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#2 Agenda

Any Chapter 1 questions? Chapter 2 Professional Standards Chapter 3 Ethics Quiz Individual Quiz Group Solution

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Authority of Organizations

Public Company Accounting Oversight Board

Auditing, Attestation, Quality Control, Independence, Ethical Standards for audits of public companies

American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

Auditing, Attestation, Quality Control, Independence Ethical, Accounting and Review Standards for engagements involving nonpublic companies

State Boards of Accountancy

License CPAs and CPA firms to practice in jurisdictions


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Principles Underling a GAAS Audit


Purpose

of an audit Premise of an audit Personal responsibilities of the auditor Auditor actions in performing the audit Reporting results of an audit

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Principles Underling a GAAS Audit


Purpose

of an auditProvide an opinion on financial statements are in accordance with the applicable financial reporting framework.

The framework is ordinarily GAAP. The applicable framework corresponds to the suitable criteria of an attest engagement.

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Principles Underling a GAAS Audit


Premise

of an auditManagement (and those charged with governance) have responsibility to:

Prepare financial statements in accordance with applicable financial reporting framework. Provide auditor with needed information and unrestricted access to those in the entity.

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Principles Underling a GAAS Audit


Personal

responsibility of the auditor Appropriate competence and capabilities to perform audit in accordance with standards, including maintaining professional skepticism and exercising professional judgment throughout the audit.

Professional skepticismA questioning mind and a critical assessment of audit evidence.


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Principles Underling a GAAS Audit


Auditor

actions in performing the audit

Obtain reasonable assurance about whether financial statements are free from error or fraud. The auditor is unable to obtain absolute assurance due to:
Nature of financial reporting. Nature of audit procedures. Need to conduct audit within a reasonable period of time.
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Principles Underling a GAAS Audit


Reporting

the results of an audit Express in a written report an opinion on findings (or statement that opinion cannot be expressed).

The opinion is on whether the financial statements are in accordance, in all material respects, with the applicable financial reporting framework.

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The 10 Generally Accepted Auditing Standards


General

Standards Standards of Field Work Reporting Standards NOTE: These standards only apply to audits conducted according to PCAOB standards. The preceding Principles replaced the 10 GAAS standards for nonpublic company audits.
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Generally Accepted Auditing Standards--General Standards


Adequate

technical training and proficiency

Independence

in mental attitude is to be

maintained
Due

professional care is to be exercised

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Generally Accepted Auditing Standards--Standards of Field Work

Auditor must adequately plan and properly supervise work Auditor must obtain a sufficient understanding of entity, and its environment, including internal control to assess risk of material misstatement and to design further audit procedures Auditor must obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to afford a reasonable basis for the opinion
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Generally Accepted Auditing Standards--Standards of Reporting


State whether the financial statements are presented in accordance with GAAP Identify circumstances in which such principles have not been consistently applied Informative disclosures are adequate unless otherwise stated in the report Report should clearly state the degree of responsibility being assumed by the auditors by expressing an opinion or stating that one cannot be expressed, and the reason therefor

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Terminology in Auditing Standards (Figure 2.3)


Responsibility Level Meaning Words Used to Indicate Responsibility

Unconditional Responsibility

Auditor must fulfill responsibilities

Must Shall (PCAOB only) Is required (PCAOB only) Should

Presumptively Mandatory

Auditor must comply with requirements unless auditor demonstrates and documents that alternative actions were sufficient to achieve the objectives of the standards Auditor should consider; whether the auditor complies with the requirements depends on the exercise of professional judgment in the circumstances

Responsibility to Consider

May Might Could Other phrases indicating a responsibilities to consider

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The GAAS Hierarchy (Figure 2.3)

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Auditor Responsibility for the Detection of Errors and Fraud (1 of 2)

Obtain information to assess the inherent risks and fraud risks Information about the company and its environment Discussion among audit team members Inquiries of management and others Risk assessment analytical procedures, including those involving revenue Assess the risk of errors and fraud that may cause the financial statements to contain a material misstatement.

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Auditor Responsibility for the Detection of Errors and Fraud (2 of 2)

Based on that assessment, plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance that material misstatements, whether caused by errors or fraud, will be detected. Exercise due care in planning, performing and evaluating the results of audit procedures, and the proper degree of professional skepticism to achieve reasonable assurance that material misstatements due to error or fraud will be detected.

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Auditor Responsibility for Client Identifying Noncompliance with Laws

Noncompliance with laws that could have a direct and material effect on financial statement amounts and disclosures--same as for errors and fraud. An audit obtains reasonable assurance of detecting noncompliance with these laws. Other Laws (no direct effect on financial statement amounts):

Specific procedures:
Inquire of management as to compliance Inspect correspondence with licensing or regulatory authorities

Be aware of possible occurrence. If information comes to the auditors attention, apply audit procedures directed at determining whether noncompliance with a law has occurred. An audit does not provide assurance that noncompliance with these laws will be detected.

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Group Case

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The Standard Auditors Report for Nonpublic Companies

Title Addressee Content Sections (paragraphs)


Introductory (We have audited) Managements responsibility Auditors Responsibility Opinion Paragraph

Signature (firm name) City and state of office issuing audit report Date
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The AICPA Standard Auditors Report--Introductory Paragraph

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of ABC Company and its subsidiaries, as of December 31, 20X1 and 20X0, and the related consolidated statements of income, retained earnings, and cash flows for the years then ended.
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The AICPA Standard Auditors Report Managements Responsibility Paragraph

Management is responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of these consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America; this includes the design, implementation, and maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of consolidated financial statements that are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.
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The AICPA Standard Auditors Report: Auditors Responsibility Paragraphs


Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. The procedures selected depend on the auditor's judgment, including the assessment of the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to fraud or error. In making those risk assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entity's preparation and fair presentation of the consolidated financial statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entity's internal control An audit also includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of significant accounting estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our audit opinion.

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The AICPA Standard Auditors Report--Opinion Paragraph

In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of ABC Company and its subsidiaries as of December 31, 20X1 and 20X0, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for the years then ended in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
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Other Types of Auditors Reports

Standard unmodified report (unqualified per PCAOB standards)

Financial statements follow GAAP and auditor does not add additional commentary for any issue

Other reports Unmodified with emphasis of matter (or other emphasis)


Example: A lack of consistency in application of accounting principles

Qualified opinion
Scope limitation or departure from GAAP

Adverse opinion
Departure from GAAP so significant that financial statements as a whole are misleading

Disclaimer of opinion
Unable to arrive at an opinion due to a very significant scope limitation
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Public Company Audit Report


Title

is Report of Registered Independent Public Accounting Firm. Refers to standards of the PCAOB rather than GAAS. Includes a paragraph that refers to report on internal control. Somewhat more brief than the nonpublic company report.
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Elements of Quality Control


Leadership

responsibilities for quality within the firm (tone at the top) Relevant ethical requirements Acceptance and continuance of clients and engagements Human Resources Engagement performance Monitoring
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QC Element 1: Leadership responsibilities for quality within the firm

Firms internal culture recognizes that quality is essential in performing engagements and recognizes the need to

perform work that complies with professional standards and regulatory and legal requirements and issue reports that are appropriate in the circumstances.

Example: Assign management responsibilities so that commercial considerations do not override the quality of work performed.
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QC Element 2: Relevant ethical requirements


Firm

and its personnel comply with relevant ethical requirements. Example: At least annually, the firm should obtain written confirmation of compliance with its independence policies and procedures from all firm personnel who are required to be independent.

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QC Element 3: Acceptance and Continuance

Firm will undertake to continue relationships and engagements only where the firm:
1. Has considered client integrity. 2. Is competent to perform the engagement. 3. Can comply with legal and ethical requirements.

Example: Background information is gathered on all prospective audit clients, including the attitude of principal owners, key management, and those charged with governance on matters such as aggressive accounting and internal control over financial reporting.

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QC Element 4: Human Resources

Firm has personnel with the capabilities, competence, and commitment to ethical principles to:
1. Perform engagements in accordance with professional standards and regulatory and legal requirements. 2. Enable the firm to issue reports that are appropriate in the circumstances.

Example: Design effective recruitment processes and procedures to help the firm select individuals meeting minimum academic requirements established by the firm, and maturity, integrity and leadership.

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QC Element 5: Engagement Performance

Firms engagements are consistently performed in accordance with professional standards and regulatory and legal requirements, with policies and procedures addressing:
1. 2. 3.

Engagement performance. Supervision responsibilities. Review responsibilities.

Example: Design policies and procedures that address the tracking of progress of each engagement.

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QC Element 6: Monitoring
Firms

policies and procedures established for each of the elements are suitably designed and effectively applied. Example: Working papers, reports, and client financial statements are reviewed to assess compliance with the firms quality control policies and procedures.

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Quality Control Procedures


Depend

on size of firm, number of offices and nature of firms practices. Every CPA firm should have quality control procedures applicable to every aspect of its practice. Establish controls to provide assurance that the CPA firm meets its responsibilities to clients and public.
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