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Eukaryotic Cells

A Generalized Eukaryotic Cell

Pores through the Cell Nucleus

Nucleus
The nucleus consists of the nuclear envelope, nucleolus, chromatin, and nucleoplasm.

Nuclear Envelope Structure -two unit membranes with a fluid-filled space -nuclear pores present -outer membrane may be continuous with endoplasmic reticulum Function -selectively permeable to control movement in or out -contains nuclear contents
Chromatin Structure -composed of long thin strands of DNA Function -contains instructions that control cell metabolism and heredity Nucleolus Structure -non-membraneous matrix of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein. Function - instructions in DNA are copied here - works with ribosomes in the synthesis of protein

Centriole
Structure - nine triplets of microtubules form one centriole - two centrioles form one centrosome. Function - forms spindle fibres to separate chromosomes during cell division

Vacuole
Structure - a single layer of unit membrane enclosing fluid in a sack Function - produces turgor pressure against cell wall for support - stores water and various chemicals - may store insoluble wastes

Cytoskeleton
Structure- Composed of microtubules Function- Supports cell and provides shape - Aids movement of materials in and out of cells

Mitochondria
Power house of cell and account for 20% of the cell volume, 1m diameter. Enzymes carry out oxidative reactions that capture energy in ATP. Glucose + Oxygen ------> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy (ATP) Mitochondria contains mitochondrial DNA and can replicate independently.

Mitochondrial DNA

Chloroplasts
Like mitochondria chloroplast too have outer and inner membrane (stroma), it corresponds mitochondrial matrix. Unlike mitochondria chloroplast have separate inner membrane (thylacoids), that contain chlorophyll (in Grana), that capture energy during photosynthesis.
chlorophyll

CO2 + H2O ---------------> Glucose + O2


radiant energy

(food)

Chloroplast contains chloroplast DNA and can replicate independently.

Ribosome
Structure - non-membraneous, spherical bodies composed of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein enzymes.

Function - site of protein synthesis

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)


Structure - sheets of unit membrane with ribosomes on the outside (rough ER) and without ribosome (smooth ER). - forms a tubular network throughout the cell Function - transports chemicals between cells and within cells - provides a large surface area for the organization of chemical reactions and synthesis

Lysosome
Structure - membrane bound bag containing hydrolytic enzymes - hydrolytic enzyme = (water split biological catalyst) i.e. using water to split chemical bonds.
Function - break large molecules into small molecules by inserting a molecule of water into the chemical bond

Peroxisome:
-Membrane bound organelle, contains enzymes. -These enzymes in plant cell oxidize fats and in animal cell oxidizes amino acids. -Peroxisomal enzymes converts hydrogen peroxide to water, to prevent the toxic effect of hydrogen peroxide.

Golgi Apparatus
Structure - stacks of flattened sacs of unit membrane (cisternae) - vesicles pinch off the edges Function - modifies chemicals to make them functional - secretes chemicals in tiny vesicles - stores chemicals - may produce endoplasmic reticulum

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Flagella Compared

One central pair and 9 peripheral pair of microtubules, made up of tubulin. Each pair of peripheral microtubules associated with a protein Dynein, which cross-bridges with other flagellar proteins for movement. The movement is dependent on ATP hydrolysis by dynein.

The Ciliated Protozoan


Oxytricha

The Stroke-and-Recovery Motion of a Cilium

Cilia on an Organism Move in a Synchronized Fashion, Creating a Wave that Propels the Organism Forward

Pseudopodia

Amoeba (132X)

Amoeba engulfing food particle

Food particles

Endosymbiosis
According to the endosymbiotic theory, organelles of eukaryotic cells came from prokaryotic cells those have developed symbiotic relation with eukaryote. If one organism lives inside the other, is called endosymbiosis. Especially in case of mitochondria and chloroplast. They have outer and inner membranes, self replicating DNA and their structure resembles Gram negative and photosynthetic bacteria respectively.

The cytoplasm of Pyrsonympha, a protist that live symbiotically in the hideouts of termites,. Bacteria acts as mitochondria for the protist.

Movement of substances across the membrane


Passive Transport: Cell expends no energy to move substances down a concentration gradient (high to low concentration) Simple Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport: Cell expends energy from ATP, enabling it to transport substances against a concentration gradient

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Simple Diffusion:
The random movements of molecules cause them to spread out (diffuse) from an area of high concentration to area of low concentration

Facilitated Diffusion: Carrier protein molecules aid in the movement of substances through cell membrane from high to low concentration

Osmosis: The diffusion of water from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration through a semi or, selectively permeable membrane (Cell Membrane)

Experiments that examine the effects of tonicity on osmosis

Active Transport:
Carrier protein molecules aid in movement of molecules against a concentration gradient requires energy in form of ATP

Endocytosis and Exocytosis


Eukaryotic cells move substances by forming membraneenclosed vesicles Endocytosis: Form by invagination (poking in) and surrounding substances from outside the cell Exocytosis: Vesicles inside the cell fuse with the plasma membrane and extrude contents from the cell

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1.Phagocytosis (solid/ semisolid) 2. Pinocytosis (liquid)