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# Removal of Insolubles

(Filtration)
Filtration
removal of solid particles from a fluid by passing the
fluid through a filtering medium or septum, on which
the solids are deposited
Air Filter
Liquid Filter (water purifier)
Microorganism
Insoluble fermentation broth
Soluble broth vs
Equipment
Laboratory Scale
vacuum
Filter paper
Large Scale
Plate and Frame Horizontal Plate
Vertical Leaf
Candle Type
Equipment
Continuous Rotary Vacuum Filter
Microfiltration(membrane separation)
Continuous Rotary Vacuum Filter
Filter Press (Pressure Filter)
40 ~ 150 lb/in
2

P
Canvas
Feed
Frame
Frame Plate
Plate
Canvas Canvas Canvas
Liquid
(filtrate)
Wet Cake
Filter Press Operation
i. Feed input
ii. Filtrate flow stops or sudden
increase in filtration pressure
iii. Wash liquid input
iv. Air blowing (steam blowing)
v. Open press and scraping off
of solids
Automation
Materials(SUS, PP--)
Operating Variables
vacuum
wash/spray water

Darcys Law
l
P k

A
=

## u flow rate through a porous bed

where: velocity of the liquid
k constant (Darcys law permeability of the bed)
P pressure drop across the bed of thickness l
viscosity of the liquid
Holds only when:Reynold No
( )
5
1
<
c
u d
where: d particle size or pore diameter
liquid density
void fraction in the cake
[1]
[2]
Filtration: Theory
For batch filtration
dt
dV
A
1
= u
where: V total volume of filtrate
A filter area
C M
R R
k
l
+ =
where: R
M
resistance of the filter medium
R
C
resistance of the accumulated mass
( )
C M
R R
P
dt
dV
A +
A
= =

u
1
[3]
[4]
[5]
Incompressible Cakes
area filter
volume filtrate
thickness cake o
Therefore, cake resistance R
C

|
.
|

\
|
=
A
V
R
C 0
o
where: specific cake resistance

0
mass of cake solids per volume of filtrate
: dimension length/mass
[6]
Substitution of Eq. 6 into Eq. 5
( ) | |
M
R A V
P
dt
dV
A +
A
=
0
1
o
[7]
Initial condition 0 0 = = V t
[8]
Integration of Eq. 7 yields
B
A
V
K
P
R
A
V
P V
At
M
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
A
+
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
=
|
.
|

\
|
o
2
0
[9]
A plot of (At/V) vs (V/A) should be linear.
The slope K is a function of P and of the cake properties.
If medium resistance R
M
is insignificant, then
2
0
2
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
A
=
A
V
P
t
o
[10]
Compressible Cakes
( )
S
P A = ' o o
Assume!
Figure 1. Cake resistance versus pressure drop.
Example 2.3-1) Streptomyces Filtration from an Erythromycine Broth
Filtration
time(sec)
Volume of
filtrate(L)
5 0.040
10 0.055
20 0.080
30 0.095
Q. Determine specific cake resistance , medium resistance R
M
.
A=0.1 ft
2
=1.1 cP
P=20 in. of mercury
=0.015kg dry cake/L
sol.) Darcys law:
in.
in.
=2.4 X 10
11
cm/ g
R
M
=0
(V/A) vs. (At/V) plot y-intercept= 0
Example 2.3-2) Filtration of Beer Containing Protease
Q.1 How long will it take to filter beer at 50 psi?
2 How long will it take at half this pressure drop?
Filtering 3000 L with 15 frames(each of area 3520 cm
2
)
R
M
is negligible.
Total pressure drop(P)= 65 psi
* Compressible cake
* With funnel 5 cm,
filtering 100 cm
3
of beer in 24 min
* s=2/3
&
compressible cake
0

psi
min psi
1/3
/cm
3
( R
M
is negligible.)
psi
1/3
Q.1 How long will it take to filter beer at 50 psi?
psi

Q.2 How long will it take at half this pressure drop?
psi

P= 25 psi
Example 2.3-3) Filtration of Incompressible Steroid Crystals
Weight of crystals 62 g
Pressure of filtration 15 psi
Filter diameter 5.08 cm
Cake depth 12.5 cm
Cake volume 253.3 cm
3
Filtration time 163 min
*Assumption:
- Cake is incompressible.
- Feed pump: 10 psi
- filtrate is raised against the equivalent of 15 ft head.
Q.1 Predict the number of frames needed.
2 Estimate time required to filter a 63 kg batch of steroid.
in
in
Q.1 Predict the number of frames needed.
The number of frames needed is 18 frames.
Q.2 Estimate time required to filter a 63 kg batch of steroid.
psi
psi
psi
psi
psi
psi
in
2
Purification of the IgG antibody
by affinity cross-flow filtration
2011. 10. 5.
Danim Yun
24
IgG & cross-flow filtration
Antibodies are proteins made by the immune
system to destroy foreign invaders. There are five
major types of antibodies: immunoglobulin A
(IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin
M (IgM), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and
immunglobulin D (IgD).
An IgG antibody helps to battle bacterial and viral
infections.

Protein A
IgG
25
Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers)
Identical subunits and functional groups
show same position and orientation on
each S-layer subunit
-> crystalline matrix has a nanometer range.
-> using for immobilization of Protein A

Steep rejection curves
cut-off; 45,000
After crosslinking the S-layer protein with glutaraldehyde, carboxyl groups from acidic
amino acids were activated with carbodiimide and used for immobilization of Protein
A
26
cross-flow filtration system
27
Results from affinity cross-flow filtration experiments
Albumin and
minor amounts
of