RLF Handover NAS Recovery

Backward Handover

LTE Backward Handover Procedure

RLF(Radio Link Failure) Handover

LTE RLF Handover Procedure

NAS(Non-Access Stratum) Recovery

LTE NAS Recovery Procedure

Requirements For An Efficient Handover Solution

Handover moment
Unnecessary handovers Handover delay

Packet loss
Scalability Complexity of the solution Modifications of the protocol standards

Handover Solutions
UMTS Handovers
Intra Frequency handovers 2. Inter Frequency Handovers within WCDMA 3. Inter System or Inter RAT Handovers

LTE Handovers 1.

LTE Intra EUTRAN Handover LTE Inter RAT Handover

1.Intra Frequency handovers

Intra Frequency handovers are horizontal handovers

between two access points on the same frequency.

UTRAN Architecture Intra Frequency handovers

2.Inter Frequency Handovers within WCDMA

3.Inter System or Inter RAT Handovers

Inter System or Inter RAT handovers are vertical

handovers between different network types i.e. UMTS to LTE.

UMTS to LTE Handover

LTE Handovers
1.LTE Intra EUTRAN Handover
LTE uses Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access

network(EUTRAN) for handovers EUTRAN is the evolvement of UTRAN which was developed as a multiple access method with a functional split between the radio access and core network in the network architecture

LTE/SAE Architecture

2.LTE Inter RAT Handover

LTE to UMTS Handover sequence

LTE and LTE-Advanced the potential to enhance current

deployments of 3GPP networks and enable significant new service opportunities. 3G LTE is the future of the Verizon Wireless broadband network. This technology will allow Verizon Wireless to offer users more of what they want, which is untethered mobility. Handover mechanism is adopted to be used in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE) in order to reduce the complexity of the LTE network architecture.

[1] LTE Mobility Enhancements
[2] Deepak Wadhwa ,SCTP Fast Path Optimization for 3G/LTE Networks. [3] Anand R. Prasad, Julien Lag anier and Alf Zugenmaier Mortaza S. Bargh, Bob Hulsebosch and Henk Eertink Geert Heijenk and Jeroen Idserda, Mobility and Key Management in SAE/LTE [4] Yaseein Soubhi Hussein, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali, Pooria Varahram and Aduwati Sali, Enhanced handover mechanism in long term evolution (LTE) networks, 23 October, 2011.

[5] Cheng-Chung Lin, Kumbesan Sandrasegaran, Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli, and Riyaj Basukala, Optimized Performance Evaluation Of LTE Hard Handover Algorithm With Average RSRP Constraint, 2, April 2011 [6] T.F.M. Hendrixen, UMTS and LTE/SAE handover solutions and their comparison, [7] LTE; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN);

Architecture description.
[8] LTE: The Future of Mobile Broadband Technology. [9] TaeHoon Lee, SungHoon Seo, UiTaek Lee, and JooSeok Song Department of Computer Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, A New Soft Handover Mechanism using DCHs in 3GPP HSDPA Networks, journal of networks, 3, may 2009

[10] George lampropoulos, nikos passas, and lazaros merakos, university of athens alexandros kaloxylos, university of Peloponnese, Handover management architectures in integrated wlan/cellular networks, fourth quarter 2005 [11] Kyung-yul Cheon, Mijeong Yang, Aesoon Park Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute Daejeon, Korea, Dual Tunnelling Mechanism for Mobile IP based 3G LTE-WLAN Handover [12] Kh. Playtoni Meetei, Govind R. Kadambi, B. N. Shobha3, Abraham George, Design and Development of a Handoff Management System in LTE Networks using Predictive Modelling, September 2009

Thank You