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Arthritis

What is it?
from Greek arthro-, joint +

-itis, inflammation ( joint

inflammation)
is a group of conditions where there

is damage caused to the joints of the body NOT A SINGLE DISEASE

It is a joint disorder featuring

inflammation
It literally means inflammation of one

or more joints.

Who is affected by arthritis?


Arthritis can affect anyone at any age; include men and women, children and adults. Approximately 350 million people worldwide have arthritis. The incidence of arthritis increases with age, but nearly 3 out of 5 sufferers are under age 65

What are the risk factors?


Non-modifiable - Age - Gender - Genetic
Modifiable risk factors

- Overweight and Obesity - Joint Injuries - Infection - Occupation

What are symptoms of arthritis?


Pain
Limited function of joints. Inflammation characterized by joint

stiffness, swelling, redness, and warmth.


Tenderness of the inflamed

Also include:
fever, gland swelling, weight loss, fatigue, feeling unwell, and symptoms from abnormalities of organs such as the lungs, heart, or kidneys

Most common types of arthritis:


Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Arthritis Gout
Fibromyalgia Psoriatic Arthritis Pseudogout Scleroderma Systemic Lupus Erythematous

Osteoarthritis
Also known as degenerative joint disease. Progressive loss of cartilage. Wear (away) & Tear Initially non-inflammatory. The pressure of gravity causes physical damage to the joints and surrounding tissues, leading to:
pain swelling - tenderness - decreased function

The joints most often affected are the:

- knees - hands
Risk factors:
Age Joint trauma Obesity Genetics

-hips - spine

Rheumatoid Arthritis
An autoimmune disease that occurs when the body's own immune system mistakenly attacks the synovium (cell lining inside the joint). Risk Factors: Genetics Age (25-55) It is a chronic, potentially disabling disease which causes: joint pain - stiffness swelling - loss of joint function

Juvenile Arthritis
all types of arthritis that occur in

children.
There are three major types:
- polyarticular (affecting many joints)

- pauciarticular (pertaining to only a few joints) - systemic (affecting the entire body)

Gout
It causes sudden, severe attacks of pain, tenderness, redness, warmth, and swelling in the joints, especially the big toe.
The pain and swelling are caused by uric acid crystals that precipitate out of the

blood and are deposited in the joint.

Psoriatic Arthritis- occur in patients with psoriasis, affecting joints and spine.
Fibromyalgia- pain in the muscles, ligaments and tendons. It does not cause joint deformities. Pseudogout- CPPD; deposits of calcium phosphate crystals in the joints. * CPPD ( calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate)

Diagnosis: Lab. Tests


1.
2. 3.

4.

Rheumatoid factor antibody or immunoglobulin present with R. arthritis. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate- indicates presence of nonspecific inflammation. C- Reactive protein- produced by liver following tissue injury. Anti- CCP ( anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide) - blood test for R. arthritis

5. Antinuclear antibodies( ANA)- abnormal autoantibodies. 6. CBC- determines WBC, RBC,Hgb, Hct and platelet count. 7. HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) Typing - determine protein in cell surface. 8. Uric Acid9. Medical Imaging- ragiographs (xray),MRI.

Medications:
1. NSAIDs
2. Pain Medications 3. Corticosteroids 4. Viscosupplementation- injection of gel-

like substance into a joint to supplement viscous properties of synovial fluid.

Natural Treatment:
1. Acupuncture/ acupressure
2. Massage 3. Meditation 4. Yoga 5. Supplements

Complementary Medicine:
1. Regular Exercise
2. Eating nutritious diet 3. Stress management

Surgical Options:
1. Anthrodesis- fusion
2. Anthroplasty 3. Joint replacement 4. Resection 5. Synovectomy

6. Partial knee replacement

Prevention:
1. Weight control
2. Strengthen the muscles 3. Prevent injuries 4. Antioxidants 5. Vitamin D