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Lathe Accessories

Session 7

Lathe Accessories
Divided into two categories
Work-holding, -supporting, and driving devices
Lathe centers, chucks, faceplates Mandrels, steady and follower rests Lathe dogs, drive plates

Cutting-tool-holding devices
Straight and offset toolholders Threading toolholders, boring bars Turret-type toolposts
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Lathe Centers
Work to be turned between centers must have center hole drilled in each end
Provides bearing surface

Support during cutting Most common have solid Morse taper shank 60 centers, steel with carbide tips Care to adjust and lubricate occasionally
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Lathe Centers

Revolving Tailstock Centers


Replaced solid dead centers for most machining operations Used to support work held in chuck or when work is being machined between centers Contains antifriction bearings which allow center to revolve with workpiece
No lubrication required between center and work

Types: revolving dead center, long point center, and changeable point center
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Revolving Tailstock Centers

Microset Adjustable Center


Fits into tailstock spindle Provides means of aligning lathe centers or producing slight tapers on work machined between centers Eccentric slide (dovetail) allows center to be adjusted limited amount to each side of center

Microset Adjustable Center

Self-Driving Live Center


Mounted in headstock spindle Used when entire length of workpiece is being machined in one operation
Chuck or lathe dog could not be used to drive work

Grooves ground around circumference of lathe center point provide drive Work usually soft material such as aluminum

Self-Driving Live Center

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Chucks
Used extensively for holding work for lathe machining operations
Work large or unusual shape

Most commonly used lathe chucks


Three-jaw universal Four-jaw independent Collet chuck

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Three-jaw Universal Chuck


Holds round and hexagonal work Grasps work quickly and accurate within few thousandths/inch Three jaws move simultaneously when adjusted by chuck wrench
Caused by scroll plate into which all three jaws fit

Two sets of jaw: outside chucking and inside chucking


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Three-jaw Universal Chuck

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Four-Jaw Independent Chuck


Used to hold round, square, hexagonal, and irregularly shaped workpieces Has four jaws
Each can be adjusted independently by chuck wrench

Jaws can be reversed to hold work by inside diameter


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Four-Jaw Independent Chucks

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Headstock Spindle Types


1. Threaded spindle nose

Screws on in a clockwise direction


Held by lock nut that tightens on chuck Held by tightening cam-locks using Twrench Chuck aligned by taper on spindle nose
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2. Tapered spindle nose 3. Cam-lock spindle nose

Threaded Spindle Nose

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Tapered Spindle Nose

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Cam Lock Spindle Nose

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Collet Chucks
Most accurate chuck Used for high-precision work Spring collets available to hold round, square, or hexagon-shaped workpieces Each collet has range of only few thousandths of an inch over or under size stamped on collet
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Spring Collet Chucks


Spring-collet chuck
One form: Handwheel draws collet into tapered adapter Another form: Uses chuck wrench to tighten collet on workpiece
Can hold larger work than draw-in type

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Spring Collet Chucks

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Spring Collet Chucks

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Jacobs Collet Chuck


Jacobs collet chuck
Utilizes impact-tightening handwheel to close collets Wider range than spring-collet chuck

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Jacobs Collet Chuck

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Magnetic Chucks
Used to hold iron or steel parts that are too thin or may be damaged if held in conventional chuck Fitted to an adapter mounted on headstock spindle Used only for light cuts and for special grinding applications

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Magnetic Chucks

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Faceplates
Used to hold work too large or shaped so it cannot be held in chuck or between centers Usually equipped with several slots to permit use of bolts to secure work
Angle plate used so axis of workpiece may be aligned with lathe centers

Counterbalance fastened to faceplate when work mounted off center


Prevent imbalance and resultant vibrations
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Faceplates

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Faceplates

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Steadyrest
Used to support long work held in chuck or between lathe centers
Prevent springing

Located on and aligned by ways of the lathe Positioned at any point along lathe bed Three jaws tipped with plastic, bronze or rollers may be adjusted to support any work diameter with steadyrest capacity
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Steadyrest

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Follower Rest
Mounted on saddle Travels with carriage to prevent work from springing up and away from cutting tool
Cutting tool generally positioned just ahead of follower rest Provide smooth bearing surface for two jaws of follower rest
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Follower Rest

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Mandrel
Holds internally machined workpiece between centers so further machining operations are concentric with bore Several types, but most common
Plain mandrel Expanding mandrel Gang mandrel Stub mandrel
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Plain Mandrel

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Expanding Mandrel

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Gang Mandrel

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Stub Mandrel

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Lathe Dogs
Drives work machined between centers Has opening to receive work and setscrew to fasten the dog to work Tail of dog fits into slot on driveplate and provides drive to workpiece Made in variety of sizes and types to suit various workpieces
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Standard bent-tail lathe dog


Most commonly used for round workpieces Available with square-head setscrews of headless setscrews

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Standard bent-tail lathe dog


Bent tail engages in slot on drive plate

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Straight-tail lathe dog


Driven by stud in driveplate Used in precision turning

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Safety clamp lathe dog


Used to hold variety of work Wide range of adjustment

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Heavy Duty Lathe Dog


Wider range than others Used on all shapes

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Cutting-Tool-Holding Devices
Available in three styles
Left-hand offset Right-hand offset Straight

Each has square hole to accommodate square toolbit held in place by setscrew
Angle of approximately 15 to 30 to base of toolholder
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Left-Hand Offset Toolholder


Offset to the right Designed for machining work close to chuck or faceplate and cutting right to left Designated by letter L

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Right-Hand Offset Toolholder


Offset to the left Designed for machining work close to the tailstock and cutting left to right
Also for facing operations

Designated by letter R

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Straight Toolholder
General-purpose type Used for taking cuts in either direction and for general machining operations Designated by letter S

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Carbide Toolholder
Has square hole parallel to base of toolholder to accommodate carbide-tipped toolbits Holds toolbit with little or no back rake Designated by letter C

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Cutting-Off (Parting) Tools


Used when work must be grooved or parted off Long, thin cutting-off blade locked securely in toolholder by either cam lock or locking nut Three types of parting toolholders
Left-hand Right-hand Straight
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Threading Toolholder
Designed to hold special form-relieved thread-cutting tool Has accurately ground 60 angle
Maintained throughout life of tool
Only top of cutting surface sharpened when becomes dull

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Styles of Boring Toolholders


Held in standard toolpost
Light boring toolholder
Used for small holes and light cuts

Medium boring toolholder


Suitable for heavier cuts May be held at 45 or 90 to axis of bar

Mounted on compound rest of lathe


Heavy-duty boring bar holder
Three bars of different diameters May be held at 45 or 90 to axis of bar
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Compound Rest Tooling Systems


Standard, or round, toolpost
Generally supplied with conventional engine lathe Fits into T-slot of compound rest Provides means of holding and adjusting type of toolholder or cutting tool required Concave ring and the wedge or rocker provide for adjustment of cutting-tool height
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Conventional ToolPosts

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Modular (Quick-Change) Tooling


Initially developed for CNC machine tools to improve accuracy, reduce toolchange time and increase productivity
Benefits realized on conventional lathes with systems designed for these machines

Modular tooling system must be rigid, accurate and have quick-change capabilities
Basic clamping unit or turret can hold variety of cutting tool modules
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Modular (Quick-Change) Tooling


Initially developed for CNC machine tools to improve accuracy, reduce toolchange time and increase productivity
Benefits realized on conventional lathes with systems designed for these machines

Modular tooling system must be rigid, accurate and have quick-change capabilities
Basic clamping unit or turret can hold variety of cutting tool modules
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Modular Tooling System


Principal function is to reduce cost of keeping large tool inventory Tools can be specifically mounted to suit characteristics of workpiece More common systems available
The Super Quick-Change Toolpost The Quadra* Index Toolpost The Super-Six Index Turret The Vertical Index Turret
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Super Quick-Change Toolpost


Provides fast, accurate, and reliable method of quickly changing and setting various toolholders for different operations Locking system has two sliding gibs forced out against toolholder
Handle pulled into lock position Provides rigid, positive lock with zero backlash
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Super Quick-Change Toolpost

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Quadr* Index Toolpost


Allows four tools to be mounted on turret at same time
Each tool locked independently Provides flexibility to use from one to four tools simultaneously

Unique indexing system of turret allows it to be set in 24 positions (every 15)


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Super-Six Index Turret


Designed to simplify and increase machining productivity on engine lathes when multi-operation jobs require use of more than one tool
Up to six tools for external and internal machining operations Allows height adjustment for each tool

Tool changes can be made in less than 1 sec


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Vertical Index Turret (VIT)


Designed to give highest accuracy, fastest tool change and greatest rigidity of any tool system available for engine lathes Same concept as indexing turrets on CNC lathes
Can hold up to six or eight tools Closest to performance of CNC lathes
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