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INTRODUCT ION In reinforced concrete, concrete is strong in compression

but weak in tension. Steel is good in tension as well as compression. In RCC, concrete is used to take the compressive loads and to hold steel in place and steel takes all of the tension. It might happen that due to less tensile strength of concrete, cracks could develop in the member causing the member to fail. To avoid this prestressed concrete members are preferred. Prestressed concrete is a material that has internal stresses induced to balance out to a desired degree stresses due to externally applied loads. Since tensile stresses are undesirable in concrete structural members the objective of prestressing is to create

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In a RCC beam, when external loads are applied, the beam sags due to self weight and the external loads. As a result hairline cracks are developed at the beam bottom. In prestressed concrete, the elimination of tensile stresses within the concrete will result in members that have fewer

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Camb er

When a prestresssed concrete member leaves the plant, a slight camber is noticed in the shape. energy is stored in the member due to the action of the high tensioned steel which places high compression in the lower portion of the member. This creates an upward force which reduces the action of the self weight. This force also counteracts the service loads

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2. Post tensioning- the tendons are tensioned after the concrete has hardened. Commonly, metal or plastic ducts are placed inside the concrete before casting. After the concrete hardened and had enough strength, the tendon was placed inside the duct, stressed, and anchored against concrete.
3.

External and Internal prestressing- Prestressing can 4

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The normal method of applying prestress to a concrete member is through the use of steel tendons. 1. Pretensioning- the tendons are tensioned against some abutments before the concrete is place. After the concrete hardened, the tension force is released. The tendon tries to shrink back to the initial length but the concrete resists it through the bond between them, thus, compression force is induced in concrete.

TYPES OF PRESTRESSING

TYPES OF PRESTRESSING
4.

5.

Bonded and Unbonded Tendon- The tendon may be bonded to concrete (pretensioning or posttensioning with grouting) or unbonded (posttensioning without grouting). Bonding helps prevent corrosion of tendon. Unbonding allows readjustment of prestressing force at later times.

6. End Anchored and Non end Anchored- In Pretensioning, tendons transfer the prestress through the bond actions along the tendon; therefore, it is non-endanchored In Posttensioning, tendons are anchored at their ends using mechanical devices to transfer the prestress to concrete; therefore, it is end-anchored.

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Linear and circular prestressing- Prestressing can be done in a straight structure such as beams (linear prestressing) or around a circular structures, such as tank or silo (circular prestressing).

PRETENSION ING:

Pretensioning can be defined as a method of prestressing concrete in which the tendons are tensioned before the concrete is placed. This operation can be performed in a casting yard in 5 steps:

The tendons are placed in a prescribed pattern on the casting bed between two anchorages. They are then tensioned to a prescribed value. If concrete forms are not in placed they maybe

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Prestressed member is then removed from the forms Tensioned tendon between anchorages and stored.

Forms assembled and concrete placed in forms

Tendons cut and compression transferred to member

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When concrete attains prescribed strength, the tendons are cut at their anchorages. Since the tendons are bonded to the concrete as they are cut from their anchorages high prestress force must be transferred to the concrete. As the high tensile force of the tendon creates a compressive force on the concrete section, the concrete will tend to shrink slightly.

Pretensioning members are usually manufactured in a casting yard or a plant that is away from the job site and then are delivered on job site.

Hold down devices for pretensioning

Pretensioning hardwares
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Concrete forms are assembled with flexible tubes placed in the forms and held at specified locations. Concrete is then placed in forms and allowed to cure to prescribed strength. Tendons are then placed in the tubes. Tendons are tensioned by jacking against an anchorage device or end plate that in some cases has been previously embedded in the end of member. The anchorage device will incorporate some method for

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Post tensioning is defined as method of prestressing concrete in which tendons are tensioned after concrete has been cured. This operation can be performed in 6 steps:

POST TENSIONING

Bridge girder for post tensioning.

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POST TENSIONING

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Precast segmental girder to be post

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ADVANTAGES OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE


It is possible to take maximum advantage of the high compressive strength of concrete and high tensile strength of steel and hence combination of the two results in the most economical sections.

Because of high strength it can be recommended for long spans and spans subjected to vibration and impacts.

Since the members are thinner, there is great reduction in self weight.

Section is usually in compression as the concrete is good in compression serviceability behaviour of concrete is improved. Pre stressing causes cambering of member leading to less deflection and

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