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The University of Iowa.

Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
1
Introduction to Wireless Sensor
Networks
Wireless Terms, FAQ & Glossary
27 January 2005
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
2
Organizational
Monday 4:30-5:20 Room 4511 SC
Thursday 12:30-1:20 Room 3220 SC
Please note that the room numbers are different for
Mondays and Thursdays.
Monday 5:20-6:20 Room 1126 SC
Thursday 1:30-2:30 Room 1126 SC
Other By appointment Room 523C SHL
Class Website
www.engineering.uiowa.edu/~ece195/2005/
Class Time
Office Hours
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
3
Organizational
No Class on Monday
January 31
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
4
Review Questions
Name and explain the differences and
similarities between the concept of a
WSN and traditional telemetry
Explain what the Argos system is
Explain what the acronym SCADA
stands for
True or false wireless fleet
management is an example of WSNs
Explain what the term ISM means




The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
5
Wireless Terms
Decibel (dB). Ratio of two powers



dBm. The reference power is in mW
SNR. Signal-to-Noise Ratio. Power, expressed in dB
Attenuation. Power loss (dB)
CDMA. Code Division Multiple Access
Simplex communication. One direction at a time
Duplex communication . Transmit and receive
simultaneously
FCC. Federal Communications Commission
Antenna gain. How much more power the antenna received
compared to reference (half wave). Expressed in dB
MAC. Medium/Media Access Control
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
log 10 dB in to of Ratio
10 2 1
P
P
P P
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
6
Wireless Terms
Circuit Switched. Dedicated (virtual) link between
parties. Connection held even when no data
transmitted.
Packet Data. Split information into packets and
route independently through network. Use of
spectrum only when data are transmitted.
Spread Spectrum. A wideband modulation which
imparts noise-like characteristics to an RF signal.
Frequency-hopping and Direct Sequence
Examples of Spread Spectrum
TDMA. Time-Division Multiple Access
FDMA. Frequency Division Multiplex Access
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
7
BER and Effective Channel Capacity
Analog vs. Digital links
BER Bit Error Rate increases as SNR
decreases
Error detection and correction
mechanisms
Repeated transmission
Reduce channel capacity


The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
8
Radio Propagation Mechanisms
Free Space
Reflection
Wave impinges on large (compared to
wavelength) objects.
Diffraction
Waves bends around obstacle (no LOS)
Scattering
Objects much smaller that wavelength

The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
9
Radio Propagation
Simple (but useful) models exist for
Free Space
Common geometries (flat, curved earth,
wall)
Radio propagation in many real
environments is complex
Multipath propagation
Shadowing
Attenuation
Environment changes => fluctuations
in received power
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
10
Radio Propagation
Free space model
Receiver
Transmitter
h
t

h
r

R
P
t
, G
t
P
r
, G
r
2
|
.
|

\
|
4
=
R
G G P P
r t t r
t

The University of Iowa.


Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
11
Radio Propagation
Two-beam/ray ground reflection model, large
R







The breakpoint distance R at which the
model changes from 1/R
2
to 1/R
4
is ~ 4th
t
h
r
/







Receiver
Transmitter
h
t

h
r

Phase shift
R
P
t
, G
t
P
r
, G
r
4
2 2
R
h h
G G P P
r t
r t t r
=
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
12
Fresnel Zone and LOS
2 1
2 1
D D
D D n
F
n
+
=

Consistent Units
60% rule-of-thumb
Diffraction
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
13
Example
A 1-km 2.4 GHz link has two antennas
that are 2 m above the ground. Do we
have LOS?





60% of this is 3.3 m, so we dont have
clearance. Answer is NO
m 59 . 5
500 500
500 500 125 . 0 1
2 1
2 1
=
+

=
+
=
D D
D D n
F
n

The University of Iowa.


Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
14
Loss Models
This graph does not reflect temporal changes
Why need model?
Hybrid models (physics and empirical)
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
15
Indoor Propagation
Signal decays much faster
Coverage contained by walls (waveguides)
Very complicated dynamic (people move)
attenuation and multipath

Path Loss = Unit Loss + 10nlog(R) = kF+lW

Unit Loss = power loss @ 1 m (say 30 dB)
n = power delay index
R
k = # of floors, F = # of floors
l = # of walls, W = loss per wall

The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
16
Indoor Propagation
Building Freq (MHz) n Sigma (dB)
Retail Store 914 2.2 8.7
Grocery Store 914 1.8 5.2
Office 1500 3.0 7.0
Textile Factory 1300 2.0 3.0
Home 900 3.0 7.0
Path Loss = Unit Loss + 10nlog(R) = kF+lW
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
17
Received Signal Strength Indicator
(RSSI)
Measure of received signal strength of radio
Indicator of link quality
Radio can be interrogated for RSSI
On-board Software use RSSI
Typically a number 23, 19, etc.
Consult manufacturer for mapping to power
level dBm

The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
18
RSSI
OS determines RSSI is
too small for reliable link
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
19
RSSI
Radio with serial
interface
Controller
+++
ATRS<CR>
ATCN<CR>
40
nW 01 . 0
W 10
mW 10 dBm 80
11
8
=
=
=

Small!
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
20
No Class on Monday
January 31
The University of Iowa.
Copyright 2005
A. Kruger
21
Introduction to Wireless Sensor
Networks
Energy Considerations in Wireless
Sensor Networks
2 February 2005