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Waste Minimization and Cleaner Production

In the last 15 20 years there has been a growing world wide movement among government and industry to change the way industry interacts with the environment. The focus of this movement has been to reduce environmental impacts from industry through changes in industrial behavior and technology. All of them are based on what is commonly known as the precautionary Principle, also known by the old saying, An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. It is better, and usually much less expensive, to prevent environmental problems from happening than to fix them once they are created. And if we dont know what effects our actions will have on the environment, we should proceed with caution and try to minimize any potential effects that might occur.

The objective of this lecture is to briefly define the most common concepts used for industrial environmental management and to show their relationships. There are many actions industry can take, from the small to the very large, along a path or staircase that leads to increasingly broad impacts on and interactions with the environment and society. No industry, and no society, is really at the top of the staircase; the top, which is sustainable development, is, like quality, a goal which is always elusive and for which we should never stop striving.

The Staircase of Concepts In Industrial Environmental Management

Concept of Stair Case

There are three types of concepts on the staircase.

(1) Macro-scale concepts:

The macro-scale concepts of sustainable development and industrial ecology extend far beyond the firm and include relationships between companies, social institutions, the public and the environment in all its facets.

(2) Firm-wide concepts:

The firm-wide concepts of environmental management systems and cleaner production address all aspects of the firms operations, from use of natural resources to suppliers to production to product use to product disposal.

(3) Operational concepts:

The remaining operational concepts address specific functions of the business.

Macro-Scale Concepts

Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
It contains within it two key concepts: The concept of "needs", in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and

The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.
Thus the goals of economic and social development must be defined in terms of sustainability in all countries -- developed or developing, market-oriented or centrally planned. Interpretations will vary, but must share certain general features and must flow from a consensus on the basic concept of sustainable development and on a broad strategic framework for achieving it.

Relationship with Other Terms

Cleaner production, pollution prevention, etc. are all subsets of the concept
of sustainable development, the basic problem. There are limits to what the environment can tolerate, and society needs to ensure that development today does not cause environmental degradation that prevents development tomorrow. There are many issues here but the role of industry and industrial pollution is obvious. Industrial systems and individual companies will need to make changes in order to prevent future generations from being unable to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is thus the long-term goal of individual companies rather than a business practice.

Industrial Ecology
Industrial ecology is the means by which humanity can deliberately and rationally approach and maintain a desirable carrying capacity, given continued economic, cultural and technological evolution. The concept requires that an industrial system be viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but in concert with them. It is a system view in which one seeks to optimize the total materials cycle from virgin material, to finished material, to product, to waste product, and to ultimate disposal. Factors to be optimized include resources, energy and capital

Aim of Industrial Ecology

The aim of industrial ecology is to interpret and adapt an understanding of the natural system and apply it to the design of the man-made system, in order to achieve a pattern of industrialization that is not only more efficient, but that is intrinsically adjusted to the tolerances and characteristics of the natural system.

The emphasis is on forms of technology that work with natural systems, not against them...

Industrial ecology is an integrated management and technical program including:

The creation of industrial ecosystems Balancing industrial input and output to natural ecosystem capacity Dematerialization of industrial output Improving the metabolic pathways of industrial processes and materials use. Systemic patterns of energy use Policy alignment with a long-term perspective of industrial ecosystem evolution

Firm-Wide Concepts
These are concepts that affect the whole scope of the business enterprise, not just parts of it. They are essentially management philosophies and practices rather than technical practices and as such are best directed to the top levels of management.

Cleaner Production
Cleaner production means the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes and products to reduce risks to humans and the environment.

For production processes, cleaner production includes conserving raw materials and energy, eliminating toxic raw materials, and reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes before they leave a process.
For products, the strategy focuses on reducing impacts along the entire life cycle of the product, from raw material extraction to the ultimate disposal of the product. Cleaner production is achieved by applying know-how, by improving technology, and by changing attitudes. The conceptual and procedural approach to production that demands that all phases of the life-cycle of products must be addressed with the objective of the prevention or minimization of short and long-term risks to humans and the environment.

Pollution Prevention
The USA Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 defines pollution prevention as a goal which is realized through source reduction.
The term ''source reduction'' [or pollution prevention] means any practice which Reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal Reduce the hazards to public health and the environment associated with the release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants

The term includes equipment or technology modifications, process or procedure modifications, reformulation or redesign of products, substitution of raw materials, and improvements in housekeeping, maintenance, training, or inventory control.

Operational Concepts

Why Waste Minimization ? The generation of large volumes of waste correlates with the depletion of mostly non-renewable resources The energy requirement for the transformation and upgrading of wastes is in proportion to the quantities treated and rises exponentially with increasing dilution of the waste The increasing total costs for collection, segregation, intermediate storage, transport etc. Increased public and legislative pressures seem likely to do mitigated only by waste reduction/minimization

Since waste equals inefficiency, reducing waste increases efficiency and hence profitability

Waste Minimization
Waste Minimization (WM) is the reduction, to the extent feasible, of hazardous waste that is generated or subsequently treated, sorted or disposed. It includes any source reduction or recycling activity undertaken by a generator that results in either (1) The reduction of total volume or quantity of hazardous waste, or (2) The reduction of toxicity of hazardous waste, or both, so long as such reduction is consistent with the goal of minimizing recent and future threats to human health and the environment.

Clean Technology

It has two ideas

1. The emphasis is on the generation of less waste and on the consumption of fewer raw materials and less energy. Thus a simple but satisfactory definition of clean technology is any technology or process which uses fewer raw materials and/or less energy, and/or generates less waste than an exiting technology or processes. 2. The avoidance of end-of-pipe emission reduction is also emphasized. End-of-pipe methods are those that attempts to reduce the environmental impact of a waste, after that waste has been produced.

The concept of zero emission processes has been espoused, such a target is thermodynamically impossible for a manufacturing processes, if such processes is regarded as an open system (a system that exchanges both material and energy with its surroundings).
Manipulating the system boundary in an attempt to produce a closed system (One that exchanges only energy and not materials with its surroundings) is analogous to the end-of-pipe solutions to material problems, which merely transfers matter from one medium to the other. Enlarging the systems boundary to incorporate the energy supply facility reveals that the enlarged system is in fact, open and depositing material into the surrounding.


It indicates the relative contribution of the life cycle stages to environmental impact.
Washing of cloths in washing machine Pharmaceutical companies General structure of processing systems and their component of operations has to be discussed. Like The sources of emission to be identified, An integrated pollution prevention and control approach is emphasized etc.

What is life cycle assessment ?

It is a systematic inventory and comprehensive assessment of environmental effects of two or more alternative activities involving a defined product in a defined space and time including all steps and co-products in its life cycle. Any product may have following stages in its life cycle Raw materials acquisition Bulk material processing Engineered and specialty material production Manufacturing and assembly use and service Retirement Disposal

Product life cycle system (from Koelein and Menerey, 1993)

Steps Necessary to conduct a Life Cycle Assessment An LCA has the following phases: Planning Screening Data collection (inventory) Data treatment (aggregation/classification) Evaluation

Planning deals with the following:

Goal of the project Who is going to use the result and what purpose Demands of different users Govt. policies Complexity of the project

(material down scaling into another product system)

Why should clean technology be adopted ?

Enlightened self interest

Economics Legislation Community response

What are the incentives for Adopting Cleaner Technology

Often improved processes economics Reduced treatment costs Reduce disposal costs Reduced liabilities Reduced risk of fines for breaches Increased public satisfaction

West Reproduction Technique

Thermodynamics and Material Flows in the Economy

Energy inputs Transformation process Useful outputs

Material inputs

Wastes & emissions

1. Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of energy In non-nuclear processes energy can neither be created nor destroyed. Energy can only be transformed from one form into another. The total amount of energy input to a nonnuclear transformation process is thus equal to the total amount of energy output. Conservation of mass The total mass of material inputs into a (non-nuclear) material transformation process is equal to the total mass of material outputs. Conservation of mass per chemical element The total mass of each chemical element is conserved during every (non-nuclear) material transformation process.

The material transformation process

Transformation process Direct materials Ancillary materials Low-entropy energy Economic output Wastes & emissions High-entropy energy

Mass direct Mass ancillary Mass products Mass wastes Massemissions Energyinput Energyoutput Entropybefore Entropyafter

1. Law of TD 2. Law of TD

Solar Radiation Material Flows in the Economy (Teff ~ 6000K mainly UV, optical and IR) Needs & Wants Low-entropy Energy Services Products

Earths Radiation (Teff ~ 300K mainly IR)

high-entropy Energy


Production Anthroposphere Ecosphere

Sink for: Wastes & Emissions

All materials that enter the economic system will eventually leave it Large amounts of low-entropy energy are needed to drive the economic system All economic activity is essentially dissipative in both materials and/or energy

Material Flow Analysis (MFA) Methodology Single material or substance

Accounting methodology for material stocks: Transformation processes Stocks of upstream materials Producing processes Material stock Stocks outside of boundaries Imports Transportation processes Exports Stocks outside of boundaries Consuming processes Stocks of downstream materials

Stock d Stock

Production Consumption Import Exportdt

Stockl Productionl Consumptionl Importl Exportl

MFA Methodology Single material or substance

Imports / Exports

Material production Raw Material


Component Components fabrication

Product Assembly


Product Use Potential Waste





Domestic Environment

Example: Copper Flows in North America in 1994 (in kt / y)

Import / Export
Semis, Concentrate, Ingots Finished Products Blister, Cathode 3 17 325 Fabrication & Use Production: Mill, Smelter, Cathode Manufacturing Prod. Cu 3270 Refinery 2640 1920 3 Stock Ore 3130 140 730 Old Scrap 190 Waste Discards Management 1410

Prod. Alloy Stock 690 710

Landfilled Waste, Dissipated Environment

New Scrap 330 Tailings & Slag 365 Lithosphere

180 Old Scrap

Source: CIE, Yale

Recycling There are almost always some wastes created by production processes, so they need to be recycled as much as possible. Recycling can be broken down into closed-loop recycling (which is really just a production process extension rather than recycling), on-site recycling and re-use, off-site recycling, and reclamation.

Common Effluent Treatment Plants

Oxidation Pond based Treatment Plant at Vrindavan, UP

Leachate collection and ewaporation pond at the common facility for waste management at Hyderabad (A.P.)

Pollution Control
Pollution control systems to reduce waste volume or toxicity are a necessity to manage wastes that cannot be prevented or exchanged. The relationship to the higher concepts is one of fast resort

Waste Disposal

A view of hazardous waste storage pits

Indian Scenario

Hazardous Wests Generating Units & HW Generation Scenario

HW generation in States - No uniform trend No. of Units generating Hazardous Wastes goneup Factors responsible: Changes in regulatory classification: o Change over from 18 waste categories with annual threshold limits to 36 processes and corresponding waste streams o Emphasis on waste minimization-zero discharge(Tanneries,textiles) o Fly-ash,gypsum sludge excluded o Units closed/New Units

Waste Stream wise Quantification of Hazardous Wastes

Product Waste Stream WGF (kg/tonne of product)


Spent caustic from Caustic Tower


Oil Soaked Carbonaceous Coke

Spent Palladium Catalyst Butadiene Butadiene Polymer Waste Solvent regeneration residue Benzene Spent Nickel Catalyst Spent Nickel-Molybdenum Catalyst Spent Cobalt-Molybdenum Catalyst

0.007 0.06 0.4 0.03 0.003 0.007

Waste Stream wise Quantification of Hazardous Wastes

Product Waste Stream WGF (kg/tonne of product)

Vinyl Chloride Monomer

Spent clay
Carbon Waste


EDC Bottom Viscous

Reactor Waste Polyvinyl Chloride Ethylene Oxide/ Ethylene Glycol Polythylene PVC Wet resin Spent Silver catalyst Polymeric waste Extruder waste Maleic anhydride Distillation bottoms

0.014 4.0 0.08 0.02 2.4 60

ETP sludge


Waste Stream Contd. ..

Product Waste Stream WGF (kg/tonne of product)

Phthalic Anhydride

Vanadium pentoxide catalyst Purge cut Tar residue

167 24 12 54 6.0 0.32 0.04 0.35 0.02 0.8 45.0 8.0

Dimethyl Terephthalate Linear Alkyl Benzene

Crude ester distillation residue Calcium fluoride sludge Spent alumina Spent catalyst Spent molecular sieve Spent carbon Oil soaked sand

Isopropyl Alcohol Acetone

Spent copper catalyst Distillation by product (Tarry waste)

Petrochemical Industry : Suggested Waste Recycling Options

Product Ethylene/ Propylene Waste Polymeric waste Recycling Measures Refining and reuse


Spent nickel catalyst

Spent nickel-molybdenum catalyst

Metal recovery
Metal recovery

Spent cobalt-molybdenum catalyst

Polyvinyl chloride Isopropyl alcohol Acetone/Phenol Polypropylene PVC wet resin Spent copper catalyst Solvent waste Powder waste

Metal recovery
Reuse for manufacturing useful items Recovery of acid Use as a fuel in the boiler Melting, extrusion and conversion to low-grade articles


Cumene catalyst
Cumene bottoms

Acid recovery
Use as a fuel

2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Incinerable Recyclable Land Disposable

Qtty. in lacs tonne per year

Hazardous Waste Suitable for Incineration, Recycling & Land Disposal

HW Generating Industries & HW Generation Comparative Figures

S.No. State No. of Total HW HW generating Total HW Industries generation in Industries generation as per HWM TPA (No.s) as per in TPA Rules, 1989 HWM Rules, 2000/2003

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

AP Assam Bihar Chandigarh Delhi

Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra MP

501 18 42 47 403
25 2984 309 116 454 133 3953 183

1,11,098 1,66,008 26,575 305 1,000

6,598 4,30,030 31,046 2159 1,03,243 1,54,722 20, 07,846 1,98,669

1532 23 31 271 1777

49 6052 889 575 1589 423 4571 753

507046 4,000 Not given 8,425 17,000

Not Provided 12, 07,000 14,972 Not given 92,013 83,530 14,07,480 Not given







HW Generating Industries & HW Generation Comparative Figures

S. No. Name State of the No. of Total of HW Total HW HW No. Industries as generation in Industries as generation per HWM TPA per HWM in TPA Rules, 1989 Rules, 2000/2003 15 66 30,320 8,893 700 1448 15,769 22,709 332 512 1,83,737 1,22,307 1100 2177 1,81, 624 3,94,208 1036 440 1,45,786 1,29,826 1633 568 149 Nil 82,375 Not given Not given Nil

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22 23.

Pondicherry Punjab Rajasthan Tamilnadu Uttarpradesh West Bengal Chattisgarh Mizoram

24. 25. 26.

27. 28. 29.

Meghalaya Nagaland Daman, Diu & DNH Jharkhand Uttaranchal Manipur

39 03 598
169 137 Nil

37, 412 448 Not given

Not given Not given -


1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

No. of HW generating Units

889 753 575 423 271 309 257 116 47 183 133 163 207 57







STATE HW generating Units as per HWM RULES, 1989 HW generating Units as per HWM RULES, 2003

J& K

Comparative HW generating Units as perHWM Rules, 1989 and 2003

7000 6000 5000 4000
2984 4571 3953


3000 2000
1532 1589 454 700

2177 1633 1448 1100 1036

1000 501






State No. of HW units as per HWM Rules, 1989 No. of HW units as per 2003



HWs - Landfillable, Recyclable, Incinerable as per HWM Rules, 2003

1600 1400 1200 1000
410 147 628 154

800 600 400 200

650 126 264 230 626 9 56 10




State Landfillable Recyclable Incinerable


HW Disposal Facilities in in Operation




No. of sites Notified : 64 No. of sites Identified : 21

Status on HW Generation & TSDF in Operation in Major States

S.No .
1. 2. 3. 4. 6


Total HW generation in 000 TPA

507 4 8 17 -

No. of TSDF in No. of sites operation/under notified construction

01 Nil Nil 02 Nil Nil

No. of sites identified

02 03 Nil

AP Assam Chandigarh Delhi Goa

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Haryana Himachal Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra MP

15 92 84 1407 -

Nil Nil 02 Nil

01 02 01 02 Nil

01 02 02 01 06 03

14. 15.
16. 17. 18. 19.

Orissa Pondicherry
Punjab Rajasthan Tamilnadu Uttarpradesh

75 30
16 184 182 82

Nil Nil
Nil Nil Nil Nil

01 Nil
01 01 01 03

01 Nil
01 08 03 05

Common TSDF Multi State

Flexibility for Industries located on Inter State Border Problem facing smaller States/UTs

Incinerable waste Min. Scale of operation - about 1.0 ton per hour
Practical Difficulties: Delhi, Chandigarh, Daman, Goa

Incinerable HW as per HWM Rules 2003

Incinerable HW in '000 Tonnes

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0



61.4 9.3 12.6


State Incinerable HW as per HWM Rulex, 2003





Recycling of Hazardous Waste

Import of specified categories permitted for Recycling using environmentally sound technology Recycling of hazardous waste is permitted for units registered with CPCB and having ESM Facilities.

Guidance Document prepared on ESM of following Recyclable wastes : Used Oil, Waste Oil, Non-ferrous metals wastes
Technology Up gradation: linked to scale of operation Large Gap between Demand and Supply w.r.t Lead , Copper and Zinc wastes.

India favours free movement of recyclables.

Recycling of Hazardous Waste contd

Recyclable Wastes for which State of Art Facilities are needed

Mercury Bearing wastes. Nickel Cadmium Batteries Spent Catalyst

E- Waste: Guidance document under preparation covering i ) Informal sector ii ) leaded glass iii) precious metals recovery etc.,

Thank You