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# Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband

Fig 1 in the next slide shows how channel noise can affect probability
of bit error (P
e
).
By inserting a filter (called a Matched Filter), P
e
can be reduced to
its optimum (smallest possible) value.
PCM
Transmitter
Baseband
Channel
Threshold
Device
Sample
every T
b
sec
Repeater
Matched
Filter
Note: The Pulse Regenerator is
now called Threshold Device, in
keeping with Bound Notes
notation.
Note: Matched Filter works under
zero ISI condition; i.e. in practice
you must minimise ISI problem to
near-zero condition.
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Fig 1: Showing how channel noise affects probability of bit error (P
e
)
PCM
Transmitter
Baseband
Channel
Pulse
Regenerator
(Detector)
Sample every
T
b
sec
Repeater
A B C
0 T
b
0
2T
b
3T
b
4T
b
0
0
T
b
2T
b 3T
b
4T
b
0
0
T
b 2T
b
3T
b
4T
b
1 0 1 1
1 0 0 1
Error
A
B
C
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
How to Design a Matched Filter ?

Example 1.1
Design a matched filter whose line
code input to the filter is a polar RZ
Solution:
Polar RZ:
Basic waveforms:
s
2
(t)
s
1
(t)
s
2
(T
b
-t) s
1
(T
b
-t)
s
2
(t)
s
1
(t)
2V
s
2
(t) s
1
(t)
0
2V
0
2V
0
s
2
(-t) s
1
(-t)
{
Impulse response h(t)
0 T
b

Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Therefore if the output of the baseband channel feeding the
matched filter is a polar RZ line code waveform of amplitude
V volt, then the matched filter must have a characteristic
where its impulse response is as shown:
Matched
Filter
(t)
0 t
0 T
b

Impulse
response
h(t)
Once you know the impulse response characteristic of the
matched filter, you can implement the matched filter circuit
from the h(t) waveform using signal processing technique.
2V
0
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Probability of Bit Error for Matched Filter
Example 1.2
The input to a matched filter from a baseband transmission
channel is a polar RZ with amplitude V volt. Each bit has a
duration of T
b
sec. The single-sided power spectral density of
the channel is given as q W/Hz. Show that the probability of
bit error for this matched filter is given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
T V
erfc
2
1
P
b
2
e
Assume statistical independence in bit generation and
equiprobable transmission of binary 1 and 0.
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Solution:
Probability of bit error for a matched filter in general is given by:
|
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
8
erfc
2
1
2 2
erfc
2
1
P
e

where
}
=
b
T
dt t s t s
0
2
1 2
2
)] ( ) ( [
2
q

}
Given in Formula List
Doc
2V
0
0 T
b

2
T
b
From Example 1.1
s
2
(t) s
1
(t)
waveform is :-
| |
q

q q q q
q q

b
b b
T
T
T T
T V
T V T V
t
V
dt
V
dt V dt t s t s
b
b
b b
2
2 2
2 /
0
2
2 /
0
2
2 /
0
2
0
2
1 2
2
4
4
2
8 8 8
4
2
)] ( ) ( [
2
=
= = = =
= =
}
} }
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
|
|
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
8
erfc
2
1
2 2
erfc
2
1
P
e

(from Formula List)
Substitute
q

b
T V
2
4
=
into above equation:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
q
q q
2
erfc
2
1
8
4
erfc
2
1
8 /
4
erfc
2
1
P
2
2 2
e
b
b b
T V
T V T V
i.e.
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
q 2
erfc
2
1
P
2
e
b
T V
for matched filter with polar RZ input.
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Implementation of Matched Filter
The matched filter can be implemented by using an
Integrate and Dump Correlation Receiver, as shown
below :-
SW2
SW1
Sample every
T
b
sec
A
B
A = Line code waveform corrupted by channel noise.
B = s
2
(t) s
1
(t) ; where s
2
(t) and s
1
(t) are waveform patterns for binary 1
and binary 0, respectively.
SW1 samples the integrator output at the end of each bit duration.
SW2 operates after SW1, to clear integrator output to zero.

Integrator
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Example 1.3
An integrate and dump correlation receiver is shown in Fig 1.3.1.
If its input is a Manchester code waveform of amplitude V volt,
sketch the waveforms at A to E for a 1101 sequence. Explain the
operations of SW1 and SW2.
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Solution:
For binary sequence { 1 1 0 1}, Manchester code waveform at A is:
1 1 0 1
-V
V
t
0
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Waveform at B is based on the equation: s
2
(t) s
1
(t) for each bit frame:
To sketch waveform B, repeat
s
2
(t) s
1
(t) waveform pattern for every
bit frame.
s
2
(t) (binary 1)
s
1
(t) (binary 0)
s
2
(t) s
1
(t) :
V
-V
2V
Bit
Duration
V
-V
-2V
2V
t
1 1 0 1
Waveform B :
-2V
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Waveform C is the multiplication of Waveform A and Waveform B
A:
B:
-2V
2
2V
2
t
C:
1 1 0 1
-V
V
t
0
2V
t
-2V
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Waveform D is the integration of Waveform C.
Consider an integrator circuit as shown in Fig (a) below:
) (t v
o
If C =
Fig (a)
C = D =
| |
b
T
o i
T KV
t
V K t v V t v
b
2
0
2 2
2 2 ) ( D constant), (a 2 ) ( = = = =

## D varies linearly with t

over 0 t T
b

Value of D at
t = T
b
K = circuit constant
dc i
V t v = ) (
| |
b
b b b
T
dc
T
dc
T
dc
T
i o
t KV dt KV dt V K dt t v K t v
0
0 0 0
) ( ) ( = = = =
} } }
2V
2

-2V
2

2KV
2
T
b

t
t
0
C
D
0
-2KV
2
T
b

1 1 0 1
T
b
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
SW1 is closed at the end of each bit duration for a very short duration to
sample the D waveform. After sampling D, SW1 is opened again followed
by the short closure of SW2 to discharge the capacitor so that D
waveform drops to zero to initialize the start of the next bit-frame
waveform of D.
t
t
D
= SW1 operation
= SW2 operation
1
0 1 1
0
E
2KV
2
T
b
-2KV
2
T
b
0
V
-V
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
A:
B:
-2V
2
2V
2
t
C:
1 1 0 1
-V
V
t
0
2V
t
-2V
t
t
D
= SW1 operation
= SW2 operation
1
0 1 1
0
E
2KV
2
T
b
-2KV
2
T
b
0
V
-V
Waveform A to E:
Chapter 5: Optimum Baseband
Example 1.4
The input to a matched filter is a polar RZ signal of amplitude 10 mV.
The data rate is 4800 b/s. The baseband channel generates an AWGN
with a double-sided power spectal density of 1 nanowatt/Hz.
Assuming that the binary source has equiprobable generation of
binary 1 or 0 and bits generation are independent, compute the
probability of bit error.
Solution:
The probability of bit error for polar RZ for a matched filter has been derived in

in Example 1.2 and is shown as:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
T V
erfc
2
1
P
b
2
e
Given: V = 10 mV; q/2 = 10
-9
q = 2 x 10
-9
;
R
b
= 4800b/s T
b
= 1/R
b
= 2.083 x 10
-4
Therefore
6 - 5 -
9 -
4 - 2 3 -
b
2
e
10 x 63 . 2 10 x 0.5269 x
2
1
erfc(3.22)
2
1
) erfc(3.227
2
1
10 x 2
10 x 083 . 2 x ) 10 x 0 (1
erfc
2
1
2
T V
erfc
2
1
P
= = = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=