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Basics Of Computers

SUSHIL PATIL
sushilpatil2000@yahoomail.com

A Desktop Machine

A Computer System
Hardware Software User
User

Software
Hardware

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A Computer System (Contd.)


In general, a computer is a machine which accepts data, processes it and returns new information as output.
Processing
Data Information

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Software
Software is set of programs (which are step by step instructions) telling the computer how to process data. Software needs to be installed on a computer, usually from a CD. Softwares can be divided into two groups: - System SW - Application SW

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Software (Contd.)
System Software It controls the overall operation of the system. It is stored in the computer's memory and instructs the computer to load, store, and execute an application.

Examples: Operating System (OS), Translators DOS, Windows, Unix etc.


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Software (Contd..)
Application Software They are Softwares written to perform specific tasks.

The basic types of application software are: word processing, database, spreadsheet, desktop publishing, and communication. Examples: MSOffice, Tally, MSOutlook, ISBS, MODBANKER BANKSOFT
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Advantages of Using Computers


Speed: Computers can carry out instructions in less
than a millionth of a second.

Accuracy : Computers can do the calculations without


errors and very accurately.

Diligence : Computers are capable of performing any


task given to them repetitively.

Storage Capacity : Computers can store large


volume of data and information on magnetic media.

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History of Evolution Of Computers


Two Eras:
Mechanical Era (Before 1945) Electronic Era (1945 - )

Can be divided into generations.


First Generation (1945 1954) Second Generation (1955 1964) Third Generation (1965 1974) Fourth Generation (1975 - )

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Types of Computers
On the basis of Computing Power & Size:
Laptop / Palmtop Micro Computer / Desktop Mini Computer / Mainframe Super Computer

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Language of Computers
Computers only understand the electronic signals. Either Current is flowing or not. Current Flowing : ON Current Not Flowing : OFF Binary Language ON : 1 OFF : 0

Bit, Byte, KB, MB, GB


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Computer Network
A Computer Network is interconnection of Computers to share resources. Resources can be : Information, Load, Devices etc.

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Types Of Computer Networks


On the basis of Size: Local Area Network (LAN)
Its a network of the computers locally i.e. in one room, one building.

Wide Area Network (WAN) Its a network of the computers spread widely geographically.

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Benefits of Computer Networks


Information Sharing Device Sharing Load Sharing Mobility Fast Communication Anywhere Anytime Banking

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Internet
Internet is a huge network of computer networks. Internet provides many services: Email World Wide Web (www) Remote Login (Telnet) File Transfer (FTP)

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CPU ( Central Processing Unit)


The central processing unit (CPU), also known as just a "processor, is the "brain" of your computer.
It contains various electronic circuits.

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VDU (Monitor)
This is the television-like screen where the results of a computer's tasks are displayed. Monitors come in all sizes, but most commonly they are either 15 or 17 inches (measured diagonally from one corner of the screen to the opposite corner).

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Keyboard
The keyboard looks like a typewriter. It contains all the letters of the alphabet, numbers and some special symbols. It operates like a typewriter keypad, but instead of moving an arm, which strikes the paper, it sends an electronic impulse to the computer, which displays a character on the monitor.
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Mouse
Its

a device that is used to control the computer. A cable connects the mouse to the computer.

When the mouse is moved on a pad, called a mouse pad, the cursor on the screen moves. A cursor is a small symbol displayed on the computer screen (normally a diagonal arrow that is used as a pointer) that shows you what the mouse is referencing on the screen.
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Printer
A printer is designed to output information from a computer onto a piece of paper.

There are three kinds of printers: dot matrix, laser, and inkjet.

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Scanner
A scanner is a device used to copy an image off paper and convert it into a digital image, which can be saved as a computer file and stored on a hard drive. Scanners can also use a special kind of technology called Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to read text from paper and save it as an editable document file
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Session # 2 Inside The CPU Cabinet

A Look Inside.

Floppy

CD

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A Look Inside ..
power supply

CD-ROM drive
floppy drive

cards

hard drive

motherboard
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A Look Inside
Identify all the major components: Power Supply Motherboard Memory Card Slots Cards (sound, video, network) CPU, heatsink and fan Drives (floppy, hard and CD-ROM)

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What these components do.


Power Supply (heart) supplies power to all the circuitry and devices. Motherboard (body) acts as a manager for everything on the computer connects all the other components together. CPU Central Processing Unit (brain) this does all the work of computing.

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What these components do.. RAM Random Access Memory (short-term memory) holds data and program instructions that the computer is currently using. Hard Drive (long-term memory) holds all of the information that needs to be stored between uses of the computer. Floppy and CD-ROM drives (mouth/ears) allow you to give data to the computer and take data away from the computer.
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What these components do


Card Slots (fingers) Allows other components to be added to the computer. Video card (face) Does all of the processing necessary to get stuff looking nice on screen, quickly. Sound card (vocal cords) Allows sounds from HD or CD-ROM to be played. Network Card (telephone) allows computer to talk to other computers over a wire.
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Power Supply
SMPS Switch Mode Power Supply Switching Transistors Outputs + 5V, -5V, +12 V, -12 V Typical Costs are: ATX Rs.700 Non ATX Rs.300 Usually, SMPS comes with the CPU Cabinet.
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Motherbo ard

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CPU A Single Chip


CU

ALU

Memory Registers

Examples: Intel Family Pentium 4, 3, 2, Pentium, XEON, Itanium AMD -- Athlon, K62 IBM -- Cyrix Motorola -- 68000 Series
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RAM

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Hard Drive
We wont remove this.

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Floppy Drive

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CD-ROM Drive

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Ribbon Cables

polarized

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Video Card

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Sound Card

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Back of Computer

Remove these screws

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CPU The central processing unit or (CPU) is the "brain" of your computer. It contains the electronic circuits that cause the computer to follow instructions from memory.

The CPU contains three main parts, all housed in a single package (Chip):

Control Unit (CU) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Memory


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BACK

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Computer Peripherals

Major Peripherals
Keyboard Mouse Hard Disk Floppy Disk CD ROM Printer Scanner Joystick

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Keyboard
Keypad contains:

Alphabets Numbers Special Symbols Function Keys


qwert Keyboard (Typewriter Keyboard). On key press it sends a code (ASCII Code) to the CPU. Plug N Play device. Typical Cost is Rs.300 Rs.1200

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Mouse
Pointing & Click Device.

Two / Three Buttons


Wheel / Optical Mouse Normally Left Click Select/ Run Right Click Popup Menu Typical Cost is Rs.100 Rs1000

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Hard Disk Magnetic Memory Device.

Non-removable storage device.


Several Circular Magnetic Disks are housed in a single case. Data is stored as 1s & 0s. Typical Capacity is 20 GB -80 GB

Typical Cost is Rs.2200 Rs6000


Cost/Bit is Low.
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Floppy Disk
Magnetic Memory Device. Removable storage. A single circular mylar plastic disk, coated with magnetic material is packed in a protective plastic casing. Typical size is 3.5 & Capacity is 1.44MB Typical Costs are:

Floppy Drive -- Rs.300 Floppy Disk -- Rs.10

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CD ROM
Optical Device.
Removable Storage. Read Only Memory.

Typical Capacity is 550 Mb 800MB


Typical Costs are:

Drive
Related Terms:

-- Rs.1000

Disk Rs10 Rs.35


CD Writer WORM CD RW
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Printer
Output Device, Produces Hard Copy Types: Dot Matrix Inkjet Laser Typical Cost Ranges from Rs.3500 Rs.2 lacs Related Terms: Impact Non Impact Ribbon, Cartridge, Toner, Duty Cycle Major Vendors in India: HP, Cannon, Samsung, TVS, Epson etc.
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Scanner
Input Device, Converts a hard copy into a computer file. Used to Scan Signatures, Photographs etc. Optical Device. Typical Cost Rs.4000 Rs.75000 Major Vendors in India: HP, Umax, Cannon Nowadays Scanners with OCR produces editable documents.
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Overview of Operating System

What is Operating System

OS is system software, which may be viewed as collection of software consisting of procedures for operating the computer.
It provides an environment for execution of programs (application software).

Its an interface between user & computer.

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Computer Machine (Hardware)


Machine Language (Low Level Language)

Operating System
Human Understandable Language (High Level Language)

User / Programmer

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Types of OS
Multiprogramming OS
Multitasking/Multiprocessing Multiuser OS Time Sharing OS Real Time OS

Distributed OS
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A Second Classification
This Classification is based on the type of interface Operating System provides for the user to work in. Character User Interface (CUI)
The User has to type the commands on the command prompt to get the work completed. Ex. DOS, UNIX.

Graphical User Interface (GUI)


The User need not type any commands. He/She just point and clicks on the desired Icon to get the work done. Ex. Windows (9X, XP, NT, 2000), Linux.
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Functions of OS

File Management
Memory Management

Process Management
Device Management

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Types of Processing

Serial Processing
The job is processed at the time when it is submitted.

Batch Processing
The similar jobs are bunched together and are kept for processing at an later time.

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MS-DOS Overview
MS-DOS is an acronym for MicroSoft Disk Operating System It is a CUI based operating system. It provides user with a command prompt (generally called as C:\) where various command could be typed. When one operates in the DOS environment, one interacts with the command interpreter, which interprets the commands given by user. It provides an environment for execution of various application programs like MS-Word, MODBANKER, ISBS etc.

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What is Command
It is a string of characters which tells the computer what to do. When one types commands to a computer, one is conversing with the operating system's command interpreter.

For example, to copy a file called file.txt from the 3-1/2" floppy drive to the hard drive, one could type
C:\> copy a:\file.txt c:\ The word "copy" is a DOS command which causes files to be copied from one location to another
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Entering the DOS Environment


If the OS is DOS then the system will directly show prompt (C:\>) If the OS is windows one must either terminate the Windows environment, or open a DOS shell within the Windows environment. Ist Method: Terminating Windows Environment Select Restart in MS-DOS Mode from Shut Down in Menu. IInd Method: Opening DOS Shell in Windows Select Start>Programs>Accessories>Command Prompt (XP) Start>Programs>Accessories>MS-DOS Prompt (98) Start

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Files and Directory


Files
A file is a collection of Records. It is the smallest unit of File System (Storage) in a computer. Any document created using computer is a file. This document could either be a letter, any excel sheet, any image or even a database.

Directory
A collection of files is directory (in DOS) or folder (in Windows) It is analogous to the Office Folder which contains various documents. A directory/folder eases the management of related files/ documents, like the various circulars related to personnel could be placed in a directory called personnel and all the circulars related to loans could be placed in a directory called loans.

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Filenames in DOS?

The filename in DOS have the following format. <name>.<ext>


It has two parts the name and the extension. The name could be of 8 characters and the extension of 3 characters.

The filename can contain alphabets and numbers. It cannot contain any special character other than underscore (_) and also no spaces.
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Organization of files in DOS

The DOS file system is a hierarchical file system. Files are collected into directories, and directories may contain
both files and other directories.

There is always a directory which is not contained by any other,


called the root which is represented by the backslash '\' character.

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Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)

Concept of Path: Every file can be specified by enumerating


all of the directories between the root and it, separated by the backslash '\' character, and appending the file name to the end.

The drive which contains the root is specified at the head of the
path, separated from the root by a colon (':')

The hard drive is most commonly known as the C: drive, and


the floppy drives are usually called A:(3-1/2 inch) and B: (51/4 inch).

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Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)

circulars

loans

personnel

officer.txt

new.dat

january
retire.txt

february

Fig. Hierarchical Structure of Files


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rest.txt

abc.txt
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Some DOS Commands


dir: Listing of all the directories. C:\> dir cls: Clears the screen. C:\> cls copy con: Creates a file. C:\> copy con <filename> < Write your Contents Here> Press Ctrl-Z (^Z) to finish writing. Ex: C:\> copy con test.dat Lets Make UCO a top class Bank. Ctrl-Z (^Z) 1 file(s) copied. (A Message will be shown on the system) This will create a file named test.dat having some data.

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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)


edit: Edits a file. C:\> edit <filename> This will open a editor window where the contents of file can be seen. These contents could also be edited here and on saving, the contents of file will change.

type: Displays the content of a file.


C:\> type <filename> This will display the contents of file on the computer. The contents of file could only be viewed but could not be changed, as in the case of edit.

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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)


md: Make Directory.
C:\> md (directory name> This will create a directory with the specified name.

cd: Change Directory.


C:\> cd (directory name> This will change the directory from current directory to the specified directory.

rd: Remove Directory.


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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)


copy: Copies a file. C:\> copy <source> <destination> This will copy the file from the source location to the specified destination. The command creates a copy of the file on the destination i.e. the file would be found on both the location.

move: Moves a file.


C:\> move <source> <destination> This will move the file from the source location to the specified destination. The file from the source location would be removed and would be moved to the destination.

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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)


ren: Renames a file. C:\> ren <old filename> <new filename> This will change the name (rename) of the file to a new name as specified. del: Deletes a file. C:\> del <filename> This will delete the file permanently from the system.

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Overview of Windows
Windows is an GUI based operating system. It is also developed by Microsoft Corporation, which is headed by Mr. Bill Gates. Over the years the Microsoft have evolved various versions of Windows. Win95, Win98, Win2000, Win ME, Win NT, Win XP. It gives user a handy environment where he doesnt have to remember and learn the syntaxes of various commands as is the case in DOS. The user can just point and click on the Icons provided to him on the screen. 8/27/2012 Introduction to Computers 72

Folders and Documents


Folders are a way to organize your documents within drives in Windows as are the directories in DOS. A document is each thing that you create on a computer. A document can be made using any type of software.

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