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DATA BASE MANAGEMENT

OBJECTIVES
Why do businesses have trouble finding the information they need in their information systems? How does a database management system help businesses improve the organization of their information?

OBJECTIVES
How do the principal types of database models affect the way businesses can access and use information? What are the managerial and organizational requirements of a database environment? What new tools and technologies can make databases more accessible and useful?

MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS
An effective information system provides users with timely, accurate and relevant information

Many organizations have inefficient information systems because of poor file management

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT


File Organization Terms and Concepts

Data Hierarchy: Bit: Smallest unit of data; binary digit (0,1)

Byte: Group of bits that represents a


single character

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT


File Organization Terms and Concepts

Field: Group of words or a complete


number

Record: Group of related fields File: Group of records of same type Database: Group of related files

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT


Data Hierarchy in a Computer System

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT


Traditional File Processing

ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT


Problems with the Traditional File Environment

Data redundancy (duplicate data in multiple files) Inconsistency Program-Data dependence (any change in data requires a change in all programs that access the data) Lack of flexibility Poor security Lack of data-sharing and availability

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Database Management System (DBMS)

Creates and maintains databases Acts as interface between application programs and physical data files Eliminates requirement for data definition statements Separates logical and physical views of data

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


The Contemporary Database Environment

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Components of DBMS

Data definition language: Specifies


content and structure of database and defines each data element
Creation of data structure. e.g. create table Modification of data structure. e.g. alter table Deletions of data structure. e.g. drop table

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT Data manipulation language:


Manipulates data in a database
Retrieval of data e.g. select Creation of new data e.g. insert Modification of data e.g. update Deletion of data e.g. delete

Data dictionary: Stores

definitions of data elements, and data characteristics

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Sample Data Dictionary Report

Advantages of the Database Approach

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Costs or Risks of the Database Approach

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Terminology
Entities Things we store information about. (i.e. persons, places, objects, events, etc.) Have relationships to other entities (i.e. the entity Student has a relationship to the entity Mark sheet in a University Student database )
Weak entity Strong entity

Entities are represented by rectangle

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Terminology
Attributes These are pieces of information about an entity (i.e. Student ID, Name, etc. for the entity Student) Simple or atomic Composite Single valued Multi valued Derived Represented by oval shape

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Terminology
Relationship: association between 2 or more entities (represented by a diamond box) Degree of relationship
Binary Ternary Recursive

Cardinality ratio
One to one One to many Many to many

Participation constraints
Total participation Partial participation
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THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Types of Databases

Relational DBMS Hierarchical and Network DBMS Object-Oriented Databases

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Relational DBMS

Represents data as two-dimensional tables called relations Relates data across tables based on common data element Examples: DB2, Oracle, MS SQL Server

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Relational Data Model

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database

Select: Creates subset of rows that meet


specific criteria

Join: Combines relational tables to


provide users with information Project: Enables users to create new
tables containing only relevant information

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Three Basic Operations in a Relational Database

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Hierarchical and Network DBMS

Hierarchical DBMS
Organizes data in a tree-like structure Supports one-to-many parent-child relationships Prevalent in large legacy systems

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Hierarchical DBMS

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Hierarchical and Network DBMS

Network DBMS
Expands on Hierarchical model by providing multiple paths among segments M:N relationships are easier to implement Difficult to design

Essentials of Management Information Systems


Chapter 7 Managing Data Resources THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT

Network DBMS

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Hierarchical and Network DBMS

Disadvantages
Outdated Less flexible compared to RDBMS Lack support for ad-hoc and English language-like queries

THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT


Object-Oriented databases

Object-oriented DBMS: Stores data


and procedures as objects that can be retrieved and shared automatically
Can store more complex data types Relatively slow

CREATING A DATABASE Designing Databases ENVIRONMENT Entity-relationship diagram:


Methodology for documenting databases illustrating relationships between database entities
Proposed by Peter in 1976 Utility: It maps well to relational model Simple and easy to understand To make E-R diagram: Identify all entities and attributes Identify relationship b/w entities and implement them

CREATING A DATABASE An Entity-Relationship Diagram ENVIRONMENT

E-R Diagram for the company database with the following description
The company is organized into deptt. Each deptt. has a unique name & a unique no. A deptt. controls a no. of projects, each of which has a unique name, a unique no. and a single location We store each employees name, social security no., address and salary. An emp. is assigned to one deptt. but may work on several projects, which are not necessarily controlled by the same deptt. We want to keep track of the deptt. of each emp. for insurance purposes. We keep each dependents name, age and relationship to the emp.

CREATING A DATABASE An Normalized Relation of ORDER ENVIRONMENT


Normalization: Process of creating small stable data structures from complex groups of data

CREATING A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT


Distributing Databases

Centralized database
Used by single central processor or multiple processors in client/server network

CREATING A DATABASE Distributing Databases ENVIRONMENT Distributed database


Stored in more than one physical location Partitioned database Duplicated database

CREATING A DATABASE Distributed Databases ENVIRONMENT

CREATING A DATABASE Management Requirements for Database Systems ENVIRONMENT

DATABASE TRENDS
Multidimensional Data Analysis

On-line analytical processing (OLAP)


Multidimensional data analysis Supports manipulation and analysis of large volumes of data from multiple dimensions/perspectives

DATABASE TRENDS
Multidimensional Data Model

DATABASE TRENDS
Data Warehousing and Data mining

Data warehouse
Supports reporting and query tools Stores current and historical data Consolidates data for management analysis and decision making

DATABASE TRENDS
Components of a Data Warehouse

DATABASE TRENDS
Data Warehousing and Data mining

Data mart
Subset of data warehouse Contains summarized or highly focused portion of data for a specified function or group of users

DATABASE TRENDS
Benefits of Data Warehouses

Improved and easy accessibility to information Ability to model and remodel the data

DATABASE TRENDS
Data Warehousing and Data mining

Data mining
Tools for analyzing large pools of data Find hidden patterns and infer rules to predict trends

Reference Book: MIS by Laudon