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Applied Chemistry


Water is an essential resource for living

systems, industrial processes, agricultural production and domestic use.

Its most important use as engineering

material is in the steam generation.

Natural sources of Water

A} Surface water : 1. Rain water 2. River water 3. Lake water 4. Sea water B} Underground water: 1. spring 2. well water

Other sources of water

Rain water harvesting Fog collection Desalination of sea water by distillation Desalination of sea water by Reverse

Hardness of water
Soap consumption capacity of water is
1. 2.
known as hardness of water. Generally caused by Ca and Mg ions present in water. Types of hardness Temporary Hardness Permanent Hardness

Units of hardness
Parts per million (ppm) :
In dilute solutions of density 1.
1 ppm = 1mg/l = 0.07 Clark

Hardness is calculated in terms of

equivalent of CaCO3.

Equivalent of CaCO3 for a hardness causing

substance = weight of substance x 50/chemical equivalence of substance

(Chemical equivalent weight of CaCO3 = 50) Eg: - 136 parts by weight of CaSO4 would react
with the same amount of soap as 100 parts by weight of CaCO3 (i.e., 2 equivalent of CaCO3) = 120 g MgSO4 = 95 g MgCl2

In the same way 100g of CaCO3 = 111g CaCl2

Effect of Hard water

1. Hard water is harmful for potable purpose.
2. It causes many problems in boilers:- scale and
sludge formation, corrosion, priming and foaming and caustic embrittlement.

3. It does not form leather with soaps and


4. Due to presence of dissolved hardness producing salts of Calcium and magnesium, cant be used in Textile industry, Sugar industry, Dyeing industry, Paper industry, concrete making, pharmaceutical industry
5. Boiling point of water is elevated due to presence of dissolved salt. Thus cant be used for domestic purposecleaning, cooking

Characteristics imparted by impurities in water





A} Physical :-1. Colour 2. Turbidity 3. Taste 4. Odour B} Chemical:- 1. Acidity 2. Gases 3. Mineral matter 4. organic &Inorganic chemicals

Pure water has pale green blue tinge
in large volume Colour in water is due to Salts of Fe, Mn Acids like Humic acid, fulvic acid Humus material , algae, weeds, protozoa, industrial effluents.

Colloidally dispersed organic matter. Colour change is harmful only when

it is associate with toxic nature.

It effect the penetration power of

sunlight in water bodies

Taste and odour

Odour is mainly due to presence of organic
matter, H2S, industrial effluents, decayed vegetation including algae, fungi, bacteria and weeds.

Mainly odour is confine to surface water and

very low or absent in deep well water.

The water used for industrial purpose such as

beverages, food product, paper, pulp and textile must be free of disagreeable odour.

Turbidity is a measure of water clarity.

Suspended solids often present in water are mud, clay,

algae, bacteria and minerals such as silica, calcium carbonate and iron oxide.

Suspended solids can be increased by the discharge of

wastes (domestic sewage, industrial and agricultural effluents), leaching of wastes (from mines). submerged plants and can raise water temperature.

Suspended solids in water can stop light reaching

Turbidity depends not only on the quantity of

insoluble substances, but also on their size , shape and refractive index.

It is measured by Jackson candle


Expressed in terms of JTU (Jackson

turbidimeter unit)

Turbidity in water can be eliminated by

sedimentation, coagulation and filtration

Water Softening Methods

1. Lime soda (L-S) Process 2. Zeolite or Permutit Process 3. Ion Exchange Resins