You are on page 1of 26

# INTRODUCTION TO WELL PERFORMANCE & ARTIFICIAL LIFT

November 2001
by Russ Gilbert & Justin Gilmour

## WHY BOTHER WITH WELL PERFORMANCE ?

What is a well? Why is it important ?

= \$\$\$\$\$
the well

## INTRODUCTION TO WELL PERFORMANCE

CONCEPTS COVERED Basic Well Configuration Reservoir Inflow Performance Tubing Outflow Performance Improving Well Performance

## BASIC WELL CONFIGURATION

XMAS TREE
Gas Export Hydrocarbon Flow

Separator
= Oil Export

\$\$\$\$

CASING

## TUBING OUFLOW PERFORATIONS RESERVOIR INFLOW RESERVOIR

RESERVOIR INFLOW
Higher Pressure (Driving Force)

## Inflow Performance Principle:

Reservoir pressure (Pres)

Pressure

Pres P P BHP

PRESSURE DROP

pressure

oil rate

BHP

## Can we model this principle? Wellbore Damage (Skin)

RESERVOIR INFLOW
Mathematical Model
Flow Rate (Q) varies with:
- Inflow Pressure Drop? - Thickness of the Reservoir? - Permeability of the Reservoir Sand? - Phase of the Moon? - Skin Damage around the Well? - Reservoir Pressure? - Fluid Viscosity? - Hours of Sunshine? - Wellbore Radius (P) (h) (k) (x) (S) (Pres) () (y) (rw)

P BHP

BHP

pressure

Pres

Q= f

RESERVOIR INFLOW
Mathematical Model
Flow Rate (Q) varies with:
- Inflow Pressure Drop? - Thickness of the Reservoir? - Permeability of the Reservoir Sand? - Phase of the Moon? - Skin Damage around the Well? - Reservoir Pressure? - Fluid Viscosity? - Hours of Sunshine? - Wellbore Radius (P) (h) (k) (x) (S) (Pres) () (y) (rw)

P BHP

pressure

Pres

BHP

Q= f

K h P rw

Various inflow equations are used to model reservoir inflow in software such as Prosper

TUBING OUTFLOW
Lower Pressure

## Tubing Performance Principle:

WHP
Bottomhole pressure (BHP)

pressure

PRESSURE LOSS

oil rate

## As rate increases pressure loss increases!

BHP
Higher Pressure (Driving Force)

## Can we model this principle?

TUBING OUTFLOW
Mathematical Model
Flow Rate (Q) varies with:
WHP

- Fluid Weight/Type? - Friction Losses - Fluid Viscosity? - Friction Losses - Tubing Length? - Phase of the Moon? - Friction Losses - Tubing diameter ? - Friction Losses - Tubing roughness ? - Hours of Sunshine? - Well Head Pressure?

## () () (L) (x) (d) (f) (y) (WHP)

Q= f
BHP

Note: The acceleration term (velocity increasing due to gas expansion) has been assumed to be negligible for this presentation.

TUBING OUTFLOW
Mathematical Model
Flow Rate (Q) varies with:
WHP

- Fluid Weight/Type? - Friction Losses - Fluid Viscosity? - Friction Losses - Tubing Length? - Phase of the Moon? - Friction Losses - Tubing diameter ? - Friction Losses - Tubing roughness ? - Hours of Sunshine? - Well Head Pressure?

## () () (L) (x) (d) (f) (y) (WHP)

Q= f
BHP

1
Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure

Various correlations are used to model tubing outflow in software such as Prosper
Note: The acceleration term (velocity increasing due to gas expansion) has been assumed to be negligible for this presentation.

TUBING OUTFLOW
Fluid Weight/Type
VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)
6000 Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

Mixture

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

1000

## 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

## Tubing Length=10,000ft; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2OD;WHP=50psig

TUBING OUTFLOW
Friction Losses
VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)

2 3/8
6000

3 1/2
Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

Tubing OD

5000 001

4 1/2 5 1/2

4000 000
Pressure (psig)

002 003

3000

2000

1000

## 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

## Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; WHP=50psig

TUBING OUTFLOW
VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)
6000 Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

5000

200 psig

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

1000

## 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

## THE OIL RATE

Determined for specific fluid, specific tubing & specific reservoir by intersection of the reservoir inflow & tubing outflow curves

pressure

## from reservoir inflow

surface pressure - WHP

oil rate

## THE OIL RATE

Initial Conditions
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0 IPR Curve VLP Curve 5000

4000

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

2 1000

## 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

6500 bopd
Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=5000psig, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

## THE OIL RATE

Pressure Depletion
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

5000

## 4000 psig 3000 psig

Pressure (psig)

4000

2 1 0

3000

2000

2 1000

1 0 0

2500 bopd

5000

6500 bopd

10000

0 15000

20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=depleting, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

## THE OIL RATE

Pressure Depletion & %Water Increase
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

5000

%Water 100%

## Now 4500 psig

4000 psig 3000 psig
Pressure (psig)
4000 2 1 0

50% (Now) 0%

3000

2000

2 1000

1 0 0

3000 bfpd

5000

10000

0 15000

20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; %wtr increasing; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=depleting, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

## THE OIL RATE

Pressure Depletion & %Water Increase

## IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE

Oil rate can be increased by: Shifting reservoir inflow up Shifting tubing outflow curve down
reservoir pressure - Pres

pressure

Tubing outflow
Reservoir inflow)
surface pressure - WHP

## IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE

Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up - How To

Q= f

K h P rw S

Increase Decrease

Increase: Decrease:

Kh,

P
S

rw

Heat-Up

## IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE

Shifting Tubing Outflow Curve Down - How To
1
Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure

Q= f

## Reduce: Fluid Weight, Friction Losses, Wellhead Pressure

Isolate Wtr Prodn or Add gas via gas lift (aka artificial lift)

Bigger Tubing

## IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE

Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

Pressure (psig)

## %Water 100% 50% 0%

Increase: 3 Decrease:

Kh,

rw

4000

2 1 0

3000

2000

2 1000

1

N/A

Later

Re-perf

N/A

## 0 0 5000 10000 0 15000 20000

4000 bfpd

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

## IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE

Shifting Tubing Outflow Curve Down
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

Pressure (psig)

## Reduce: Fluid Weight, Friction Losses, Wellhead Pressure 3

4000

2 1 0

3000

50% + G/L
2000 2 1000

Isolate Wtr Prodn, Add gas via gas lift Actions: (2) Add G/L 7500 bfpd

Bigger Tubing

N/A

N/A

## 1 0 0 5000 10000 0 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

## IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE

Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

Pressure (psig)

Kh,

P S

rw

4000

2 1 0

3000

50% + G/L
2000 2 1000

N/A

N/A

N/A

## 1 0 0 5000 10000 0 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

No Further Action: Rate = 7500bfpd Well Will Still Die, But Later

## IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE

Well Condition 0% Wtr - Initial Action Fluid Rate (bfpd) 6,500 Oil Rate (bopd) 6,500 Comments No action Soon press. Will deplete & %wtr will increase Well will die soon (pres=4100psig) Well will die soon (pres=4000psig) Well will still die, but later. (pres=3200psig) Well will not die (pres=5000psig)

50% Wtr

No action

3,000

1,500

50% Wtr

Re-perforate (Res. Inflow) Add Gas Lift (Tbg Outflow) Add Wtr Injector (Res. Inflow)

4,000

2,000

50% Wtr

7,500

3,750

50% Wtr

10,000

5,000

Actions to improve well performance have almost returned oil rate to initial condition

SUMMARY
Basic Well Configuration

Q= f

K h P rw S

## Tubing Outflow Performance

Q =f

1
Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure