You are on page 1of 26

INTRODUCTION TO WELL PERFORMANCE & ARTIFICIAL LIFT

November 2001
by Russ Gilbert & Justin Gilmour

WHY BOTHER WITH WELL PERFORMANCE ?


What is a well? Why is it important ?

= $$$$$
the well

INTRODUCTION TO WELL PERFORMANCE


CONCEPTS COVERED Basic Well Configuration Reservoir Inflow Performance Tubing Outflow Performance Improving Well Performance

BASIC WELL CONFIGURATION


XMAS TREE
Gas Export Hydrocarbon Flow

Separator
= Oil Export

$$$$

CASING

TUBING OUFLOW PERFORATIONS RESERVOIR INFLOW RESERVOIR

RESERVOIR INFLOW
Higher Pressure (Driving Force)

Inflow Performance Principle:


Reservoir pressure (Pres)

Pressure

Pres P P BHP

PRESSURE DROP

pressure

oil rate

Bottomhole pressure (BHP)

BHP

As pressure drop increases rate increases!

Can we model this principle? Wellbore Damage (Skin)

RESERVOIR INFLOW
Mathematical Model
Flow Rate (Q) varies with:
- Inflow Pressure Drop? - Thickness of the Reservoir? - Permeability of the Reservoir Sand? - Phase of the Moon? - Skin Damage around the Well? - Reservoir Pressure? - Fluid Viscosity? - Hours of Sunshine? - Wellbore Radius (P) (h) (k) (x) (S) (Pres) () (y) (rw)

P BHP

BHP

pressure

Pres

Q= f

RESERVOIR INFLOW
Mathematical Model
Flow Rate (Q) varies with:
- Inflow Pressure Drop? - Thickness of the Reservoir? - Permeability of the Reservoir Sand? - Phase of the Moon? - Skin Damage around the Well? - Reservoir Pressure? - Fluid Viscosity? - Hours of Sunshine? - Wellbore Radius (P) (h) (k) (x) (S) (Pres) () (y) (rw)

P BHP

pressure

Pres

BHP

Q= f

K h P rw

Various inflow equations are used to model reservoir inflow in software such as Prosper

TUBING OUTFLOW
Lower Pressure

Tubing Performance Principle:


WHP
Bottomhole pressure (BHP)

pressure

PRESSURE LOSS
Well Head pressure (WHP)

oil rate

As rate increases pressure loss increases!


BHP
Higher Pressure (Driving Force)

Can we model this principle?

TUBING OUTFLOW
Mathematical Model
Flow Rate (Q) varies with:
WHP

- Fluid Weight/Type? - Friction Losses - Fluid Viscosity? - Friction Losses - Tubing Length? - Phase of the Moon? - Friction Losses - Tubing diameter ? - Friction Losses - Tubing roughness ? - Hours of Sunshine? - Well Head Pressure?

() () (L) (x) (d) (f) (y) (WHP)

Q= f
BHP

Note: The acceleration term (velocity increasing due to gas expansion) has been assumed to be negligible for this presentation.

TUBING OUTFLOW
Mathematical Model
Flow Rate (Q) varies with:
WHP

- Fluid Weight/Type? - Friction Losses - Fluid Viscosity? - Friction Losses - Tubing Length? - Phase of the Moon? - Friction Losses - Tubing diameter ? - Friction Losses - Tubing roughness ? - Hours of Sunshine? - Well Head Pressure?

() () (L) (x) (d) (f) (y) (WHP)

Q= f
BHP

1
Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure

Various correlations are used to model tubing outflow in software such as Prosper
Note: The acceleration term (velocity increasing due to gas expansion) has been assumed to be negligible for this presentation.

TUBING OUTFLOW
Fluid Weight/Type
VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)
6000 Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

Mixture

5000 202 102 4000 002

All Wtr 50/50 All Oil

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

1000

0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2OD;WHP=50psig

TUBING OUTFLOW
Friction Losses
VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)

2 3/8
6000

3 1/2
Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

Tubing OD

5000 001

4 1/2 5 1/2

4000 000
Pressure (psig)

002 003

3000

2000

1000

0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; WHP=50psig

TUBING OUTFLOW
Well Head Pressure
VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)
6000 Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

Well Head Pressure 400 psig 50 psig

5000

200 psig

022 012 4000 002

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

1000

0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2

THE OIL RATE


Determined for specific fluid, specific tubing & specific reservoir by intersection of the reservoir inflow & tubing outflow curves

reservoir pressure - Pres

from tubing outflow


pressure

from reservoir inflow


surface pressure - WHP

oil rate

THE OIL RATE


Initial Conditions
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0 IPR Curve VLP Curve 5000

Reservoir Pressure 5000 psig

4000

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

2 1000

0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000

6500 bopd
Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=5000psig, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

THE OIL RATE


Pressure Depletion
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

Reservoir Pressure 5000 psig


5000

IPR Curve VLP Curve

4000 psig 3000 psig


Pressure (psig)

4000

2 1 0

3000

2000

2 1000

1 0 0

2500 bopd

5000

6500 bopd

10000

0 15000

20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=depleting, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

THE OIL RATE


Pressure Depletion & %Water Increase
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

Reservoir Pressure 5000 psig


5000

IPR Curve VLP Curve

%Water 100%

Now 4500 psig


4000 psig 3000 psig
Pressure (psig)
4000 2 1 0

50% (Now) 0%

3000

2000

2 1000

1 0 0

3000 bfpd

5000

10000

0 15000

20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; %wtr increasing; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=depleting, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

THE OIL RATE


Pressure Depletion & %Water Increase

Was 6,500 bopd, now 1500 bopd

What can we do to stop oil rate falling ?

IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE


Oil rate can be increased by: Shifting reservoir inflow up Shifting tubing outflow curve down
reservoir pressure - Pres

pressure

Tubing outflow
Reservoir inflow)
surface pressure - WHP

oil rate How Do You Do That Then ?

IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE


Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up - How To

Q= f

K h P rw S

Increase Decrease

Increase: Decrease:

Kh,

P
S

rw

Fracture, Horizontal Well

Heat-Up

Increase Reservoir Pressure

Re-Perf., Acidise, Fracture, Dissolve

Drill Bigger Hole

IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE


Shifting Tubing Outflow Curve Down - How To
1
Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure

Q= f

Reduce: Fluid Weight, Friction Losses, Wellhead Pressure

Isolate Wtr Prodn or Add gas via gas lift (aka artificial lift)

Bigger Tubing

Lower Separator Pressure

IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE


Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

P res 5000 psig 4000 psig 3000 psig


Pressure (psig)

IPR Curve VLP Curve 5000

%Water 100% 50% 0%

Increase: 3 Decrease:

Kh,

rw

4000

2 1 0

3000

Fracture, Heat-Up Horizontal Well

Increase Reservoir Pressure

Re-Perf., Acidise, Fracture, Dissolve

Drill Bigger Hole

2000

2 1000

Actions: (1) N/A


1

N/A

Later

Re-perf

N/A

0 0 5000 10000 0 15000 20000

4000 bfpd

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

No Action: Rate = 3000bfpd Well Will Die Soon

IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE


Shifting Tubing Outflow Curve Down
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

P res 5000 psig 4000 psig 3000 psig


Pressure (psig)

IPR Curve VLP Curve 5000

%Water 100% 50% 0%

Reduce: Fluid Weight, Friction Losses, Wellhead Pressure 3

4000

2 1 0

3000

50% + G/L
2000 2 1000

Isolate Wtr Prodn, Add gas via gas lift Actions: (2) Add G/L 7500 bfpd

Bigger Tubing

Lower Separator Pressure

N/A

N/A

1 0 0 5000 10000 0 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

No Further Action: Rate = 4000bfpd Well Will Still Die Soon

IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE


Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up
Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)
6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

P res 5000 psig 4000 psig 3000 psig


Pressure (psig)

IPR Curve VLP Curve 5000

%Water Increase: 3 Decrease: 100% 50% 0%

Kh,

P S

rw

4000

2 1 0

3000

Fracture, Heat-Up Horizontal Well

Increase Reservoir Pressure

50% + G/L
2000 2 1000

Re-Perf., Acidise, Fracture, Dissolve

Drill Bigger Hole

Actions: (3) N/A

N/A

Wtr Injector 10000 bfpd

N/A

N/A

1 0 0 5000 10000 0 15000 20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

No Further Action: Rate = 7500bfpd Well Will Still Die, But Later

IMPROVING WELL PERFORMANCE


Well Condition 0% Wtr - Initial Action Fluid Rate (bfpd) 6,500 Oil Rate (bopd) 6,500 Comments No action Soon press. Will deplete & %wtr will increase Well will die soon (pres=4100psig) Well will die soon (pres=4000psig) Well will still die, but later. (pres=3200psig) Well will not die (pres=5000psig)

50% Wtr

No action

3,000

1,500

50% Wtr

Re-perforate (Res. Inflow) Add Gas Lift (Tbg Outflow) Add Wtr Injector (Res. Inflow)

4,000

2,000

50% Wtr

7,500

3,750

50% Wtr

10,000

5,000

Actions to improve well performance have almost returned oil rate to initial condition

SUMMARY
Basic Well Configuration

Reservoir Inflow Performance

Q= f

K h P rw S

Tubing Outflow Performance

Q =f

1
Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure

Improving Well Performance

Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up Shifting Tubing Outflow Curve Down