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BIOMEMS

STATE-OF-THE-ART DETECTION
JOHNSON TAYE 11-24-104
Mentor: PROF. S. BAISHYA

MICROELECTRONICS AND VLSI DESIGN DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SILCHAR

INTRODUCTION
Biomedical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems

i.e. biomedical or biological applications of MEMS. In general, BioMEMS can be defined as: devices or systems, constructed using techniques inspired from micro/nano-scale fabrication, that are used for processing, delivery, manipulation, analysis, or construction of biological and chemical entities. Encompass all interfaces of the life sciences and biomedical disciplines with micro- and nanoscale systems.

ADVANTAGES
Sensor element scaled to size of target

species, hence providing higher sensitivity Reduced reagent volumes and associated costs Reduced time to result due to small volumes resulting in higher effective concentrations Miniaturization of system and portability Point-of-care diagnostics Multi-agent detection capability Potential for use in vivo as well as in vitro

BIOMEMS DIAGNOSTICS
BIOSENSORS: Analytical devices that combine a biologically sensitive element with a physical or chemical transducer to selectively and quantitatively detect the presence of specific compounds in a given external environment COMPONENTS: Sensitive biological element (biological material: tissue, micro-organisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids etc ) Transducer in between Detector element

DETECTION METHODS
Many detection methods

Key methods(state-of-the-art):
Mechanical Electrical

optical

DETECTION MODALITIES

Key detection modalities used in BioMEMS and biochip

BIOMEMS & MECHANICAL DETECTION


Detection for biochemical entities and reactions

Micro- and nano- scale cantilever sensors and chip


Two modes:
Stress sensing Mass sensing

MECHANICAL DETECTION(contd.)
Stress sensor:
incorporates biological molecules as part

of its function. constructed with a specific probe surface layer used to detect a variety of analytes such as DNA, proteins, and antigens. In the detection of analytes such as a specific antigen, the antigen attaches to the probe molecules on the surface of the Microcantilever. collection of the specific analyte on the cantilever surface induces surface stress causing the cantilever to bend

BIOMEMS AND ELECTRICAL DETECTION


3 Basic types of Electrochemical Biosensors:
Amperometric involves the electric current associated with the electrons involved in redox processes
Potentiometric
Measure a change in potential at electrodes due to ions or chemical

reactions at an electrode e.g. ISFET

Conductometric measure conductance changes associated with changes in the overall ionic medium between the two electrodes

BIOMEMS AND OPTICAL DETECTION


Based on fluorescence or chemiluminescence

LAB-ON-A-CHIP
Is a term for devices that integrate (multiple)

laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters to a few square centimeters in size. Capable of handling extremely small fluid volumes down to less than Pico liters (Microfluidics). Lab-on-a-chip devices are a subset of MEMS devices and often indicated by "Micro Total Analysis Systems" (TAS) as well.

LAB-ON-A-CHIP

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS


Considerable progress has been made in the field of

BioMEMS with research areas merging into nanobiotechnology. BioMEMS also enable us to probe, measure, and explore the nano-machinery in the biological world such as single cells. Future research:
Integrating diagnostic with therapeutic devices and

personalized medicine BioMEMS for hybrid devices and 3-D artificial organs BioMEMS for novel tools in nanobiology Quantum dots for cancer treatment Nano robots for surgery(use of microgrippers)

REFERENCES
BioMEMS: state-of-the-art in detection, opportunities and

prospects, by Rashid Bashir. BioMEMS Overview Learning Module, Southwest Center for Microsystems Education (SCME), University of New Mexico. Bio-MEMS Technologies and Applications, Edited by Wanjun Wang and Steven A. Soper, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group. Disposable Smart Lab on a Chip for Point-of-Care Clinical Diagnostics invited paper Chong H. Ahn, Jin-Woo Choi, Gregory Beaucage, Joseph H. Nevin, member, IEEE, Jeong-Bong Lee, Aniruddha Puntambekar, and Jae Y. Lee.