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Energy Scenario

Energy- Ability to do work Power- potential to generate energy

Types of energy 1- stored (potential) energy 2- working ( kinetic)energy

Potential energy- (stored )


chemical energy Stored in bonds of Biomass, atoms & molecules petroleum Natural gas, coal Stored in nucleus of Nucleus of an atom uranium, hydrogen

Nuclear energy

Stored mechanical energy Gravitational energy

Stored in objects by Spring, stretched application of force rubber band Stored in by virtue of place or position Water in reservoir, rivers

Kinetic (working) energyRadiant energy Electromagnetic waves(transverse) Light, x- rays, gamma rays, radio waves

Thermal energy
Motion energy Sound energy

Heat in a substance
Movement of substance/objects

Geothermal
Wind, hydro

Longitudinal Ultra sonic waves(compression /rarefaction) Movement of electrons Electricity


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Electrical energy

Basics of Thermal energy Temperature & pressure are the measure of physical state of a substance & are closely related to the energy contained in a substance Temperature- Degree of hotness or coldness measured on definite scale or Temperature is a means to determine sensible heat content of substance
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Pressure- force unit area applied Calorie- unit of heat i.e. quantity of heat which can raise the temperature of 1gm of water by 1 * c (1 calorie=4.187 J) Quantity of heat= mass* sp. Heat* increase in temperature Sp. Heat/ sensible heat/ latent heat/ saturated steam/ super heating/ super critical/ calorific value/ heat transfer-convection, radiation, conduction
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Humidity-moisture content in air Sp. Humidity-actual weight of water in one kg of dry air Relative Humidity- measured in % & is define as actual water content divided by water content of fully saturated air at existing dry bulb temp. Humidity factor- kg of water per kg of dry air
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Dew point- temp. at which condensation of water vapors begins. Dry bulb temp.- it is an indication of sensible heat content of air water vapor mixture Wet bulb temp. -it is temp. approach by dry bulb & dew point as saturation occurs Viscosity - measure of internal resistance to flow. Viscosity increases with temp.
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Calorific value- energy content in organic matter Measurement of calorific value- by Bomb calorimeter GCV- gross heat value NCV- GCV less- heat of vaporization of moisture & atomic hydrogen ( conversion to water)
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First law -energy can be converted from one form to other , but it never lost from the system. Second law- in any conversion of energy from one form to other , some amount of energy will dissipate as heat or no conversion is 100 %

This concept is used in energy equipments efficiency calculations


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Third law- law of conversion of matter i.e. in any physical or chemical change matter is neither created nor destroyed, it only change one form to another this principle is used energy &material balance calculations

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Steam- why steam normally pre fered characteristics useful to industries 1- high specific & latent heat 2- high heat transfer coefficient 3- easy to control & distribute 4- inert 5- economical
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Steam table- a tool to know heat content in steam (enthalpy) at a given pressure & temp. To read select pressure & temp. of steam at which you want to find enthalpy, read intersection for enthalpy. Units 1 barrel of oil= 42 US gallons= 0.16 cu-meter 1 KW= 1 Kilo joule/sec
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1 kJ= 0.239005 Kcal or 1 cal = 4.187 j 1 HP =746 watts 1 ton of refrigeration= 12,000 Btu/ hr 1 kw = 3413 Btu / hr deka, hecto, kilo, mega(million), giga(billion), tera(trillion), peta(quadrillion), exa(quintillion) means-10 to power 1,2,3,6,9,12,15,18 deci,centi, milli, micro, nano, peco, femto, atto means- 10 to power -1,-2,-3,-6,-9,-12,-15,-18
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Basics of Electrical Energy Direct current- non varying, unidirectional 1-direction of current( flow of +ve charges) does not change with time 2-voltage between two points of ckt does not change polarity with time Alternating current-current reverse regularly with time
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1-direction of current( flow of +ve charges) changes periodically with time 2-voltage between two points of ckt changes polarity with time 3-in 50 cycles AC, reverses direction 100 times / sec Current- rate of flow of charge. Ampere is unit Ampere16

voltage/ resistance/ frequency/ kilo-watt Ohms law- V=IR(if temp./ext. conditions same) Apparent power- kVA- This measure Electric load on ckt . Or system & is in -Single phase ckt= voltage * amperes/1000 & in -Three phase ckt= under root 3 * voltage * amperes/ 1000 Active power- Kw i.e. portion of apparent power that does work Reactive power- kVAr i.e portion of apparent power that does no work. It is supplied to all magnetic equipments to meet magnetizing requirements. Hence, larger magnetizing requirements larger kVAr
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Power factor- active power / apparent power or cos # = kW / kVA

Power factor shall be close to 1 so more active power available which does real work Power factor improvement is done by installing capacitors near the load center

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