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Blu-ray Disc


The Technology Comparisons with CD,DVD Characteristics of BD Features Applications Inventors Products and Future

Blu-ray Disc(official abbreviation BD) is a new-generation

optical disc format. The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The Blu-ray name is a combination of blue, for the color of the laser that is used and ray for optical ray. Character e was intentionally left out so that term Blu-ray could be
used as trademark.

The first Blu-ray Disc prototypes were unveiled in October

2000, and the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release in June 2006.

History - evaluation
Generations of Optical Disc Storage
1st Generation:
-Compact disc (CD): --- 650/700 MB -Wavelength of laser which reads data: 780 nm -Color of laser: Red -To store and playback audio, video, store digital data

2nd Generation:
-Digital versatile disc (DVD): --- 4.7/8.5 GB -It offers high quality sound and video than CD. -Wavelength of laser which reads data: 650 nm -Color of laser: Red

3rd Generation:
-Blu-ray disc (BD): --- 25/50 GB -Next generation optical disc format. -Wavelength of laser which reads data: 405 -Color of laser: Blue-violet -Developed by Blu-ray Disc Association (which includes Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, LG, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony).


The Technology
The Basics from CD-Technology:

-Series of tiny indentations are pits.

depth: 100nm, width: 500nm

-Areas between pits are lands.

The Technology
The pits/bumps:

-They appear as pits on the aluminum side, but on the side the laser reads from, they are bumps.
The spiral track:

A CD has a single spiral track of data, circling from the inside of the disc to the outside. It is approximately 0.5 microns wide, with 1.6 microns separating one track from the next.

A CD is read by focusing a 780nm laser ray.

The pits and lands does not directly

represents the zeros and ones. The change in height between pits and lands results in difference in intensity of reflected light.

A Non-return-to-zero, inverted (NRZI) is used:

A change from pit to land or land to pit indicates one, while no change in intensity indicates zero.

Blu-ray Disc

Blu-ray Disc

Pit size : 0.15 microns (more than twice as small as the

pits on DVD ) Track-pitch : ~0.32 microns Laser needed : blue-violet laser (405 nm)

All this helps data to pack more tightly (higher

density) on Blu-ray disc.





. Disk diameter 120 mm 120 mm 120 mm Disk thickness 1.2 mm 1.2 mm mm Laser wavelength 780 nm 650 nm 405 nm Numerical aperture 0.45 0.60 0.85 Minimum pit length 0.83 um 0.4 um 0.138 um Data rate 1.2 Mb/sec 11 Mb/sec 36 Mb/sec Data capacity ~680 MB 4.7 GB (1L) 25GB(1L) 8.5 GB (2L) 50GB(2L)

Comparison of CD,DVD and BD.


Characteristics of BD
Storage Capacity: A single-layer disc can hold up to 25 gigabytes of information, while a dual-layer disc can hold up to 50 gigabytes of information. Future versions of Blu-ray discs may hold up to 200 gigabytes of Information. It is enough to put 2.5 hours of HDTV recording on it. It also can record over 13 hours of standard TV broadcasting.

Life Span: Blu-ray disc have larger life span than any ordinary disc --between 10 to (unlikely) 250 year.
It is because of recordable material used in Blu-ray

disc i.e combination of Si and Cu.

Blu ray recordable media is a combination of a

layer of silicon and copper which is bonded together during the burning process, this alloy is much more resilient to the hazardous conditions .

Robustness of Disc:

Hard-coating technology provides resistance to:

- Finger prints - Marks - Scratches - Dust Hard coating on Blu ray offer Stronger resistance to scratches and fingerprints .The protective layer is hard enough to prevent accidental abrasions and allows fingerprints to be removed by wiping the disc with a tissue.

Content Protection :

Strongest content and copy protection schemes ever developed. Incorporation of Robust copy mechanism.


The BD drives are designed to be backward compatible, i.e. CDs and DVDs work equally well with the BD drives.
Recording Speed :

With BD we can: Record HDTV without any quality loss Instantly skip to any spot on disc Record one program while watching other on the disc Create playlists Edit or reorder programs recorded on disc Automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program Access to web to download subtitles and other extra features

Much more
BLU-RAYS DENSITY ADVANTAGE Higher density enables better data seek times. Shorter to travel for same amount of data results in faster

data seek. Better for random access of data.

ON GUARD: They come equipped with a secure encryption system a

unique ID that protects against piracy and copyright infringement. DRM (Digital Right Management)is the copyright protection scheme the media industry uses to prevent piracy.

Blu-ray Disc Applications

High definition television recording
High definition video distribution High definition camcorder archiving Mass data storage

High definition television recording

The Blu-ray Disc format offers consumers the

ability to record their High Definition television broadcasts in their original quality for the first time, preserving the pure picture and audio level as offered by the broadcaster.
Next level in home entertainment, offering an

unsurpassed user experience Since Blu-ray Disc format incorporates the strongest copy protection algorithms of any format or proposal to date, the format allows for recording of digital broadcasts while meeting the content protection demands of the broadcast industry.

High Definition Video Distribution

Blu-ray Disc format can store High Definition video in

the highest possible quality, without need to compromise on picture quality.

Depending on the encoding method, there is room for

more than seven hours of the highest HD quality video. There is even room for additional content such as special features and other bonus material to accompany the High Definition movie.
The Blu-ray Disc movie format greatly expands on

traditional DVD capabilities, by incorporating many new interactive features allowing content providers to offer an even more incredible experience to consumers.

High Definition Camcorder Archiving

With its unprecedented storage capacity, allows

for the HD video recorded with an HD camcorder to be converted and recorded . Storage capabilities, without the risk of tape wear.

Mass Data Storage

The growing number of broadband connections

allowing consumers to download vast amounts of data.



More capacity, Density and Performance More Industry Support/Consumer Reach (BDA has

140+ members) More Interactive User Experience More Flexible Content Protection: AAC, BD+ Renewability Technology and ROM Mark

The Growth of BD:

Future-Ongoing Developments:
SONY launched latest 200 GB Blu-ray disc. Quad-layer (100 GB) discs have been

demonstrated on a drive with modified optics and standard unaltered optics.

In August 2006, TDK announced that they have

created a working experimental Blu-ray Disc capable of holding 200 GB of data on a single side, using six 33 GB data layers.

Future-Ongoing Developments:
JVC has developed a three-layer technology that

allows putting both standard-definition DVD data and HD data on a BD/(standard) DVD combination. Japanese optical disc manufacturer Infinity announced the first "hybrid" Blu-ray Disc/(standard) DVD combo, "Code Blue" will feature four hybrid discs containing a single Blu-ray Disc layer (25 GB) and two DVD layers (9 GB) on the same side of the disc.
On December 17, 2009, the BDA officially

announced 3D specs for Blu-ray Disc -- standards for putting 3-D film and 3-D television content on a Blu-ray Disc.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blu-ray_Disc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_disc http://www.blu-ray.com/faq/ http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/cd.htm http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/blu-ray.htm


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