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By: Gourish Amonkar 10ECE039 NIT Goa

o Introduction to Wireless Power Transmission o Methods of Power Transmission o Basics of Microwaves o Transmitter, Receiver and Sensor o Working Principle o Advantages and Hurdles o Current Status of Technology o Conclusions o References

Wireless energy transfer is the transmission of electrical energy from a power source to an electrical load without a conductive physical connection

Inductive Coupling
Resonance Electromagnetic Radiation
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Electrodynamic Induction method The Electrodynamic induction wireless transmission technique is near field method. Current flowing through a primary coil creates a magnetic field that acts on a secondary coil producing a current within it Major drawback: Short range

Resonance, a phenomenon that causes an object to vibrate when energy of a certain frequency is applied.

Laser method
Laser is a concentrated beam of light with very high energy this can be used to transmit power with an efficiency of 40-45% Power can be transmitted by converting electricity into a laser beam that is then pointed at a solar cell receiver

Microwave Method
Microwave power transmission (MPT) is the use of microwaves to transmit power through outer space or the atmosphere without the need for wires Conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized.

Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with, wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter (Equivalently, with frequencies between 0.3 GHz and 300 GHz. Used in communication, radio astronomy, navigation, and also used in the microwave owens.

Electrical Energy to Microwave Energy Capturing Microwaves using Rectena Microwave Energy to Electrical Energy
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THE MAGNETRON A microwave tube in which electrons generated from a heated cathode are affected by magnetic and electric fields in such a way as to produce microwave radiation.

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Magnetrons can produce continuous power outputs of more than 1 kW at a frequency of 1 GHz. Cathode is indirectly heated& electrons are, generated from a heated cathode, move under the combined force of a radial electric field and an axial magnetic field. This causes moving electrons to interact synchronously with traveling-wave components of a microwave standing-wave pattern in such a manner that electron potential energy is converted to microwave energy with high efficiency.

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The open space between the plate and the cathode is called the INTERACTION SPACE. In this space the electric and magnetic fields interact to exert force upon the electrons.

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The Rectenna termed as rectifying antenna, is combination of an antenna and a nonlinear rectifying element, Schottky diode.

Such a system is capable to receive and detect microwave power and converts the RF power into dc voltage at high frequencies
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A simple Rectenna can be constructed from a Schottky diode placed between antenna dipoles. The diode rectifies the current induced in the antenna by the microwaves In order for such systems to operate cost efficiently in land or spacedbased locations, the conversion efficiency from microwave to dc of the Rectenna must be high Rectennae have high efficiency converting microwave energy to electricity above 90%.

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The sensor circuitry detects if the mobile phone receives any message signal or not. In India the operating frequency of the mobile phone operators is generally 900MHz or 1800MHz for the GSM system for mobile communication. The Sensor would essentially consist of a frequency to voltage convertor which acts like a switch and turns the rectenna circuit ON when it receives a message.

From operator

Sensor
Switch turns ON the Rectenna
Receives And Converts Microwave energy

Message

Rectenna
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Mobile Signal

Sensor Microwave Signal Trasmitting Station Rectenna

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Charging of mobile phone battery is independent of their manufacturer and battery make.
The recharging of the mobile phones is done automatically as you talk in your mobile phone Microwave energy apparently has the potential to provide environmentally clean electric power for very large number of users. The mobile phone users can carry their phones anywhere even if the place is devoid of facilities for charging

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Power Loss is very less as compared to Wired Electricity Transmission

There is no need of Transmission Lines


Health and Environmental Experiments claim that Wireless Electricity Transmission Using Microwaves and laser is safe

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Rectenna is quite bulky , Further reduction in size is required


The Mobile phone battery is not standardized, hence design of receivers may vary.

The Magnetron at the Base transceiver station dissipates too much Heat and this is to be designed for optimum efficiency for wireless power transmission
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This Technology is not only restricted to mobile phones . It has tremendous applications in Consumer electronics In 2009 Haier launched the Worlds first Wireless Tv. Wireless Power Consortium- An alliance of 20 firms had formed this group to device open source standard for wireless charging technology.

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Would use microwaves to transmit power to Earth from Solar Powered Satellites Solar power from the satellite is sent to Earth using a microwave transmitter Received at a rectenna located on Earth

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This method provides great advantage to the mobile phone users to carry their phones anywhere even if the place is devoid of facilities for charging

Safe, fairly efficient, good range of wireless transfer of power More Reliable Than Wired Electricity Transmission

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Ractenna Design Development and applications Rakesh Kumar Yadav et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

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