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November 2001

by Russ Gilbert & Justin Gilmour

What is a well? Why is it important ?

= $$$$$

the well

CONCEPTS COVERED Basic Well Configuration Reservoir Inflow Performance Tubing Outflow Performance Improving Well Performance

XMAS TREE

Gas Export Hydrocarbon Flow

Separator

= Oil Export

$$$$

CASING

RESERVOIR INFLOW

Higher Pressure (Driving Force)

Reservoir pressure (Pres)

Pressure

Pres P P BHP

PRESSURE DROP

pressure

oil rate

BHP

RESERVOIR INFLOW

Mathematical Model

Flow Rate (Q) varies with:

- Inflow Pressure Drop? - Thickness of the Reservoir? - Permeability of the Reservoir Sand? - Phase of the Moon? - Skin Damage around the Well? - Reservoir Pressure? - Fluid Viscosity? - Hours of Sunshine? - Wellbore Radius (P) (h) (k) (x) (S) (Pres) () (y) (rw)

P BHP

BHP

pressure

Pres

Q= f

RESERVOIR INFLOW

Mathematical Model

Flow Rate (Q) varies with:

- Inflow Pressure Drop? - Thickness of the Reservoir? - Permeability of the Reservoir Sand? - Phase of the Moon? - Skin Damage around the Well? - Reservoir Pressure? - Fluid Viscosity? - Hours of Sunshine? - Wellbore Radius (P) (h) (k) (x) (S) (Pres) () (y) (rw)

P BHP

pressure

Pres

BHP

Q= f

K h P rw

Various inflow equations are used to model reservoir inflow in software such as Prosper

TUBING OUTFLOW

Lower Pressure

WHP

Bottomhole pressure (BHP)

pressure

PRESSURE LOSS

Well Head pressure (WHP)

oil rate

BHP

Higher Pressure (Driving Force)

TUBING OUTFLOW

Mathematical Model

Flow Rate (Q) varies with:

WHP

- Fluid Weight/Type? - Friction Losses - Fluid Viscosity? - Friction Losses - Tubing Length? - Phase of the Moon? - Friction Losses - Tubing diameter ? - Friction Losses - Tubing roughness ? - Hours of Sunshine? - Well Head Pressure?

Q= f

BHP

Note: The acceleration term (velocity increasing due to gas expansion) has been assumed to be negligible for this presentation.

TUBING OUTFLOW

Mathematical Model

Flow Rate (Q) varies with:

WHP

- Fluid Weight/Type? - Friction Losses - Fluid Viscosity? - Friction Losses - Tubing Length? - Phase of the Moon? - Friction Losses - Tubing diameter ? - Friction Losses - Tubing roughness ? - Hours of Sunshine? - Well Head Pressure?

Q= f

BHP

1

Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure

Various correlations are used to model tubing outflow in software such as Prosper

Note: The acceleration term (velocity increasing due to gas expansion) has been assumed to be negligible for this presentation.

TUBING OUTFLOW

Fluid Weight/Type

VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)

6000 Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

Mixture

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

1000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

TUBING OUTFLOW

Friction Losses

VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)

2 3/8

6000

3 1/2

Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

Tubing OD

5000 001

4 1/2 5 1/2

4000 000

Pressure (psig)

002 003

3000

2000

1000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

TUBING OUTFLOW

Well Head Pressure

VLP (TUBING) CURVES ( 20 Nov 01 16:11)

6000 Variables 1:Water Cut (percent) 2:First Node Pressure (psig) 3:Tubing/Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 0=0 0=50.0 0=1.99 1=50.000 1=200.0 1=2.75 2=90.000 2=400.0 2=3.83 3=4.89

5000

200 psig

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

1000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet)

Determined for specific fluid, specific tubing & specific reservoir by intersection of the reservoir inflow & tubing outflow curves

pressure

surface pressure - WHP

oil rate

Initial Conditions

Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)

6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0 IPR Curve VLP Curve 5000

4000

Pressure (psig)

3000

2000

2 1000

6500 bopd

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=5000psig, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

Pressure Depletion

Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)

6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

5000

Pressure (psig)

4000

2 1 0

3000

2000

2 1000

1 0 0

2500 bopd

5000

6500 bopd

10000

0 15000

20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; All Oil; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=depleting, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

Pressure Depletion & %Water Increase

Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)

6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

5000

%Water 100%

4000 psig 3000 psig

Pressure (psig)

4000 2 1 0

50% (Now) 0%

3000

2000

2 1000

1 0 0

3000 bfpd

5000

10000

0 15000

20000

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Tubing Length=10,000ft; %wtr increasing; Tubing Diameter=4 1/2; WHP=50psig, Pres=depleting, k.h=10000mdft, rw=8.5, Wellbore Skin=5

Pressure Depletion & %Water Increase

Oil rate can be increased by: Shifting reservoir inflow up Shifting tubing outflow curve down

reservoir pressure - Pres

pressure

Tubing outflow

Reservoir inflow)

surface pressure - WHP

Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up - How To

Q= f

K h P rw S

Increase Decrease

Increase: Decrease:

Kh,

P

S

rw

Heat-Up

Shifting Tubing Outflow Curve Down - How To

1

Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure

Q= f

Isolate Wtr Prodn or Add gas via gas lift (aka artificial lift)

Bigger Tubing

Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up

Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)

6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

Pressure (psig)

Increase: 3 Decrease:

Kh,

rw

4000

2 1 0

3000

2000

2 1000

1

N/A

Later

Re-perf

N/A

4000 bfpd

Liquid Rate (STB/day) Fluid Oil Flow Tubing Type Producer Lift None Comp Cased Hole Corrln Hagedorn Brown First Node Pressure (psig) 50.0 Bottom Measured Depth 10000.0 (feet) Bottom T rue Vertical Depth 10000.0 (feet) IPR PI Entry Res Temp 200.0 Res Pres 3000.0

(degrees F) (psig)

Shifting Tubing Outflow Curve Down

Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)

6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

Pressure (psig)

4000

2 1 0

3000

50% + G/L

2000 2 1000

Isolate Wtr Prodn, Add gas via gas lift Actions: (2) Add G/L 7500 bfpd

Bigger Tubing

N/A

N/A

(degrees F) (psig)

Shifting Reservoir Inflow Curve Up

Inf low v Outflow Curves ( 20 Nov 01 17:04)

6000 Variables 1:Reservoir Pressure (psig) 1 2 0=3000.0 1=4000.0 2=5000.0

Pressure (psig)

Kh,

P S

rw

4000

2 1 0

3000

50% + G/L

2000 2 1000

N/A

N/A

N/A

(degrees F) (psig)

No Further Action: Rate = 7500bfpd Well Will Still Die, But Later

Well Condition 0% Wtr - Initial Action Fluid Rate (bfpd) 6,500 Oil Rate (bopd) 6,500 Comments No action Soon press. Will deplete & %wtr will increase Well will die soon (pres=4100psig) Well will die soon (pres=4000psig) Well will still die, but later. (pres=3200psig) Well will not die (pres=5000psig)

50% Wtr

No action

3,000

1,500

50% Wtr

Re-perforate (Res. Inflow) Add Gas Lift (Tbg Outflow) Add Wtr Injector (Res. Inflow)

4,000

2,000

50% Wtr

7,500

3,750

50% Wtr

10,000

5,000

Actions to improve well performance have almost returned oil rate to initial condition

SUMMARY

Basic Well Configuration

Q= f

K h P rw S

Q =f

1

Fluid Weight . Friction Losses . Wellhead Pressure

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