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KRISHNA.R XI C

Gas ,the most random and the most dynamic state of matter for years has been the curiosity of scientists. After years of research,we have been finally able to understand this unique state of matter. TYPES OF GASSES Gasses can be mainly classified into two groups 1) Ideal gasses 2) Real gasses. An ideal gas is a theoritical gas composed of a set of randomlymoving, non-interacting point particles. The ideal gas concept is useful because it obeys the ideal gas laws, a simplified equations of state, and is amenable to analysis under mechanics.

## THE IDEAL GAS LAWS.

1) 2) 3) 4)

Charles law.
Boyles law. Avogadros law. Gay Lussacs law.

The Charles law states That :- At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decreases by the same factor as its temperature on the absolute temp scale. Mathematically volume(V) temp(T).or, V1/T1=V2/T2. The Boyles law states that the absolute pressure and volume of a given mass of confined gas are inversely proportional, if the temperature remains unchanged within a closed system. Mathematically, P1*V1=P2*V2

Avogadros is a gas law which states that, under the same condition of temperature and pressure, equalvolumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules
Gay lussacs law states that The pressure of a gas of fixed mass and fixed volume is directly proportional to the gas' absolute temperature

Mathematically,

P1/V=P2/V2.

## THE IDEAL GAS EQUATION.

The four gas laws together have been combined under on unified law also called the ideal gas equation.
Mathematically , P1*V1/T1=P2*V2/T2

## Or the most commonly used expression,

PV=nRT
Where P is the pressure in atm V is the volume in Liters n is the no of moles of a gas atom T is the temprature in Kelvin scale AND R is a gas constant whose most commonly used value is 0.0820 Latm K1mol1

## Types of velocity possesed by a gas particle.

Since a gas particle is free to moove around a container,it aqquires a finite speed depending on the temprature and the molar mass of the gas present.There are 3 kinds of velocities

1) 2) 3)

Root mean square velocity (RMS) Average velocity Most probalble velocitiy

Root-mean-square speed is the measure of the speed of particles in a gas that is most convenient for problem solving within the kinetic theory of gases. It is defined as the square root of the average velocity-squared of the molecules in a gas. It is given by the formula

Where , P is the pressure, d is the density of gas,R is the gas constant and T is temprature

AVERAGE VELOCITY Average velocity,as the name suggests is the average of the indivisual speeds possessed by all the gas particles in a container.Average velocity depends on a few factors such as the temp,the molar mass of gas etc

Mathematically,
Where

Vavg =

8RT/M

## MOST PROBABLE VELOCITY.

The most probable speed is the speed most likely to be possessed by the gas particles of a constant mass.In other words it is the speed which the maximum fraction of particles of a gas attain at a particular temprature. Mathematically,

## EFFECT OF TEMPRATURE ON MOST PROBALBLE SPEED

As we increase the temprature the fraction of particles attaining most probable speed decreases and the graph tends to become flatter.The magnitude of the most probable speed increases as it is directly proportional to the temprature

HENCE TO SUM UP ON THE VELOCITIES, This MAXWELL BOLTZMAN DISTRIBUTION GRAPH SHOULD EXPLAIN THE 3 KINDS OF SPEEDS MORE CLEARLY.
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## KINETIC THEORY OF GASSES.

POSTULATES OF THE THEORY. * The gas consists of very small particles. This smallness of their size is such that the total volume of the individual gas molecules added up is negligible compared to the volume of the container. This is equivalent to stating that the average distance separating the gas particles is large compared to their size. * These particles have the same mass. * The number of molecules is so large that statistical treatment can be applied. * These molecules are in constant, random, and rapid motion. * The rapidly moving particles constantly collide among themselves and with the walls of the container. All these collisions are perfectly elastic. This means, the molecules are considered to be perfectly spherical in shape, and elastic in nature. * Except during collisions, the interactions among molecules are negligible. (That is, they exert no forces on one another.) * This implies:1. Relativistic effects are negligible.2. Quantummechanical effects are negligible. This means that the inter-particle distance is much larger than the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the molecules are treated as classicalobjects.3. Because of the above two, their dynamics can be treated classically. This means, the equations of motion of the molecules are time-reversible.The average kinetic energy of the gas particles depends only on the temperature of the system. * The time during collision of molecule with the container's wall is negligible as compared to the time between successive collisions.

## KINETIC ENERGY OF GASES AND TEMPRARURE

The average kinetic energy of molecules depends on the absolute temprature scale (kelvin scale)
Mathematically, the kinetic gas equation is represented as

Where

m is the mass of the gas particle c is the root meansquare speed N is the number of gas particles.

Suppose one mole of a gas is under consideration. The number of molecules invloved will then be 6.022*10^23.(Avogadros number , N) The kinetic gas equation can be written as PV = (2/3) x (1/2) x mNC^2 = 2/3 E Where E is the transational kinetic energy of one mole of gas.For one mole of gas, PV=RT E=3RT/2 (by the ideal gas equation) (PV=2E/3)

Thus transational kinetic energy of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the absolute temprature.it follows the equation that the transational kinetic energy depends only on temprature (T).

The average kinetic energy of one molecule of an ideal gas will be given by

## E/N = 3RT/2N = 3kT/2

Where k =( R/N ) is the Boltzman constant whose numerical value = 1.38 /10^23 J/K

## PRESSURE AND KINETIC ENERGY

Pressure is explained by kinetic theory as arising from the force exerted by molecules or atoms impacting on the walls of a container. Consider a gas of N molecules, each of mass m, enclosed in a cuboidal container of volume V=L3. When a gas molecule collides with the wall of the container perpendicular to the x coordinate axis and bounces off in the opposite direction with the same speed (an elastic collision), then the momentum lost by the particle and gained by the wall is:

where vx is the x-component of the initial velocity of the particle. The particle impacts one specific side wall once every

P.T.O

## total force on the wall is

where the bar denotes an average over the N particles. Since the assumption is that the particles move in random directions, we will have to conclude that if we divide the velocity vectors of all particles in three mutually perpendicular directions, the average value along each direction must be same. (This does not mean that each particle always travel in 45 degrees to the coordinate axes.)

## We can rewrite the force as

This force is exerted on an area L2. Therefore the pressure of the gas is or

## Grahams law of diffusion

Diffusion is a simple process that can be explained by kinetic theory. When you open a bottle of perfume, it can very quickly be smelled on the other side of the room. This is because as the scent particles drift out of the bottle, gas molecules in the air collide with the particles and gradually distribute them throughout the air. Diffusion of a gas is the process where particles of one gas are spread throughout another gas by molecular motion. But not all gases diffuse at the same rate.But in reality the perfume would be composed of many different types of molecules: some larger, more dense molecules and other smaller, lighter molecules. Thomas Graham, a Scottish chemist, discovered that lightweight gases diffuse at a much faster rate than heavy gases. Graham's law of diffusion shows the relationship between diffusion and molar mass.

Consider hydrogen and oxygen. The molar mass of hydrogen is about 1.0 grams/mol and the molar mass of oxygen is about 16 grams/mol. If you insert these values into the equation above, you get that the rate of diffusion for hydrogen is 1 and the rate of diffusion for oxygen is 1/4. This means that hydrogen will diffuse four times faster than oxygen.

## Grahams law of EFFUSION

Effusion is a similar process. Effusion is the process where gas molecules escape from n evacuated container though a small hole. It is assumed that while a molecule is exiting, there are no collisions on that molecule. consider the equation for the kinetic energy of a gas. Because temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a gas, two gases at the same temperature will also have the same kinetic energy. Thus,

According to Graham's law, the molecular speed is directly proportional to the rate of effusion. You can imagine that molecules that are moving around faster will effuse more quickly, and similarity molecules with smaller velocities effuse slower. Because this is true, we can substitute the rates of effusion into the equation below. This yields Graham's law of effusion.